• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of iaiPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalIAI ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
Infect Immun. Aug 1996; 64(8): 2897–2903.
PMCID: PMC174164

Capsular polysaccharide of Cryptococcus neoformans induces proinflammatory cytokine release by human neutrophils.

Abstract

Human polymorphonuclear leukocytes from normal subjects produced proinflammatory cytokines in response to stimulation with Cryptococcus neoformans yeast cells. The cytokines released after stimulation of neutrophils included interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor alpha. The magnitude of the cytokine response was related to the yeast capsule size. Cells of a large-capsule isolate stimulated release of greater amounts of cytokine than did a thinly encapsulated isolate, which, in turn, stimulated release of greater amounts of cytokine than an acapsular isolate. Cytokine release was also stimulated by supernatant fluids from cryptococcal cells that were preincubated with 10% human serum, suggesting the generation of a soluble mediator. The major capsular polysaccharide, glucuronoxylomannan, stimulated release of tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-8 in a dose-dependent fashion. These results differ from previous studies of cytokine secretion by human monocytes in several important respects, including the importance of encapsulation in stimulation of cytokine secretion and the ability of purified glucuronoxylomannan to induce cytokine secretion.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (246K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Bazzoni F, Cassatella MA, Laudanna C, Rossi F. Phagocytosis of opsonized yeast induces tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA accumulation and protein release by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. J Leukoc Biol. 1991 Sep;50(3):223–228. [PubMed]
  • Bulmer GS, Sans MD. Cryptococcus neoformans. II. Phagocytosis by human leukocytes. J Bacteriol. 1967 Nov;94(5):1480–1483. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bulmer GS, Sans MD. Cryptococcus neoformans. 3. Inhibition of phagocytosis. J Bacteriol. 1968 Jan;95(1):5–8. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cassatella MA. The production of cytokines by polymorphonuclear neutrophils. Immunol Today. 1995 Jan;16(1):21–26. [PubMed]
  • Cassatella MA, Meda L, Bonora S, Ceska M, Constantin G. Interleukin 10 (IL-10) inhibits the release of proinflammatory cytokines from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Evidence for an autocrine role of tumor necrosis factor and IL-1 beta in mediating the production of IL-8 triggered by lipopolysaccharide. J Exp Med. 1993 Dec 1;178(6):2207–2211. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cherniak R, Reiss E, Slodki ME, Plattner RD, Blumer SO. Structure and antigenic activity of the capsular polysaccharide of Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A. Mol Immunol. 1980 Aug;17(8):1025–1032. [PubMed]
  • Diamond RD, Erickson NF., 3rd Chemotaxis of human neutrophils and monocytes induced by Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect Immun. 1982 Oct;38(1):380–382. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Diamond RD, May JE, Kane MA, Frank MM, Bennett JE. The role of the classical and alternate complement pathways in host defenses against Cryptococcus neoformans infection. J Immunol. 1974 Jun;112(6):2260–2270. [PubMed]
  • Djeu JY, Blanchard DK, Halkias D, Friedman H. Growth inhibition of Candida albicans by human polymorphonuclear neutrophils: activation by interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor. J Immunol. 1986 Nov 1;137(9):2980–2984. [PubMed]
  • Good CB, Coax WA. Cryptococcal infections in patients with AIDS. N Engl J Med. 1990 Mar 8;322(10):701–702. [PubMed]
  • Hidore MR, Nabavi N, Sonleitner F, Murphy JW. Murine natural killer cells are fungicidal to Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect Immun. 1991 May;59(5):1747–1754. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hidore MR, Mislan TW, Murphy JW. Responses of murine natural killer cells to binding of the fungal target Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect Immun. 1991 Apr;59(4):1489–1499. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hill JO. CD4+ T cells cause multinucleated giant cells to form around Cryptococcus neoformans and confine the yeast within the primary site of infection in the respiratory tract. J Exp Med. 1992 Jun 1;175(6):1685–1695. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hill JO, Harmsen AG. Intrapulmonary growth and dissemination of an avirulent strain of Cryptococcus neoformans in mice depleted of CD4+ or CD8+ T cells. J Exp Med. 1991 Mar 1;173(3):755–758. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kato K, Yokoi T, Takano N, Kanegane H, Yachie A, Miyawaki T, Taniguchi N. Detection by in situ hybridization and phenotypic characterization of cells expressing IL-6 mRNA in human stimulated blood. J Immunol. 1990 Feb 15;144(4):1317–1322. [PubMed]
  • Kozel TR. Non-encapsulated variant of Cryptococcus neoformans. II. Surface receptors for cryptococcal polysaccharide and their role in inhibition of phagocytosis by polysaccharide. Infect Immun. 1977 Apr;16(1):99–106. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kozel TR, Gotschlich EC. The capsule of cryptococcus neoformans passively inhibits phagocytosis of the yeast by macrophages. J Immunol. 1982 Oct;129(4):1675–1680. [PubMed]
  • Kozel TR, Hermerath CA. Binding of cryptococcal polysaccharide to Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect Immun. 1984 Mar;43(3):879–886. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kozel TR, Mastroianni RP. Inhibition of phagocytosis by cryptococcal polysaccharide: dissociation of the attachment and ingestion phases of phagocytosis. Infect Immun. 1976 Jul;14(1):62–67. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Laxalt KA, Kozel TR. Chemotaxigenesis and activation of the alternative complement pathway by encapsulated and non-encapsulated Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect Immun. 1979 Nov;26(2):435–440. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lloyd AR, Oppenheim JJ. Poly's lament: the neglected role of the polymorphonuclear neutrophil in the afferent limb of the immune response. Immunol Today. 1992 May;13(5):169–172. [PubMed]
  • Melani C, Mattia GF, Silvani A, Carè A, Rivoltini L, Parmiani G, Colombo MP. Interleukin-6 expression in human neutrophil and eosinophil peripheral blood granulocytes. Blood. 1993 May 15;81(10):2744–2749. [PubMed]
  • Miller GP, Kohl S. Antibody-dependent leukocyte killing of Cryptococcus neoformans. J Immunol. 1983 Sep;131(3):1455–1459. [PubMed]
  • Miller MF, Mitchell TG. Killing of Cryptococcus neoformans strains by human neutrophils and monocytes. Infect Immun. 1991 Jan;59(1):24–28. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Murphy JW, Cozad GC. Immunological unresponsiveness induced by cryptococcal capsular polysaccharide assayed by the hemolytic plaque technique. Infect Immun. 1972 Jun;5(6):896–901. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Murphy JW, Hidore MR, Wong SC. Direct interactions of human lymphocytes with the yeast-like organism, Cryptococcus neoformans. J Clin Invest. 1993 Apr;91(4):1553–1566. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Palma C, Cassone A, Serbousek D, Pearson CA, Djeu JY. Lactoferrin release and interleukin-1, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor production by human polymorphonuclear cells stimulated by various lipopolysaccharides: relationship to growth inhibition of Candida albicans. Infect Immun. 1992 Nov;60(11):4604–4611. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Peveri P, Walz A, Dewald B, Baggiolini M. A novel neutrophil-activating factor produced by human mononuclear phagocytes. J Exp Med. 1988 May 1;167(5):1547–1559. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Small JM, Mitchell TG. Binding of purified and radioiodinated capsular polysaccharides from Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A strains to capsule-free mutants. Infect Immun. 1986 Dec;54(3):742–750. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Van Snick J, Cayphas S, Vink A, Uyttenhove C, Coulie PG, Rubira MR, Simpson RJ. Purification and NH2-terminal amino acid sequence of a T-cell-derived lymphokine with growth factor activity for B-cell hybridomas. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Dec;83(24):9679–9683. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Vecchiarelli A, Dottorini M, Beccari T, Cociani C, Todisco T, Bistoni F. Inhibition of candidacidal activity of polymorphonuclear cells by alveolar macrophage-derived factor from lung cancer patients. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1993 Feb;147(2):414–419. [PubMed]
  • Vecchiarelli A, Dottorini M, Pietrella D, Monari C, Retini C, Todisco T, Bistoni F. Role of human alveolar macrophages as antigen-presenting cells in Cryptococcus neoformans infection. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1994 Aug;11(2):130–137. [PubMed]
  • Vecchiarelli A, Retini C, Pietrella D, Monari C, Tascini C, Beccari T, Kozel TR. Downregulation by cryptococcal polysaccharide of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta secretion from human monocytes. Infect Immun. 1995 Aug;63(8):2919–2923. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wang P, Wu P, Anthes JC, Siegel MI, Egan RW, Billah MM. Interleukin-10 inhibits interleukin-8 production in human neutrophils. Blood. 1994 May 1;83(9):2678–2683. [PubMed]
  • Wei S, Liu JH, Blanchard DK, Djeu JY. Induction of IL-8 gene expression in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils by recombinant IL-2. J Immunol. 1994 Apr 1;152(7):3630–3636. [PubMed]
  • Young BJ, Kozel TR. Effects of strain variation, serotype, and structural modification on kinetics for activation and binding of C3 to Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect Immun. 1993 Jul;61(7):2966–2972. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Infection and Immunity are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...