• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of tobcontTobacco ControlVisit this articleSubmit a manuscriptReceive email alertsContact usBMJ
Tob Control. Dec 1998; 7(4): 409–420.
PMCID: PMC1751465

Psychosocial factors related to adolescent smoking: a critical review of the literature


OBJECTIVE—To extend the analysis of psychosocial risk factors for smoking presented in the United States surgeon general's 1994 report on smoking and health, and to propose a theoretical frame of reference for understanding the development of smoking.
DATA SOURCES—General Science Index, Medline, PsycLIT, Sociofile, Sociological Abstracts, and Smoking and Health. Holdings of the Addiction Research Foundation of Ontario Library as well as the authors' personal files.
STUDY SELECTION—Reviewed literature focused on studies that examined the association of sociodemographic, environmental, behavioural, and personal variables with smoking.
DATA SYNTHESIS—Adolescent smoking was associated with age, ethnicity, family structure, parental socioeconomic status, personal income, parental smoking, parental attitudes, sibling smoking, peer smoking, peer attitudes and norms, family environment, attachment to family and friends, school factors, risk behaviours, lifestyle, stress, depression/distress, self-esteem, attitudes, and health concerns. It is unclear whether adolescent smoking is related to other psychosocial variables.
CONCLUSIONS—Attempts should be made to use common definitions of outcome and predictor variables. Analyses should include multivariate and bivariate models, with some attempt in the multivariate models to test specific hypotheses. Future research should be theory driven and consider the range of possible factors, such as social, personal, economic, environmental, biological, and physiological influences, that may influence smoking behaviour. The apparent inconsistencies in relationships between parental socioeconomic status and adolescent disposable income need to be resolved as does the underlying constructs for which socioeconomic status is a proxy.

Keywords: adolescence; smoking initiation; psychosocial factors

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (167K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Millar WJ. Smoking prevalence among Canadian adolescents. A comparison of survey estimates. Can J Public Health. 1985 Jan-Feb;76(1):33–37. [PubMed]
  • Coambs RB, Li S, Kozlowski LT. Age interacts with heaviness of smoking in predicting success in cessation of smoking. Am J Epidemiol. 1992 Feb 1;135(3):240–246. [PubMed]
  • Breslau N, Peterson EL. Smoking cessation in young adults: age at initiation of cigarette smoking and other suspected influences. Am J Public Health. 1996 Feb;86(2):214–220. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Chassin L, Presson CC, Sherman SJ, Edwards DA. The natural history of cigarette smoking: predicting young-adult smoking outcomes from adolescent smoking patterns. Health Psychol. 1990;9(6):701–716. [PubMed]
  • Pierce JP, Gilpin E. How long will today's new adolescent smoker be addicted to cigarettes? Am J Public Health. 1996 Feb;86(2):253–256. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Luepker RV, Johnson CA, Murray DM, Pechacek TF. Prevention of cigarette smoking: three-year follow-up of an education program for youth. J Behav Med. 1983 Mar;6(1):53–62. [PubMed]
  • Flay BR. Psychosocial approaches to smoking prevention: a review of findings. Health Psychol. 1985;4(5):449–488. [PubMed]
  • Johnson CA, Hansen WB, Collins LM, Graham JW. High-school smoking prevention: results of a three-year longitudinal study. J Behav Med. 1986 Oct;9(5):439–452. [PubMed]
  • Murray DM, Davis-Hearn M, Goldman AI, Pirie P, Luepker RV. Four- and five-year follow-up results from four seventh-grade smoking prevention strategies. J Behav Med. 1988 Aug;11(4):395–405. [PubMed]
  • Flay BR, Gruder CL, Warnecke RB, Jason LA, Peterson P. One year follow-up of the Chicago televised smoking cessation program. Am J Public Health. 1989 Oct;79(10):1377–1380. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Clayton S. Gender differences in psychosocial determinants of adolescent smoking. J Sch Health. 1991 Mar;61(3):115–120. [PubMed]
  • Conrad KM, Flay BR, Hill D. Why children start smoking cigarettes: predictors of onset. Br J Addict. 1992 Dec;87(12):1711–1724. [PubMed]
  • Botvin GJ, Baker E, Goldberg CJ, Dusenbury L, Botvin EM. Correlates and predictors of smoking among black adolescents. Addict Behav. 1992;17(2):97–103. [PubMed]
  • Dusenbury L, Kerner JF, Baker E, Botvin G, James-Ortiz S, Zauber A. Predictors of smoking prevalence among New York Latino youth. Am J Public Health. 1992 Jan;82(1):55–58. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Camp DE, Klesges RC, Relyea G. The relationship between body weight concerns and adolescent smoking. Health Psychol. 1993 Jan;12(1):24–32. [PubMed]
  • Escobedo LG, Marcus SE, Holtzman D, Giovino GA. Sports participation, age at smoking initiation, and the risk of smoking among US high school students. JAMA. 1993 Mar 17;269(11):1391–1395. [PubMed]
  • McNeill AD, Jarvis MJ, Stapleton JA, Russell MA, Eiser JR, Gammage P, Gray EM. Prospective study of factors predicting uptake of smoking in adolescents. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1989 Mar;43(1):72–78. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tuakli N, Smith MA, Heaton C. Smoking in adolescence: methods for health education and smoking cessation. A MIRNET study. J Fam Pract. 1990 Oct;31(4):369–374. [PubMed]
  • Johnson EH, Gilbert D. Familial and psychological correlates of smoking in black and white adolescents. Ethn Dis. 1991 Fall;1(4):320–334. [PubMed]
  • McGee R, Stanton WR. A longitudinal study of reasons for smoking in adolescence. Addiction. 1993 Feb;88(2):265–271. [PubMed]
  • Stanton WR, Oei TP, Silva PA. Sociodemographic characteristics of adolescent smokers. Int J Addict. 1994 May;29(7):913–925. [PubMed]
  • Ogawa H, Tominaga S, Gellert G, Aoki K. Smoking among junior high school students in Nagoya, Japan. Int J Epidemiol. 1988 Dec;17(4):814–820. [PubMed]
  • Hu JF, Liu RZ, Zhang HL, Xu XF, Li K, Yang RZ, Li SX, Zhang ZT. A survey of cigarette smoking among middle school students in 1988. Public Health. 1990 Sep;104(5):345–351. [PubMed]
  • Mendis S. Tobacco use in a cohort of children in Sri Lanka. Br J Addict. 1990 Mar;85(3):397–398. [PubMed]
  • Zhu BP, Liu M, Shelton D, Liu S, Giovino GA. Cigarette smoking and its risk factors among elementary school students in Beijing. Am J Public Health. 1996 Mar;86(3):368–375. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wiecha JM. Differences in patterns of tobacco use in Vietnamese, African-American, Hispanic, and Caucasian adolescents in Worcester, Massachusetts. Am J Prev Med. 1996 Jan-Feb;12(1):29–37. [PubMed]
  • Thorlindsson T, Vilhjalmsson R. Factors related to cigarette smoking and alcohol use among adolescents. Adolescence. 1991 Summer;26(102):399–418. [PubMed]
  • Isohanni M, Moilanen I, Rantakallio P. Determinants of teenage smoking, with special reference to non-standard family background. Br J Addict. 1991 Apr;86(4):391–398. [PubMed]
  • Pederson LL. Change in variables related to smoking from childhood to late adolescence: an eight year longitudinal study of a cohort of elementary school students. Can J Public Health. 1986 May-Jun;77 (Suppl 1):33–39. [PubMed]
  • Pederson LL, Lefcoe NM. Change in smoking status among a cohort of late adolescents: prediction and explanation of initiation, maintenance and cessation. Int J Epidemiol. 1986 Dec;15(4):519–526. [PubMed]
  • Bachman JG, Wallace JM, Jr, O'Malley PM, Johnston LD, Kurth CL, Neighbors HW. Racial/Ethnic differences in smoking, drinking, and illicit drug use among American high school seniors, 1976-89. Am J Public Health. 1991 Mar;81(3):372–377. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • McDermott RJ, Sarvela PD, Hoalt PN, Bajracharya SM, Marty PJ, Emery EM. Multiple correlates of cigarette use among high school students. J Sch Health. 1992 Apr;62(4):146–150. [PubMed]
  • Kann L, Warren W, Collins JL, Ross J, Collins B, Kolbe LJ. Results from the national school-based 1991 Youth Risk Behavior Survey and progress toward achieving related health objectives for the nation. Public Health Rep. 1993;108 (Suppl 1):47–67. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Headen SW, Bauman KE, Deane GD, Koch GG. Are the correlates of cigarette smoking initiation different for black and white adolescents? Am J Public Health. 1991 Jul;81(7):854–858. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Vega WA, Zimmerman RS, Warheit GJ, Apospori E, Gil AG. Risk factors for early adolescent drug use in four ethnic and racial groups. Am J Public Health. 1993 Feb;83(2):185–189. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Vega WA, Gil AG, Zimmerman RS. Patterns of drug use among Cuban-American, African-American, and white non-Hispanic boys. Am J Public Health. 1993 Feb;83(2):257–259. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Landrine H, Richardson JL, Klonoff EA, Flay B. Cultural diversity in the predictors of adolescent cigarette smoking: the relative influence of peers. J Behav Med. 1994 Jun;17(3):331–346. [PubMed]
  • Covey LS, Tam D. Depressive mood, the single-parent home, and adolescent cigarette smoking. Am J Public Health. 1990 Nov;80(11):1330–1333. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Botvin GJ, Baker E, Botvin EM, Dusenbury L, Cardwell J, Diaz T. Factors promoting cigarette smoking among black youth: a causal modeling approach. Addict Behav. 1993 Jul-Aug;18(4):397–405. [PubMed]
  • Burchfiel CM, Higgins MW, Keller JB, Butler WJ, Donahue RP. Initiation of cigarette smoking in children and adolescents of Tecumseh, Michigan. Am J Epidemiol. 1989 Aug;130(2):410–415. [PubMed]
  • Pedersen W, Lavik NJ. Role modelling and cigarette smoking: vulnerable working class girls? A longitudinal study. Scand J Soc Med. 1991 Jun;19(2):110–115. [PubMed]
  • Bauman KE, Foshee VA, Linzer MA, Koch GG. Effect of parental smoking classification on the association between parental and adolescent smoking. Addict Behav. 1990;15(5):413–422. [PubMed]
  • Shibata A, Fukuda K, Hirohata T. Smoking habits among senior high school students and related factors. Kurume Med J. 1990;37(3):129–140. [PubMed]
  • Hammarström A, Janlert U. Unemployment and change of tobacco habits: a study of young people from 16 to 21 years of age. Addiction. 1994 Dec;89(12):1691–1696. [PubMed]
  • Blackford KA, Bailey PH, Coutu-Wakulczyk GM. Tobacco use in northeastern Ontario teenagers: prevalence of use and associated factors. Can J Public Health. 1994 Mar-Apr;85(2):89–92. [PubMed]
  • Noland MP, Kryscio RJ, Riggs RS, Linville LH, Perritt LJ, Tucker TC. Use of snuff, chewing tobacco, and cigarettes among adolescents in a tobacco-producing area. Addict Behav. 1990;15(6):517–530. [PubMed]
  • Newman IM, Ward JM. The influence of parental attitude and behavior on early adolescent cigarette smoking. J Sch Health. 1989 Apr;59(4):150–152. [PubMed]
  • Biglan A, Duncan TE, Ary DV, Smolkowski K. Peer and parental influences on adolescent tobacco use. J Behav Med. 1995 Aug;18(4):315–330. [PubMed]
  • Reimers TM, Pomrehn PR, Becker SL, Lauer RM. Risk factors for adolescent cigarette smoking. The Muscatine study. Am J Dis Child. 1990 Nov;144(11):1265–1272. [PubMed]
  • Jensen EJ, Overgaard E. Investigation of smoking habits among 14-17-year-old boarding school pupils: factors which influence smoking status. Public Health. 1993 Mar;107(2):117–123. [PubMed]
  • Hover SJ, Gaffney LR. Factors associated with smoking behavior in adolescent girls. Addict Behav. 1988;13(2):139–145. [PubMed]
  • Hops H, Tildesley E, Lichtenstein E, Ary D, Sherman L. Parent-adolescent problem-solving interactions and drug use. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 1990;16(3-4):239–258. [PubMed]
  • Charlton A, Blair V. Predicting the onset of smoking in boys and girls. Soc Sci Med. 1989;29(7):813–818. [PubMed]
  • Swan AV, Creeser R, Murray M. When and why children first start to smoke. Int J Epidemiol. 1990 Jun;19(2):323–330. [PubMed]
  • Green G, Macintyre S, West P, Ecob R. Like parent like child? Associations between drinking and smoking behaviour of parents and their children. Br J Addict. 1991 Jun;86(6):745–758. [PubMed]
  • Botvin GJ, Epstein JA, Schinke SP, Diaz T. Predictors of cigarette smoking among inner-city minority youth. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 1994 Apr;15(2):67–73. [PubMed]
  • Stanton WR, Silva PA. Children's exposure to smoking. Int J Epidemiol. 1991 Dec;20(4):933–937. [PubMed]
  • Santi S, Best JA, Brown KS, Cargo M. Social environment and smoking initiation. Int J Addict. 1990;25(7A-8A):881–903. [PubMed]
  • Meier KS. Tobacco truths: the impact of role models on children's attitudes toward smoking. Health Educ Q. 1991 Summer;18(2):173–182. [PubMed]
  • Emmanuel SC, Ho CK, Chen AJ. Cigarette smoking among school children in Singapore. Part II--Development of the smoking habit. Singapore Med J. 1991 Jun;32(3):146–150. [PubMed]
  • Richardson JL, Dwyer K, McGuigan K, Hansen WB, Dent C, Johnson CA, Sussman SY, Brannon B, Flay B. Substance use among eighth-grade students who take care of themselves after school. Pediatrics. 1989 Sep;84(3):556–566. [PubMed]
  • Farrell AD, Danish SJ, Howard CW. Risk factors for drug use in urban adolescents: identification and cross-validation. Am J Community Psychol. 1992 Jun;20(3):263–286. [PubMed]
  • Krohn MD, Naughton MJ, Skinner WF, Becker SL, Lauer RM. Social disaffection, friendship patterns and adolescent cigarette use: the Muscatine Study. J Sch Health. 1986 Apr;56(4):146–150. [PubMed]
  • Cohen DA, Richardson J, LaBree L. Parenting behaviors and the onset of smoking and alcohol use: a longitudinal study. Pediatrics. 1994 Sep;94(3):368–375. [PubMed]
  • Wills TA, Vaughan R. Social support and substance use in early adolescence. J Behav Med. 1989 Aug;12(4):321–339. [PubMed]
  • Foshee V, Bauman KE. Parental and peer characteristics as modifiers of the bond-behavior relationship: an elaboration of control theory. J Health Soc Behav. 1992 Mar;33(1):66–76. [PubMed]
  • Jackson C, Bee-Gates DJ, Henriksen L. Authoritative parenting, child competencies, and initiation of cigarette smoking. Health Educ Q. 1994 Spring;21(1):103–116. [PubMed]
  • Block J, Block JH, Keyes S. Longitudinally foretelling drug usage in adolescence: early childhood personality and environmental precursors. Child Dev. 1988 Apr;59(2):336–355. [PubMed]
  • Spear SF, Akers RL. Social learning variables and the risk of habitual smoking among adolescents: the Muscatine study. Am J Prev Med. 1988 Nov-Dec;4(6):336–342. [PubMed]
  • Ennett ST, Bauman KE. Peer group structure and adolescent cigarette smoking: a social network analysis. J Health Soc Behav. 1993 Sep;34(3):226–236. [PubMed]
  • Bauman KE, Ennett ST. On the importance of peer influence for adolescent drug use: commonly neglected considerations. Addiction. 1996 Feb;91(2):185–198. [PubMed]
  • Aloise-Young PA, Graham JW, Hansen WB. Peer influence on smoking initiation during early adolescence: a comparison of group members and group outsiders. J Appl Psychol. 1994 Apr;79(2):281–287. [PubMed]
  • Urberg KA, Shyu SJ, Liang J. Peer influence in adolescent cigarette smoking. Addict Behav. 1990;15(3):247–255. [PubMed]
  • Botvin GJ, Botvin EM, Baker E, Dusenbury L, Goldberg CJ. The false consensus effect: predicting adolescents' tobacco use from normative expectations. Psychol Rep. 1992 Feb;70(1):171–178. [PubMed]
  • Graham JW, Marks G, Hansen WB. Social influence processes affecting adolescent substance use. J Appl Psychol. 1991 Apr;76(2):291–298. [PubMed]
  • DiFranza JR, Savageau JA, Aisquith BF. Youth access to tobacco: the effects of age, gender, vending machine locks, and "it's the law" programs. Am J Public Health. 1996 Feb;86(2):221–224. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Allison KR. Academic stream and tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis use among Ontario high school students. Int J Addict. 1992 May;27(5):561–570. [PubMed]
  • Sussman S, Dent CW, Stacy AW, Burciaga C, Raynor A, Turner GE, Charlin V, Craig S, Hansen WB, Burton D, et al. Peer-group association and adolescent tobacco use. J Abnorm Psychol. 1990 Nov;99(4):349–352. [PubMed]
  • Lo SK, Blaze-Temple D, Binns CW, Ovenden C. Adolescent cigarette consumption: the influence of attitudes and peer drug use. Int J Addict. 1993 Dec;28(14):1515–1530. [PubMed]
  • Thorlindsson T, Vilhjalmsson R, Valgeirsson G. Sport participation and perceived health status: a study of adolescents. Soc Sci Med. 1990;31(5):551–556. [PubMed]
  • Chassin L, Presson CC, Sherman SJ. Cognitive and social influence factors in adolescent smoking cessation. Addict Behav. 1984;9(4):383–390. [PubMed]
  • Wills TA. Stress and coping in early adolescence: relationships to substance use in urban school samples. Health Psychol. 1986;5(6):503–529. [PubMed]
  • Castro FG, Maddahian E, Newcomb MD, Bentler PM. A multivariate model of the determinants of cigarette smoking among adolescents. J Health Soc Behav. 1987 Sep;28(3):273–289. [PubMed]
  • Jessor R. Problem-behavior theory, psychosocial development, and adolescent problem drinking. Br J Addict. 1987 Apr;82(4):331–342. [PubMed]
  • Eiser JR, Eiser C, Gammage P, Morgan M. Health locus of control and health beliefs in relation to adolescent smoking. Br J Addict. 1989 Sep;84(9):1059–1065. [PubMed]
  • Shedler J, Block J. Adolescent drug use and psychological health. A longitudinal inquiry. Am Psychol. 1990 May;45(5):612–630. [PubMed]
  • Zuckerman M, Ball S, Black J. Influences of sensation seeking, gender, risk appraisal, and situational motivation on smoking. Addict Behav. 1990;15(3):209–220. [PubMed]
  • Bonaguro JA, Bonaguro EW. Self-concept, stress symptomatology, and tobacco use. J Sch Health. 1987 Feb;57(2):56–58. [PubMed]
  • Byrne DG, Byrne AE, Reinhart MI. Personality, stress and the decision to commence cigarette smoking in adolescence. J Psychosom Res. 1995 Jan;39(1):53–62. [PubMed]
  • Prokhorov AV, Alexandrov AA. Tobacco smoking in Moscow school students. Br J Addict. 1992 Oct;87(10):1469–1476. [PubMed]
  • Leventhal H, Cleary PD. The smoking problem: a review of the research and theory in behavioral risk modification. Psychol Bull. 1980 Sep;88(2):370–405. [PubMed]
  • Fleming R, Baum A, Singer JE. Toward an integrative approach to the study of stress. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1984 Apr;46(4):939–949. [PubMed]
  • Mates D, Allison KR. Sources of stress and coping responses of high school students. Adolescence. 1992 Summer;27(106):461–474. [PubMed]
  • Pearlin LI, Schooler C. The structure of coping. J Health Soc Behav. 1978 Mar;19(1):2–21. [PubMed]
  • Pearlin LI, Lieberman MA, Menaghan EG, Mullan JT. The stress process. J Health Soc Behav. 1981 Dec;22(4):337–356. [PubMed]
  • Pederson LL, Koval JJ, O'Connor K. Are psychosocial factors related to smoking in grade-6 students? Addict Behav. 1997 Mar-Apr;22(2):169–181. [PubMed]
  • Wills TA, Vaccaro D, McNamara G. The role of life events, family support, and competence in adolescent substance use: a test of vulnerability and protective factors. Am J Community Psychol. 1992 Jun;20(3):349–374. [PubMed]
  • Dielman TE, Campanelli PC, Shope JT, Butchart AT. Susceptibility to peer pressure, self-esteem, and health locus of control as correlates of adolescent substance abuse. Health Educ Q. 1987 Summer;14(2):207–221. [PubMed]
  • Bush PJ, Iannotti RJ. Elementary schoolchildren's use of alcohol, cigarettes and marijuana and classmates' attribution of socialization. Drug Alcohol Depend. 1992 Aug;30(3):275–287. [PubMed]
  • Simon TR, Sussman S, Dent CW, Burton D, Flay BR. Prospective correlates of exclusive or combined adolescent use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco: a replication-extension. Addict Behav. 1995 Jul-Aug;20(4):517–524. [PubMed]
  • Eiser JR, Morgan M, Gammage P, Brooks N, Kirby R. Adolescent health behaviour and similarity-attraction: friends share smoking habits (really), but much else besides. Br J Soc Psychol. 1991 Dec;30(Pt 4):339–348. [PubMed]
  • Virgili M, Owen N, Sverson HH. Adolescents' smoking behavior and risk perceptions. J Subst Abuse. 1991;3(3):315–324. [PubMed]
  • Giovino GA, Henningfield JE, Tomar SL, Escobedo LG, Slade J. Epidemiology of tobacco use and dependence. Epidemiol Rev. 1995;17(1):48–65. [PubMed]
  • Pentz MA, Sussman S, Newman T. The conflict between least harm and no-use tobacco policy for youth: ethical and policy implications. Addiction. 1997 Sep;92(9):1165–1173. [PubMed]
  • Wolfson M, Hourigan M. Unintended consequences and professional ethics: criminalization of alcohol and tobacco use by youth and young adults. Addiction. 1997 Sep;92(9):1159–1164. [PubMed]
  • Pierce JP, Choi WS, Gilpin EA, Farkas AJ, Berry CC. Tobacco industry promotion of cigarettes and adolescent smoking. JAMA. 1998 Feb 18;279(7):511–515. [PubMed]
  • Hawkins JD, Catalano RF, Miller JY. Risk and protective factors for alcohol and other drug problems in adolescence and early adulthood: implications for substance abuse prevention. Psychol Bull. 1992 Jul;112(1):64–105. [PubMed]
  • Abernathy TJ, Massad L, Romano-Dwyer L. The relationship between smoking and self-esteem. Adolescence. 1995 Winter;30(120):899–907. [PubMed]
  • Bates ME, Pandina RJ. Personality stability and adolescent substance use behaviors. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1991 Jun;15(3):471–477. [PubMed]
  • Bauman KE, Botvin GJ, Botvin EM, Baker E. Normative expectations and the behavior of significant others: an integration of traditions in research on adolescents' cigarette smoking. Psychol Rep. 1992 Oct;71(2):568–570. [PubMed]
  • Bauman KE, Foshee VA, Haley NJ. The interaction of sociological and biological factors in adolescent cigarette smoking. Addict Behav. 1992 Sep-Oct;17(5):459–467. [PubMed]
  • Bettes BA, Dusenbury L, Kerner J, James-Ortiz S, Botvin GJ. Ethnicity and psychosocial factors in alcohol and tobacco use in adolescence. Child Dev. 1990 Apr;61(2):557–565. [PubMed]
  • Botvin GJ, Goldberg CJ, Botvin EM, Dusenbury L. Smoking behavior of adolescents exposed to cigarette advertising. Public Health Rep. 1993 Mar-Apr;108(2):217–224. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Brindis C, Wolfe AL, McCarter V, Ball S, Starbuck-Morales S. The associations between immigrant status and risk-behavior patterns in Latino adolescents. J Adolesc Health. 1995 Aug;17(2):99–105. [PubMed]
  • Bush PJ, Iannotti RJ. Alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use among fourth-grade urban schoolchildren in 1988/89 and 1990/91. Am J Public Health. 1993 Jan;83(1):111–114. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Chassin L, Presson CC, Sherman SJ, Edwards DA. Parent educational attainment and adolescent cigarette smoking. J Subst Abuse. 1992;4(3):219–234. [PubMed]
  • Chassin L, Presson CC, Sherman SJ, Edwards DA. The natural history of cigarette smoking and young adult social roles. J Health Soc Behav. 1992 Dec;33(4):328–347. [PubMed]
  • de Moor C, Cookson K, Elder JP, Young R, Molgaard CA, Wildey M. The association between teacher attitudes, behavioral intentions, and smoking and the prevalence of smoking among seventh-grade students. Adolescence. 1992 Fall;27(107):565–578. [PubMed]
  • Dinh KT, Sarason IG, Peterson AV, Onstad LE. Children's perceptions of smokers and nonsmokers: a longitudinal study. Health Psychol. 1995 Jan;14(1):32–40. [PubMed]
  • Ellickson PL, Hays RD. On becoming involved with drugs: modeling adolescent drug use over time. Health Psychol. 1992;11(6):377–385. [PubMed]
  • Farrow JA, Schwartz RH. Adolescent drug and alcohol usage: a comparison of urban and suburban pediatric practices. J Natl Med Assoc. 1992 May;84(5):409–413. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fergusson DM, Horwood LJ. Transitions to cigarette smoking during adolescence. Addict Behav. 1995 Sep-Oct;20(5):627–642. [PubMed]
  • Fergusson DM, Lynskey MT, Horwood LJ. The role of peer affiliations, social, family and individual factors in continuities in cigarette smoking between childhood and adolescence. Addiction. 1995 May;90(5):647–659. [PubMed]
  • Flay BR, Hu FB, Siddiqui O, Day LE, Hedeker D, Petraitis J, Richardson J, Sussman S. Differential influence of parental smoking and friends' smoking on adolescent initiation and escalation of smoking. J Health Soc Behav. 1994 Sep;35(3):248–265. [PubMed]
  • French SA, Perry CL, Leon GR, Fulkerson JA. Weight concerns, dieting behavior, and smoking initiation among adolescents: a prospective study. Am J Public Health. 1994 Nov;84(11):1818–1820. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Green G, Macintyre S, West P, Ecob R. Do children of lone parents smoke more because their mothers do? Br J Addict. 1990 Nov;85(11):1497–1500. [PubMed]
  • Greening L, Dollinger SJ. Adolescent smoking and perceived vulnerability to smoking-related causes of death. J Pediatr Psychol. 1991 Dec;16(6):687–699. [PubMed]
  • Grunbaum JA, Basen-Engquist K. Comparison of health risk behaviors between students in a regular high school and students in an alternative high school. J Sch Health. 1993 Dec;63(10):421–425. [PubMed]
  • Hansen WB, Graham JW, Sobel JL, Shelton DR, Flay BR, Johnson CA. The consistency of peer and parent influences on tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use among young adolescents. J Behav Med. 1987 Dec;10(6):559–579. [PubMed]
  • Labouvie EW, McGee CR. Relation of personality to alcohol and drug use in adolescence. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1986 Jun;54(3):289–293. [PubMed]
  • Lalinec-Michaud M, Subak ME, Ghadirian AM, Kovess V. Substance misuse among native and rural high school students in Quebec. Int J Addict. 1991 Sep;26(9):1003–1012. [PubMed]
  • Lawrance L, Rubinson L. Self-efficacy as a predictor of smoking behavior in young adolescents. Addict Behav. 1986;11(4):367–382. [PubMed]
  • Millar WJ, Hunter L. Household context and youth smoking behaviour: prevalence, frequency and tar yield. Can J Public Health. 1991 Mar-Apr;82(2):83–85. [PubMed]
  • Oleckno WA, Blacconiere MJ. A multiple discriminant analysis of smoking status and health-related attitudes and behaviors. Am J Prev Med. 1990 Nov-Dec;6(6):323–329. [PubMed]
  • Oygard L, Klepp KI, Tell GS, Vellar OD. Parental and peer influences on smoking among young adults: ten-year follow-up of the Oslo youth study participants. Addiction. 1995 Apr;90(4):561–569. [PubMed]
  • Patton GC, Hibbert M, Rosier MJ, Carlin JB, Caust J, Bowes G. Is smoking associated with depression and anxiety in teenagers? Am J Public Health. 1996 Feb;86(2):225–230. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pierce JP, Lee L, Gilpin EA. Smoking initiation by adolescent girls, 1944 through 1988. An association with targeted advertising. JAMA. 1994 Feb 23;271(8):608–611. [PubMed]
  • Presti DE, Ary DV, Lichtenstein E. The context of smoking initiation and maintenance: findings from interviews with youths. J Subst Abuse. 1992;4(1):35–45. [PubMed]
  • Sarason IG, Mankowski ES, Peterson AV, Jr, Dinh KT. Adolescents' reasons for smoking. J Sch Health. 1992 May;62(5):185–190. [PubMed]
  • Stanton WR, Silva PA, Oei TP. Change in children's smoking from age 9 to age 15 years: the Dunedin Study. Public Health. 1991 Nov;105(6):425–433. [PubMed]
  • Torabi MR, Bailey WJ, Majd-Jabbari M. Cigarette smoking as a predictor of alcohol and other drug use by children and adolescents: evidence of the "gateway drug effect". J Sch Health. 1993 Sep;63(7):302–306. [PubMed]
  • Tschann JM, Adler NE, Irwin CE, Jr, Millstein SG, Turner RA, Kegeles SM. Initiation of substance use in early adolescence: the roles of pubertal timing and emotional distress. Health Psychol. 1994 Jul;13(4):326–333. [PubMed]
  • Urberg KA, Cheng CH, Shyu SJ. Grade changes in peer influence on adolescent cigarette smoking: a comparison of two measures. Addict Behav. 1991;16(1-2):21–28. [PubMed]
  • van Reek J, Knibbe R, van Iwaarden T. Policy relevance of a survey on smoking and drinking behaviour among Dutch school children. Health Policy. 1991 Aug;18(3):261–268. [PubMed]
  • van Roosmalen EH, McDaniel SA. Peer group influence as a factor in smoking behavior of adolescents. Adolescence. 1989 Winter;24(96):801–816. [PubMed]
  • van Roosmalen EH, McDaniel SA. Adolescent smoking intentions: gender differences in peer context. Adolescence. 1992 Spring;27(105):87–105. [PubMed]
  • Waldron I, Lye D. Relationships of teenage smoking to educational aspirations and parents' education. J Subst Abuse. 1990;2(2):201–215. [PubMed]
  • Wang MQ, Fitzhugh EC, Westerfield RC, Eddy JM. Family and peer influences on smoking behavior among American adolescents: an age trend. J Adolesc Health. 1995 Mar;16(3):200–203. [PubMed]

Articles from Tobacco Control are provided here courtesy of BMJ Group


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • Cited in Books
    Cited in Books
    PubMed Central articles cited in books
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...