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Infect Immun. 1996 Jun; 64(6): 2041–2046.
PMCID: PMC174034

Inability of the Francisella tularensis lipopolysaccharide to mimic or to antagonize the induction of cell activation by endotoxins.


We studied the ability of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extracted from a vaccine strain of Francisella tularensis (LPS-Ft) to mimic LPSs from other gram-negative bacteria for activation of various murine cell types or to antagonize the effects of other LPSs. We found that activation of macrophages for the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha and NO, of pre-B lymphocytes for the expression of surface immunoglobulins, and of bone marrow cells for the expression of LPS-binding sites was either undetectable with LPS-Ft or required concentrations 100 to 1,000 times higher than for standard LPSs. Preexposure of macrophages to LPS-Ft also failed to trigger down-regulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha (desensitization) or up-regulation of NO responses to an endotoxin challenge. In contrast to other atypical LPSs, LPS-Ft was also unable to antagonize any of the endotoxin-induced cellular responses mentioned above, suggesting that this LPS does not interact with LPS receptors.

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