• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of jnnpsycJournal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and PsychiatryCurrent TOCInstructions for authors
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. Dec 2004; 75(12): 1662–1666.
PMCID: PMC1738846

Does the risk of developing dementia increase with the number of episodes in patients with depressive disorder and in patients with bipolar disorder?

Abstract

Objective: Several findings suggest that some patients with depressive or bipolar disorder may be at increased risk of developing dementia. The present study aimed to investigate whether the risk of developing dementia increases with the number of affective episodes in patients with depressive disorder and in patients with bipolar disorder.

Methods: This was a case register study including all hospital admissions with primary affective disorder in Denmark during 1970–99. The effect of the number of prior episodes leading to admission on the rate of readmission with a diagnosis of dementia following the first discharge after 1985 was estimated. A total of 18 726 patients with depressive disorder and 4248 patients with bipolar disorder were included in the study.

Results: The rate of a diagnosis of dementia on readmission was significantly related to the number of prior affective episodes leading to admission. On average, the rate of dementia tended to increase 13% with every episode leading to admission for patients with depressive disorder and 6% with every episode leading to admission for patients with bipolar disorder, when adjusted for differences in age and sex.

Conclusion: On average, the risk of dementia seems to increase with the number of episodes in depressive and bipolar affective disorders.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (72K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Jorm AF. Is depression a risk factor for dementia or cognitive decline? A review. Gerontology. 2000 Jul-Aug;46(4):219–227. [PubMed]
  • Jorm AF. History of depression as a risk factor for dementia: an updated review. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2001 Dec;35(6):776–781. [PubMed]
  • Speck CE, Kukull WA, Brenner DE, Bowen JD, McCormick WC, Teri L, Pfanschmidt ML, Thompson JD, Larson EB. History of depression as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. Epidemiology. 1995 Jul;6(4):366–369. [PubMed]
  • Devanand DP, Sano M, Tang MX, Taylor S, Gurland BJ, Wilder D, Stern Y, Mayeux R. Depressed mood and the incidence of Alzheimer's disease in the elderly living in the community. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1996 Feb;53(2):175–182. [PubMed]
  • Yaffe K, Blackwell T, Gore R, Sands L, Reus V, Browner WS. Depressive symptoms and cognitive decline in nondemented elderly women: a prospective study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1999 May;56(5):425–430. [PubMed]
  • Chen P, Ganguli M, Mulsant BH, DeKosky ST. The temporal relationship between depressive symptoms and dementia: a community-based prospective study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1999 Mar;56(3):261–266. [PubMed]
  • Pálsson S, Aevarsson O, Skoog I. Depression, cerebral atrophy, cognitive performance and incidence of dementia. Population study of 85-year-olds. Br J Psychiatry. 1999 Mar;174:249–253. [PubMed]
  • Geerlings MI, Schoevers RA, Beekman AT, Jonker C, Deeg DJ, Schmand B, Adèr HJ, Bouter LM, Van Tilburg W. Depression and risk of cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease. Results of two prospective community-based studies in The Netherlands. Br J Psychiatry. 2000 Jun;176:568–575. [PubMed]
  • Paterniti Sabrina, Verdier-Taillefer Marie-Hélène, Dufouil Carole, Alpérovitch Annick. Depressive symptoms and cognitive decline in elderly people. Longitudinal study. Br J Psychiatry. 2002 Nov;181:406–410. [PubMed]
  • Bickel H, Cooper B. Incidence and relative risk of dementia in an urban elderly population: findings of a prospective field study. Psychol Med. 1994 Feb;24(1):179–192. [PubMed]
  • Dufouil C, Fuhrer R, Dartigues JF, Alpérovitch A. Longitudinal analysis of the association between depressive symptomatology and cognitive deterioration. Am J Epidemiol. 1996 Oct 1;144(7):634–641. [PubMed]
  • Henderson AS, Korten AE, Jacomb PA, Mackinnon AJ, Jorm AF, Christensen H, Rodgers B. The course of depression in the elderly: a longitudinal community-based study in Australia. Psychol Med. 1997 Jan;27(1):119–129. [PubMed]
  • Jorm AF, van Duijn CM, Chandra V, Fratiglioni L, Graves AB, Heyman A, Kokmen E, Kondo K, Mortimer JA, Rocca WA, et al. Psychiatric history and related exposures as risk factors for Alzheimer's disease: a collaborative re-analysis of case-control studies. EURODEM Risk Factors Research Group. Int J Epidemiol. 1991;20 (Suppl 2):S43–S47. [PubMed]
  • Steffens DC, Plassman BL, Helms MJ, Welsh-Bohmer KA, Saunders AM, Breitner JC. A twin study of late-onset depression and apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 as risk factors for Alzheimer's disease. Biol Psychiatry. 1997 Apr 15;41(8):851–856. [PubMed]
  • Green Robert C, Cupples L Adrienne, Kurz Alex, Auerbach Sanford, Go Rodney, Sadovnick Dessa, Duara Ranjan, Kukull Walter A, Chui Helena, Edeki Timi, et al. Depression as a risk factor for Alzheimer disease: the MIRAGE Study. Arch Neurol. 2003 May;60(5):753–759. [PubMed]
  • Rabins PV, Merchant A, Nestadt G. Criteria for diagnosing reversible dementia caused by depression: validation by 2-year follow-up. Br J Psychiatry. 1984 May;144:488–492. [PubMed]
  • Pearlson GD, Rabins PV, Kim WS, Speedie LJ, Moberg PJ, Burns A, Bascom MJ. Structural brain CT changes and cognitive deficits in elderly depressives with and without reversible dementia ('pseudodementia'). Psychol Med. 1989 Aug;19(3):573–584. [PubMed]
  • Alexopoulos GS, Meyers BS, Young RC, Mattis S, Kakuma T. The course of geriatric depression with "reversible dementia": a controlled study. Am J Psychiatry. 1993 Nov;150(11):1693–1699. [PubMed]
  • Stoudemire A, Hill CD, Morris R, Martino-Saltzman D, Lewison B. Long-term affective and cognitive outcome in depressed older adults. Am J Psychiatry. 1993 Jun;150(6):896–900. [PubMed]
  • Stoudemire A, Hill CD, Morris R, Dalton ST. Improvement in depression-related cognitive dysfunction following ECT. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1995 Winter;7(1):31–34. [PubMed]
  • Kessing LV, Olsen EW, Mortensen PB, Andersen PK. Dementia in affective disorder: a case-register study. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1999 Sep;100(3):176–185. [PubMed]
  • Kessing Lars Vedel, Nilsson Flemming Mørkeberg. Increased risk of developing dementia in patients with major affective disorders compared to patients with other medical illnesses. J Affect Disord. 2003 Feb;73(3):261–269. [PubMed]
  • Kessing LV. Cognitive impairment in the euthymic phase of affective disorder. Psychol Med. 1998 Sep;28(5):1027–1038. [PubMed]
  • Tham A, Engelbrektson K, Mathé AA, Johnson L, Olsson E, Aberg-Wistedt A. Impaired neuropsychological performance in euthymic patients with recurring mood disorders. J Clin Psychiatry. 1997 Jan;58(1):26–29. [PubMed]
  • van Gorp WG, Altshuler L, Theberge DC, Wilkins J, Dixon W. Cognitive impairment in euthymic bipolar patients with and without prior alcohol dependence. A preliminary study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1998 Jan;55(1):41–46. [PubMed]
  • Ferrier IN, Stanton BR, Kelly TP, Scott J. Neuropsychological function in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder. Br J Psychiatry. 1999 Sep;175:246–251. [PubMed]
  • Munk-Jørgensen P, Mortensen PB. The Danish Psychiatric Central Register. Dan Med Bull. 1997 Feb;44(1):82–84. [PubMed]
  • Roth M, Tym E, Mountjoy CQ, Huppert FA, Hendrie H, Verma S, Goddard R. CAMDEX. A standardised instrument for the diagnosis of mental disorder in the elderly with special reference to the early detection of dementia. Br J Psychiatry. 1986 Dec;149:698–709. [PubMed]
  • Reisberg B, Ferris SH, de Leon MJ, Crook T. Global Deterioration Scale (GDS). Psychopharmacol Bull. 1988;24(4):661–663. [PubMed]
  • Kessing LV, Andersen PK, Mortensen PB, Bolwig TG. Recurrence in affective disorder. I. Case register study. Br J Psychiatry. 1998 Jan;172:23–28. [PubMed]
  • Kessing LV, Olsen EW, Andersen PK. Recurrence in affective disorder: analyses with frailty models. Am J Epidemiol. 1999 Mar 1;149(5):404–411. [PubMed]
  • Frances AJ, Kahn DA, Carpenter D, Docherty JP, Donovan SL. The Expert Consensus Guidelines for treating depression in bipolar disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 1998;59 (Suppl 4):73–79. [PubMed]
  • Prince M, Rabe-Hesketh S, Brennan P. Do antiarthritic drugs decrease the risk for cognitive decline? An analysis based on data from the MRC treatment trial of hypertension in older adults. Neurology. 1998 Feb;50(2):374–379. [PubMed]
  • Fastbom J, Forsell Y, Winblad B. Benzodiazepines may have protective effects against Alzheimer disease. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 1998 Mar;12(1):14–17. [PubMed]
  • Post RM. Transduction of psychosocial stress into the neurobiology of recurrent affective disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1992 Aug;149(8):999–1010. [PubMed]
  • Maisel William H, Stevenson William G. Syncope--getting to the heart of the matter. N Engl J Med. 2002 Sep 19;347(12):931–933. [PubMed]
  • Sakula A. Pierre Adolphe Piorry (1794-1879): pioneer of percussion and pleximetry. Thorax. 1979 Oct;34(5):575–581. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • LEWIS P. FAMILIAL ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION. Brain. 1964 Dec;87:719–728. [PubMed]
  • SHY GM, DRAGER GA. A neurological syndrome associated with orthostatic hypotension: a clinical-pathologic study. Arch Neurol. 1960 May;2:511–527. [PubMed]
  • Schatz IJ. Farewell to the "Shy-Drager syndrome". Ann Intern Med. 1996 Jul 1;125(1):74–75. [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry are provided here courtesy of BMJ Group

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • MedGen
    MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...