Logo of straninfSexually Transmitted InfectionsVisit this articleSubmit a manuscriptReceive email alertsContact usBMJ
Sex Transm Infect. 2000 Jun; 76(3): 173–176.
PMCID: PMC1744144

Assessment of Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence by PCR and LCR in women presenting for termination of pregnancy


Objectives: To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in a patient population presenting for legal termination of pregnancy by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and ligase chain reaction (LCR), from first catch urine and self administered tampons, and comparing with the traditionally collected endocervical swab tested by both PCR and culture.

Methods: Consecutive women attending for legal termination of pregnancy were screened for chlamydia by patient collected first catch urine and tampon, and physician collected endocervical swab.

Results: Of 1175 patients with complete samples, there were 33 (2.8%) in whom chlamydia was detected by two or more assays from one or more sample site. Chlamydia was detected equally well by both PCR and LCR in first catch urine (p = 0.25), tampon (p = 0.5), and endocervical swab (p = 0.5). However, both PCR and LCR were significantly better than culture of an endocervical swab (p = 0.0005) for detection of C trachomatis.

Conclusion: The prevalence of chlamydia in patients presenting for termination of pregnancy was 2.8%. A simple efficient way of performing screening for chlamydia for women presenting for termination of pregnancy is by first catch urine or tampon, which can be tested by the highly sensitive amplification assays, PCR or LCR.

Key Words: polymerase chain reaction; ligase chain reaction; Chlamydia trachomatis; pregnancy

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (97K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Wein P, Kloss M, Garland SM. Postabortal pelvic sepsis in association with Chlamydia trachomatis. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 1990 Nov;30(4):347–350. [PubMed]
  • Stevenson MM, Radcliffe KW. Preventing pelvic infection after abortion. Int J STD AIDS. 1995 Sep-Oct;6(5):305–312. [PubMed]
  • Møller BR, Ahrons S, Laurin J, Mårdh PA. Pelvic infection after elective abortion associated with Chlamydia trachomatis. Obstet Gynecol. 1982 Feb;59(2):210–213. [PubMed]
  • Skjeldestad FE, Tuveng J, Solberg AG, Molne K, Dalen A, Buhaug H. Induced abortion: Chlamydia trachomatis and postabortal complications. A cost benefit analysis. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1988;67(6):525–529. [PubMed]
  • Tabrizi SN, Lees MI, Garland SM. Comparison of polymerase chain reaction and culture techniques for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis. Mol Cell Probes. 1993 Oct;7(5):357–360. [PubMed]
  • Schachter J, Stamm WE, Quinn TC, Andrews WW, Burczak JD, Lee HH. Ligase chain reaction to detect Chlamydia trachomatis infection of the cervix. J Clin Microbiol. 1994 Oct;32(10):2540–2543. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • van Doornum GJ, Buimer M, Prins M, Henquet CJ, Coutinho RA, Plier PK, Tomazic-Allen S, Hu H, Lee H. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in urine samples from men and women by ligase chain reaction. J Clin Microbiol. 1995 Aug;33(8):2042–2047. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pasternack R, Vuorinen P, Pitkäjärvi T, Koskela M, Miettinen A. Comparison of manual Amplicor PCR, Cobas Amplicor PCR, and LCx assays for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women by using urine specimens. J Clin Microbiol. 1997 Feb;35(2):402–405. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tabrizi S, Chen S, Fairley C, Borg A, Migliorini G, Lees M, Garland S. Tampon-collected genital cells in the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis by polymerase chain reaction. J Infect Dis. 1993 Sep;168(3):796–797. [PubMed]
  • Paterson BA, Tabrizi SN, Garland SM, Fairley CK, Bowden FJ. The tampon test for trichomoniasis: a comparison between conventional methods and a polymerase chain reaction for Trichomonas vaginalis in women. Sex Transm Infect. 1998 Apr;74(2):136–139. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tabrizi SN, Chen S, Borg AJ, Lees MI, Fairley CK, Jackson HD, Gust CH, Migliorini G, Garland SM. Patient-administered tampon-collected genital cells in the assessment of Chlamydia trachomatis infection using polymerase chain reaction. Sex Transm Dis. 1996 Nov-Dec;23(6):494–497. [PubMed]
  • Coleman P, Varitek V, Mushahwar IK, Marchlewicz B, Safford J, Hansen J, Kurpiewski G, Grier T. TestPack Chlamydia, a new rapid assay for the direct detection of Chlamydia trachomatis. J Clin Microbiol. 1989 Dec;27(12):2811–2814. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Holland SM, Gaydos CA, Quinn TC. Detection and differentiation of Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia psittaci, and Chlamydia pneumoniae by DNA amplification. J Infect Dis. 1990 Oct;162(4):984–987. [PubMed]
  • Garland SM, Gertig DM, McInnes JA. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Australia. Med J Aust. 1993 Jul 19;159(2):90–96. [PubMed]
  • Paavonen J, Vesterinen E. Chlamydia trachomatis in cervicitis and urethritis in women. Scand J Infect Dis Suppl. 1982;32:45–54. [PubMed]
  • Thomas BJ, Pierpoint T, Taylor-Robinson D, Renton AM. Sensitivity of the ligase chain reaction assay for detecting Chlamydia trachomatis in vaginal swabs from women who are infected at other sites. Sex Transm Infect. 1998 Apr;74(2):140–141. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fairley CK, Chen S, Tabrizi SN, Quinn MA, McNeil JJ, Garland SM. Tampons: a novel patient-administered method for the assessment of genital human papillomavirus infection. J Infect Dis. 1992 Jun;165(6):1103–1106. [PubMed]
  • Welsh LE, Quinn TC, Gaydos CA. Influence of endocervical specimen adequacy on PCR and direct fluorescent-antibody staining for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis infections. J Clin Microbiol. 1997 Dec;35(12):3078–3081. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Sexually Transmitted Infections are provided here courtesy of BMJ Group


Save items

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...