• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of oenvmedOccupational and Environmental MedicineVisit this articleSubmit a manuscriptReceive email alertsContact usBMJ
Occup Environ Med. Apr 2004; 61(4): 334–339.
PMCID: PMC1740756

Paternal exposure to agricultural pesticides and cause specific fetal death

Abstract

Aims: To study the association between fetal death and paternal agricultural occupation in areas and time periods with different levels of use of agricultural pesticides.

Methods: A total of 1 473 146 stillbirths and births occurring in Spain between 1995 and 1999 were analysed.

Results: The offspring of agricultural workers had the highest risk of fetal death from congenital anomalies in the southern and eastern area (where pesticide use is greatest) and the lowest risk in the rest of Spain. In both areas the offspring of agricultural workers had a similar excess risk of fetal death from the remaining causes of death. The relative risk of fetal death from congenital anomalies in infants conceived between April and September (the months of greater use of pesticides) in the southern and eastern area was 0.90 in manual workers and 1.62 in agricultural workers, compared to non-manual workers; in individuals who were conceived during the rest of the year, the relative risk was 0.87 and 0.85, respectively. In both periods the offspring of agricultural workers had an excess risk of fetal death from the remaining causes of death.

Conclusions: Paternal agricultural work in the areas where pesticides are massively used increases the risk of fetal death from congenital anomalies. The risk is also increased for fetuses conceived during the time periods of maximum use of pesticides The higher risk of fetal death from the remaining causes of death in the offspring of agricultural workers seems unrelated to pesticide exposure.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (143K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • McDonald AD, McDonald JC, Armstrong B, Cherry N, Delorme C, D-Nolin A, Robert D. Occupation and pregnancy outcome. Br J Ind Med. 1987 Aug;44(8):521–526. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Taha TE, Gray RH. Agricultural pesticide exposure and perinatal mortality in central Sudan. Bull World Health Organ. 1993;71(3-4):317–321. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Chia S-E, Shi L-M. Review of recent epidemiological studies on paternal occupations and birth defects. Occup Environ Med. 2002 Mar;59(3):149–155. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Schwartz DA, Newsum LA, Heifetz RM. Parental occupation and birth outcome in an agricultural community. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1986 Feb;12(1):51–54. [PubMed]
  • Savitz DA, Whelan EA, Kleckner RC. Effect of parents' occupational exposures on risk of stillbirth, preterm delivery, and small-for-gestational-age infants. Am J Epidemiol. 1989 Jun;129(6):1201–1218. [PubMed]
  • Kristensen P, Irgens LM, Andersen A, Bye AS, Sundheim L. Gestational age, birth weight, and perinatal death among births to Norwegian farmers, 1967-1991. Am J Epidemiol. 1997 Aug 15;146(4):329–338. [PubMed]
  • McDonald AD, McDonald JC, Armstrong B, Cherry NM, Nolin AD, Robert D. Fathers' occupation and pregnancy outcome. Br J Ind Med. 1989 May;46(5):329–333. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kristensen P, Irgens LM, Andersen A, Bye AS, Sundheim L. Birth defects among offspring of Norwegian farmers, 1967-1991. Epidemiology. 1997 Sep;8(5):537–544. [PubMed]
  • García AM, Fletcher T, Benavides FG, Orts E. Parental agricultural work and selected congenital malformations. Am J Epidemiol. 1999 Jan 1;149(1):64–74. [PubMed]
  • Nurminen T, Rantala K, Kurppa K, Holmberg PC. Agricultural work during pregnancy and selected structural malformations in Finland. Epidemiology. 1995 Jan;6(1):23–30. [PubMed]
  • Mosquera Tenreiro C, González-Rico M. Calidad del registro de muertes perinatales. Asturias, 1986-90. Gac Sanit. 1994 May-Jun;8(42):112–116. [PubMed]
  • Bell EM, Hertz-Picciotto I, Beaumont JJ. Case-cohort analysis of agricultural pesticide applications near maternal residence and selected causes of fetal death. Am J Epidemiol. 2001 Oct 15;154(8):702–710. [PubMed]
  • Pastore LM, Hertz-Picciotto I, Beaumont JJ. Risk of stillbirth from occupational and residential exposures. Occup Environ Med. 1997 Jul;54(7):511–518. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Zhang J, Cai WW, Lee DJ. Occupational hazards and pregnancy outcomes. Am J Ind Med. 1992;21(3):397–408. [PubMed]
  • Bell EM, Hertz-Picciotto I, Beaumont JJ. A case-control study of pesticides and fetal death due to congenital anomalies. Epidemiology. 2001 Mar;12(2):148–156. [PubMed]
  • García AM, Benavides FG, Fletcher T, Orts E. Paternal exposure to pesticides and congenital malformations. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1998 Dec;24(6):473–480. [PubMed]
  • Rowland AS. Pesticides and birth defects. Epidemiology. 1995 Jan;6(1):6–7. [PubMed]
  • Hemminki K, Sorsa M, Vainio H. Genetic risks caused by occupational chemicals. Use of experimental methods and occupational risk group monitoring in the detection of environmental chemicals causing mutations, cancer and malformations. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1979 Dec;5(4):307–327. [PubMed]
  • White FM, Cohen FG, Sherman G, McCurdy R. Chemicals, birth defects and stillbirths in New Brunswick: associations with agricultural activity. CMAJ. 1988 Jan 15;138(2):117–124. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cnattingius S, Haglund B, Kramer MS. Differences in late fetal death rates in association with determinants of small for gestational age fetuses: population based cohort study. BMJ. 1998 May 16;316(7143):1483–1487. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Occupational and Environmental Medicine are provided here courtesy of BMJ Group

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • MedGen
    MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...