• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of tobcontTobacco ControlVisit this articleSubmit a manuscriptReceive email alertsContact usBMJ
Tob Control. Jun 2004; 13(2): 197–204.
PMCID: PMC1747867

The effectiveness of workplace smoking cessation programmes: a meta-analysis of recent studies

Abstract

Data sources: ABI/Inform, BRS, CHID, Dissertation Abstracts International, ERIC, Medline, Occupational Health and Safety Database, PsycInfo, Smoking and Health Database, SSCI, and Sociological Abstracts.

Study selection: Controlled smoking cessation interventions at the workplace with at least six months follow up published from 1989 to 2001 and reporting quit rates (QRs).

Data extraction: Two reviewers independently scanned titles/abstracts of relevant reports, and we reached consensus regarding inclusion/exclusion of the full text reports by negotiation. A third reviewer resolved disagreements. Two reviewers extracted data according to a coding manual. Consensus was again reached through negotiation and the use of a third reviewer.

Data synthesis: 19 journal articles were found reporting studies conforming to the study's inclusion criteria. Interventions included self help manuals, physician advice, health education, cessation groups, incentives, and competitions. A total of 4960 control subjects were compared with 4618 intervention subjects. The adjusted random effects odds ratio was 2.03 (95% confidence interval 1.42 to 2.90) at six months follow up, 1.56 (95% CI 1.17 to 2.07) at 12 months, and 1.33 (95% CI 0.95 to 1.87) at more than 12 months follow up. Funnel plots were consistent with strong publication bias at the first two follow ups but not the third. In Fisher et al's 1990 study, the corresponding ORs were 1.18, 1.66, and 1.18.

Conclusions: Smoking cessation interventions at the worksite showed initial effectiveness, but the effect seemed to decrease over time and was not present beyond 12 months. Compared to the Fisher (1990) analysis, the effectiveness was higher for the six month follow up. Disappointingly, we found methodological inadequacies and insufficient reporting of key variables that were similar to those found in the earlier meta-analysis. This prevented us from determining much about the most effective components of interventions. It is advisable for researchers conducting studies in the future to report data on attrition and retention rates of participants who quit, because these variables can affect QRs.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (505K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Eriksen MP, Gottlieb NH. A review of the health impact of smoking control at the workplace. Am J Health Promot. 1998 Nov-Dec;13(2):83–104. [PubMed]
  • Matson DM, Lee JW, Hopp JW. The impact of incentives and competitions on participation and quit rates in worksite smoking cessation programs. Am J Health Promot. 1993 Mar-Apr;7(4):270–295. [PubMed]
  • Perry G., Jr Workplace tobacco interventions. Indiana Med. 1996 Mar-Apr;89(2):157–159. [PubMed]
  • Fielding JE. Smoking control at the workplace. Annu Rev Public Health. 1991;12:209–234. [PubMed]
  • Lusk SL. Health promotion and disease prevention in the worksite. Annu Rev Nurs Res. 1997;15:187–213. [PubMed]
  • Harden A, Peersman G, Oliver S, Mauthner M, Oakley A. A systematic review of the effectiveness of health promotion interventions in the workplace. Occup Med (Lond) 1999 Nov;49(8):540–548. [PubMed]
  • Pelletier KR. Clinical and cost outcomes of multifactorial, cardiovascular risk management interventions in worksites: a comprehensive review and analysis. J Occup Environ Med. 1997 Dec;39(12):1154–1169. [PubMed]
  • Heaney CA, Goetzel RZ. A review of health-related outcomes of multi-component worksite health promotion programs. Am J Health Promot. 1997 Mar-Apr;11(4):290–307. [PubMed]
  • Fisher KJ, Glasgow RE, Terborg JR. Work site smoking cessation: a meta-analysis of long-term quit rates from controlled studies. J Occup Med. 1990 May;32(5):429–439. [PubMed]
  • Rosenthal R, DiMatteo MR. Meta-analysis: recent developments in quantitative methods for literature reviews. Annu Rev Psychol. 2001;52:59–82. [PubMed]
  • Sharpe D. Of apples and oranges, file drawers and garbage: why validity issues in meta-analysis will not go away. Clin Psychol Rev. 1997 Dec;17(8):881–901. [PubMed]
  • Ferrer RL. Graphical methods for detecting bias in meta-analysis. Fam Med. 1998 Sep;30(8):579–583. [PubMed]
  • Moskowitz JM, Lin Z, Hudes ES. The impact of workplace smoking ordinances in California on smoking cessation. Am J Public Health. 2000 May;90(5):757–761. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sorensen G, Thompson B, Glanz K, Feng Z, Kinne S, DiClemente C, Emmons K, Heimendinger J, Probart C, Lichtenstein E. Work site-based cancer prevention: primary results from the Working Well Trial. Am J Public Health. 1996 Jul;86(7):939–947. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Burling TA, Marotta J, González R, Moltzen JO, Eng AM, Schmidt GA, Welch RL, Ziff DC, Reilly PM. Computerized smoking cessation program for the worksite: treatment outcome and feasibility. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1989 Oct;57(5):619–622. [PubMed]
  • Conrad KM, Campbell RT, Edington DW, Faust HS, Vilnius D. The worksite environment as a cue to smoking reduction. Res Nurs Health. 1996 Feb;19(1):21–31. [PubMed]
  • Erfurt JC, Foote A, Heirich MA. Worksite wellness programs: incremental comparison of screening and referral alone, health education, follow-up counseling, and plant organization. Am J Health Promot. 1991 Jul-Aug;5(6):438–448. [PubMed]
  • Glasgow RE, Hollis JF, Ary DV, Boles SM. Results of a year-long incentives-based worksite smoking-cessation program. Addict Behav. 1993 Jul-Aug;18(4):455–464. [PubMed]
  • Glasgow RE, Terborg JR, Hollis JF, Severson HH, Boles SM. Take heart: results from the initial phase of a work-site wellness program. Am J Public Health. 1995 Feb;85(2):209–216. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gomel M, Oldenburg B, Simpson JM, Owen N. Work-site cardiovascular risk reduction: a randomized trial of health risk assessment, education, counseling, and incentives. Am J Public Health. 1993 Sep;83(9):1231–1238. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Helyer AJ, Brehm WT, Gentry NO, Pittman TA. Effectiveness of a worksite smoking cessation program in the military. Program evaluation. AAOHN J. 1998 May;46(5):238–245. [PubMed]
  • Hymowitz N, Campbell K, Feuerman M. Long-term smoking intervention at the worksite: effects of quit-smoking groups and an "enriched milieu" on smoking cessation in adult white-collar employees. Health Psychol. 1991;10(5):366–369. [PubMed]
  • Jason LA, Salina D, McMahon SD, Hedeker D, Stockton M. A worksite smoking intervention: a 2 year assessment of groups, incentives and self-help. Health Educ Res. 1997 Mar;12(1):129–138. [PubMed]
  • Koffman DM, Lee JW, Hopp JW, Emont SL. The impact of including incentives and competition in a workplace smoking cessation program on quit rates. Am J Health Promot. 1998 Nov-Dec;13(2):105–111. [PubMed]
  • Lang T, Nicaud V, Slama K, Hirsch A, Imbernon E, Goldberg M, Calvel L, Desobry P, Favre-Trosson JP, Lhopital C, et al. Smoking cessation at the workplace. Results of a randomised controlled intervention study. Worksite physicians from the AIREL group. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2000 May;54(5):349–354. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Maheu MM, Gevirtz RN, Sallis JF, Schneider NG. Competition/cooperation in worksite smoking cessation using nicotine gum. Prev Med. 1989 Nov;18(6):867–876. [PubMed]
  • Olsen GW, Lacy SE, Sprafka JM, Arceneaux TG, Potts TA, Kravat BA, Gondek MR, Bond GG. A 5-year evaluation of a smoking cessation incentive program for chemical employees. Prev Med. 1991 Nov;20(6):774–784. [PubMed]
  • Salina D, Jason LA, Hedeker D, Kaufman J, Lesondak L, McMahon SD, Taylor S, Kimball P. A follow-up of a media-based, worksite smoking cessation program. Am J Community Psychol. 1994 Apr;22(2):257–271. [PubMed]
  • Sorensen G, Lando H, Pechacek TF. Promoting smoking cessation at the workplace. Results of a randomized controlled intervention study. J Occup Med. 1993 Feb;35(2):121–126. [PubMed]
  • Stave GM, Jackson GW. Effect of a total work-site smoking ban on employee smoking and attitudes. J Occup Med. 1991 Aug;33(8):884–890. [PubMed]
  • Willemsen MC, de Vries H, van Breukelen G, Genders R. Long-term effectiveness of two Dutch work site smoking cessation programs. Health Educ Behav. 1998 Aug;25(4):418–435. [PubMed]
  • Altman DG. Better reporting of randomised controlled trials: the CONSORT statement. BMJ. 1996 Sep 7;313(7057):570–571. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Begg C, Cho M, Eastwood S, Horton R, Moher D, Olkin I, Pitkin R, Rennie D, Schulz KF, Simel D, et al. Improving the quality of reporting of randomized controlled trials. The CONSORT statement. JAMA. 1996 Aug 28;276(8):637–639. [PubMed]

Articles from Tobacco Control are provided here courtesy of BMJ Group

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • Cited in Books
    Cited in Books
    PubMed Central articles cited in books
  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...