• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of straninfSexually Transmitted InfectionsCurrent TOCInstructions for authors
Sex Transm Infect. Jun 2002; 78(3): 215–218.
PMCID: PMC1744457

Risk factors for genital HPV DNA in men resemble those found in women: a study of male attendees at a Danish STD clinic

Abstract

Objectives: Genital infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most important risk factor for cervical cancer. The male sexual partner is supposed to be the vector of the infection. However, the knowledge of risk factors for genital HPV DNA in men is limited. The objective of this paper is to study the risk factors for HPV infection in men and to compare them with those found in women, including the study of whether there are different risk profiles for oncogenic and non-oncogenic HPV types.

Methods: From a sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic in Denmark, 216 men were consecutively included. A personal interview was done and material for genital HPV DNA detection was obtained with swabs. HPV DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Odds ratios (OR) for HPV as well as for oncogenic and non-oncogenic types separately were computed with a 95% confidence interval (CI) by means of unconditional multiple logistic regresssion.

Results: The most important predictors of any HPV were lifetime number of sex partners (OR = 4.3; 95% CI 1.4 to 13.1 for 25–39 v 1–9 partners), young age, and being uncircumcised. The most important risk factor for oncogenic HPV types was lifetime number of partners, whereas number of partners in the past year and ever having genital warts were risk factors for the non-oncogenic HPV types. Young age predicted risk of both oncogenic and non-oncogenic HPV types.

Conclusions: Most risk factors for HPV DNA detection in men resemble those found in women. As in women, the risk factor profile for the oncogenic HPV types was different from that of the non-oncogenic HPV types.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (113K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Bosch FX, Castellsagué X, Muñoz N, de Sanjosé S, Ghaffari AM, González LC, Gili M, Izarzugaza I, Viladiu P, Navarro C, et al. Male sexual behavior and human papillomavirus DNA: key risk factors for cervical cancer in Spain. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1996 Aug 7;88(15):1060–1067. [PubMed]
  • Burk RD, Kelly P, Feldman J, Bromberg J, Vermund SH, DeHovitz JA, Landesman SH. Declining prevalence of cervicovaginal human papillomavirus infection with age is independent of other risk factors. Sex Transm Dis. 1996 Jul-Aug;23(4):333–341. [PubMed]
  • Melkert PW, Hopman E, van den Brule AJ, Risse EK, van Diest PJ, Bleker OP, Helmerhorst T, Schipper ME, Meijer CJ, Walboomers JM. Prevalence of HPV in cytomorphologically normal cervical smears, as determined by the polymerase chain reaction, is age-dependent. Int J Cancer. 1993 Apr 1;53(6):919–923. [PubMed]
  • Svare EI, Kjaer SK, Worm AM, Osterlind A, Moi H, Christensen RB, Meijer CJ, Walboomers JM, van den Brule AJ. Risk factors for HPV infection in women from sexually transmitted disease clinics: comparison between two areas with different cervical cancer incidence. Int J Cancer. 1998 Jan 5;75(1):1–8. [PubMed]
  • Schiffman MH. Epidemiology of cervical human papillomavirus infections. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1994;186:55–81. [PubMed]
  • Kjaer SK, Svare EI, Worm AM, Walboomers JM, Meijer CJ, van den Brule AJ. Human papillomavirus infection in Danish female sex workers. Decreasing prevalence with age despite continuously high sexual activity. Sex Transm Dis. 2000 Sep;27(8):438–445. [PubMed]
  • Kjaer SK, van den Brule AJ, Bock JE, Poll PA, Engholm G, Sherman ME, Walboomers JM, Meijer CJ. Determinants for genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in 1000 randomly chosen young Danish women with normal Pap smear: are there different risk profiles for oncogenic and nononcogenic HPV types? Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1997 Oct;6(10):799–805. [PubMed]
  • Franco EL, Villa LL, Ruiz A, Costa MC. Transmission of cervical human papillomavirus infection by sexual activity: differences between low and high oncogenic risk types. J Infect Dis. 1995 Sep;172(3):756–763. [PubMed]
  • Richardson H, Franco E, Pintos J, Bergeron J, Arella M, Tellier P. Determinants of low-risk and high-risk cervical human papillomavirus infections in Montreal University students. Sex Transm Dis. 2000 Feb;27(2):79–86. [PubMed]
  • Rousseau MC, Franco EL, Villa LL, Sobrinho JP, Termini L, Prado JM, Rohan TE. A cumulative case-control study of risk factor profiles for oncogenic and nononcogenic cervical human papillomavirus infections. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2000 May;9(5):469–476. [PubMed]
  • Hippeläinen M, Syrjänen S, Hippeläinen M, Koskela H, Pulkkinen J, Saarikoski S, Syrjänen K. Prevalence and risk factors of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in healthy males: a study on Finnish conscripts. Sex Transm Dis. 1993 Nov-Dec;20(6):321–328. [PubMed]
  • Castellsagué X, Ghaffari A, Daniel RW, Bosch FX, Muñoz N, Shah KV. Prevalence of penile human papillomavirus DNA in husbands of women with and without cervical neoplasia: a study in Spain and Colombia. J Infect Dis. 1997 Aug;176(2):353–361. [PubMed]
  • van den Brule AJ, Meijer CJ, Bakels V, Kenemans P, Walboomers JM. Rapid detection of human papillomavirus in cervical scrapes by combined general primer-mediated and type-specific polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Microbiol. 1990 Dec;28(12):2739–2743. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • van den Brule AJ, Snijders PJ, Gordijn RL, Bleker OP, Meijer CJ, Walboomers JM. General primer-mediated polymerase chain reaction permits the detection of sequenced and still unsequenced human papillomavirus genotypes in cervical scrapes and carcinomas. Int J Cancer. 1990 Apr 15;45(4):644–649. [PubMed]
  • Kjaer SK, de Villiers EM, Dahl C, Engholm G, Bock JE, Vestergaard BF, Lynge E, Jensen OM. Case-control study of risk factors for cervical neoplasia in Denmark. I: Role of the "male factor" in women with one lifetime sexual partner. Int J Cancer. 1991 Apr 22;48(1):39–44. [PubMed]
  • Brinton LA, Reeves WC, Brenes MM, Herrero R, Gaitan E, Tenorio F, de Britton RC, Garcia M, Rawls WE. The male factor in the etiology of cervical cancer among sexually monogamous women. Int J Cancer. 1989 Aug 15;44(2):199–203. [PubMed]

Articles from Sexually Transmitted Infections are provided here courtesy of BMJ Group

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...