• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of oenvmedOccupational and Environmental MedicineCurrent TOCInstructions for authors
Occup Environ Med. Sep 2001; 58(9): 569–574.
PMCID: PMC1740182

Hours of work and the risk of developing impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes mellitus in Japanese male office workers


OBJECTIVE—To investigate the association between duration of overtime and the development of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM).
METHODS—A cohort of 1266 Japanese male office workers aged 35-59 years and free of IFG (fasting plasma glucose concentration 6.1-6.9 mmol/l), type 2 DM (fasting plasma glucose concentration of 7.0 mmol/l or more or taking hypoglycaemic medication), history of diabetes, or medication for hypertension were re-examined over 5 successive years after their initial examinations in 1994.
RESULTS—138 men developed IFG or type 2 DM during the 5736 person-years of follow up. After controlling for potential predictors of diabetes, the relative risks of IFG or type 2 DM, compared with those who worked <8.0 hours a day, were 0.82 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.54 to 1.26), 0.69 (95% CI 0.38 to 1.26), 0.63 (95% CI: 0.37 to 1.09), and 0.50 (95% CI: 0.25 to 0.98) for those who worked 8.0-8.9, 9.0-9.9, 10.0-10.9, and of 11.0 hours or more a day, respectively (p for trend=0.020). 87 and 54 men developed IFG and type 2 DM during the 5817 and 5937 person-years of follow up, respectively. The multivariate adjusted relative risks of IFG tended to decrease with an increase in hours of overtime work a day, but did not reach significance (p for trend=0.202). On the other hand, the multivariate adjusted relative risks of type 2 DM significantly decreased with an increase in hours of overtime work a day (p for trend=0.014).
CONCLUSION—Longer overtime is a negative risk factor for the development of IFG or type 2 DM in Japanese male office workers.

Keywords: long overtime; impaired fasting glucose; type 2 diabetes mellitus

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (139K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • DeFronzo RA, Ferrannini E, Koivisto V. New concepts in the pathogenesis and treatment of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Am J Med. 1983 Jan 17;74(1A):52–81. [PubMed]
  • Barrett-Connor E. Epidemiology, obesity, and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Epidemiol Rev. 1989;11:172–181. [PubMed]
  • Morris RD, Rimm DL, Hartz AJ, Kalkhoff RK, Rimm AA. Obesity and heredity in the etiology of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in 32,662 adult white women. Am J Epidemiol. 1989 Jul;130(1):112–121. [PubMed]
  • Feskens EJ, Kromhout D. Cardiovascular risk factors and the 25-year incidence of diabetes mellitus in middle-aged men. The Zutphen Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1989 Dec;130(6):1101–1108. [PubMed]
  • Perry IJ, Wannamethee SG, Walker MK, Thomson AG, Whincup PH, Shaper AG. Prospective study of risk factors for development of non-insulin dependent diabetes in middle aged British men. BMJ. 1995 Mar 4;310(6979):560–564. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Rimm EB, Chan J, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Willett WC. Prospective study of cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and the risk of diabetes in men. BMJ. 1995 Mar 4;310(6979):555–559. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Helmrich SP, Ragland DR, Leung RW, Paffenbarger RS., Jr Physical activity and reduced occurrence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 1991 Jul 18;325(3):147–152. [PubMed]
  • Pan XR, Li GW, Hu YH, Wang JX, Yang WY, An ZX, Hu ZX, Lin J, Xiao JZ, Cao HB, et al. Effects of diet and exercise in preventing NIDDM in people with impaired glucose tolerance. The Da Qing IGT and Diabetes Study. Diabetes Care. 1997 Apr;20(4):537–544. [PubMed]
  • Uchimoto S, Tsumura K, Hayashi T, Suematsu C, Endo G, Fujii S, Okada K. Impact of cigarette smoking on the incidence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle-aged Japanese men: the Osaka Health Survey. Diabet Med. 1999 Nov;16(11):951–955. [PubMed]
  • Nakanishi N, Nakamura K, Matsuo Y, Suzuki K, Tatara K. Cigarette smoking and risk for impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes in middle-aged Japanese men. Ann Intern Med. 2000 Aug 1;133(3):183–191. [PubMed]
  • Anderson JW, Gustafson NJ, Bryant CA, Tietyen-Clark J. Dietary fiber and diabetes: a comprehensive review and practical application. J Am Diet Assoc. 1987 Sep;87(9):1189–1197. [PubMed]
  • Salmerón J, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Wing AL, Willett WC. Dietary fiber, glycemic load, and risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in women. JAMA. 1997 Feb 12;277(6):472–477. [PubMed]
  • Cobb S, Rose RM. Hypertension, peptic ulcer, and diabetes in air traffic controllers. JAMA. 1973 Apr 23;224(4):489–492. [PubMed]
  • Netterstrøm B, Kristensen TS, Damsgaard MT, Olsen O, Sjøl A. Job strain and cardiovascular risk factors: a cross sectional study of employed Danish men and women. Br J Ind Med. 1991 Oct;48(10):684–689. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kawakami N, Araki S, Hayashi T, Masumoto T. Relationship between perceived job-stress and glycosylated hemoglobin in white-collar workers. Ind Health. 1989;27(4):149–154. [PubMed]
  • Stolk RP, van Splunder IP, Schouten JS, Witteman JC, Hofman A, Grobbee DE. High blood pressure and the incidence of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: findings in a 11.5 year follow-up study in The Netherlands. Eur J Epidemiol. 1993 Mar;9(2):134–139. [PubMed]
  • Hayashi T, Tsumura K, Suematsu C, Endo G, Fujii S, Okada K. High normal blood pressure, hypertension, and the risk of type 2 diabetes in Japanese men. The Osaka Health Survey. Diabetes Care. 1999 Oct;22(10):1683–1687. [PubMed]
  • Laws A, Reaven GM. Insulin resistance and risk factors for coronary heart disease. Baillieres Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1993 Oct;7(4):1063–1078. [PubMed]
  • Salomaa VV, Tuomilehto J, Jauhiainen M, Korhonen HJ, Stengård J, Uusitupa M, Pitkanen M, Penttila I. Hypertriglyceridemia in different degrees of glucose intolerance in a Finnish population-based study. Diabetes Care. 1992 May;15(5):657–665. [PubMed]
  • Surwit RS, Feinglos MN. Stress and autonomic nervous system in type II diabetes. A hypothesis. Diabetes Care. 1988 Jan;11(1):83–85. [PubMed]
  • Surwit RS, Schneider MS. Role of stress in the etiology and treatment of diabetes mellitus. Psychosom Med. 1993 Jul-Aug;55(4):380–393. [PubMed]
  • Nakanishi N, Yoshida H, Nagano K, Kawashimo H, Nakamura K, Tatara K. Long working hours and risk for hypertension in Japanese male white collar workers. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2001 May;55(5):316–322. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Spurgeon A, Harrington JM, Cooper CL. Health and safety problems associated with long working hours: a review of the current position. Occup Environ Med. 1997 Jun;54(6):367–375. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kawakami N, Araki S, Takatsuka N, Shimizu H, Ishibashi H. Overtime, psychosocial working conditions, and occurrence of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in Japanese men. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1999 Jun;53(6):359–363. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bouchard C, Tremblay A, Leblanc C, Lortie G, Savard R, Thériault G. A method to assess energy expenditure in children and adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 1983 Mar;37(3):461–467. [PubMed]
  • Soter NA, Wasserman SI, Austen KF. Cold urticaria: release into the circulation of histamine and eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis during cold challenge. N Engl J Med. 1976 Mar 25;294(13):687–690. [PubMed]

Articles from Occupational and Environmental Medicine are provided here courtesy of BMJ Group


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • Cited in Books
    Cited in Books
    PubMed Central articles cited in books
  • MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...