Logo of jnnpsycJournal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and PsychiatryVisit this articleSubmit a manuscriptReceive email alertsContact usBMJ
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003 Jun; 74(6): 704–709.
PMCID: PMC1738496

Event based and time based prospective memory in Parkinson's disease


Background: Patients with Parkinson's disease have been reported to have retrospective memory impairment, while prospective memory, which is memory for actions to be performed in the future, has not yet been investigated.

Objective: To investigate the prospective memory of patients with Parkinson's disease.

Methods: Twenty Parkinson's disease patients and 20 age matched normal controls were given event based and time based prospective memory tasks. In the event based prospective memory task, the subject was asked to perform an action whenever particular words were presented. In the time based prospective memory task, the subject was asked to perform an action at certain times.

Results: The Parkinson's disease patients were impaired on the event based prospective memory task but not on the time based prospective memory task. The impairment of the Parkinson's disease patients on the event based prospective memory task was not the result of their forgetting the content of the prospective memory instructions, but the result of their failure to retrieve it spontaneously when the target words appeared.

Conclusions: These results suggest that event based prospective memory is impaired in patients with Parkinson's disease, presumably relating to frontal lobe dysfunction.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (129K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Taylor AE, Saint-Cyr JA, Lang AE. Frontal lobe dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. The cortical focus of neostriatal outflow. Brain. 1986 Oct;109(Pt 5):845–883. [PubMed]
  • Breen EK. Recall and recognition memory in Parkinson's disease. Cortex. 1993 Mar;29(1):91–102. [PubMed]
  • Dubois B, Pillon B. Cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease. J Neurol. 1997 Jan;244(1):2–8. [PubMed]
  • Einstein GO, McDaniel MA. Normal aging and prospective memory. J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn. 1990 Jul;16(4):717–726. [PubMed]
  • Einstein GO, McDaniel MA, Richardson SL, Guynn MJ, Cunfer AR. Aging and prospective memory: examining the influences of self-initiated retrieval processes. J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn. 1995 Jul;21(4):996–1007. [PubMed]
  • Folstein MF, Folstein SE, McHugh PR. "Mini-mental state". A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res. 1975 Nov;12(3):189–198. [PubMed]
  • Nelson HE. A modified card sorting test sensitive to frontal lobe defects. Cortex. 1976 Dec;12(4):313–324. [PubMed]
  • ZUNG WW. A SELF-RATING DEPRESSION SCALE. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1965 Jan;12:63–70. [PubMed]
  • Park DC, Hertzog C, Kidder DP, Morrell RW, Mayhorn CB. Effect of age on event-based and time-based prospective memory. Psychol Aging. 1997 Jun;12(2):314–327. [PubMed]
  • Cooper JA, Sagar HJ, Doherty SM, Jordan N, Tidswell P, Sullivan EV. Different effects of dopaminergic and anticholinergic therapies on cognitive and motor function in Parkinson's disease. A follow-up study of untreated patients. Brain. 1992 Dec;115(Pt 6):1701–1725. [PubMed]
  • Cockburn J. Task interruption in prospective memory: a frontal lobe function? Cortex. 1995 Mar;31(1):87–97. [PubMed]
  • Okuda J, Fujii T, Yamadori A, Kawashima R, Tsukiura T, Fukatsu R, Suzuki K, Ito M, Fukuda H. Participation of the prefrontal cortices in prospective memory: evidence from a PET study in humans. Neurosci Lett. 1998 Sep 4;253(2):127–130. [PubMed]
  • Playford ED, Jenkins IH, Passingham RE, Nutt J, Frackowiak RS, Brooks DJ. Impaired mesial frontal and putamen activation in Parkinson's disease: a positron emission tomography study. Ann Neurol. 1992 Aug;32(2):151–161. [PubMed]
  • Eidelberg D, Moeller JR, Dhawan V, Spetsieris P, Takikawa S, Ishikawa T, Chaly T, Robeson W, Margouleff D, Przedborski S, et al. The metabolic topography of parkinsonism. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1994 Sep;14(5):783–801. [PubMed]
  • Baddeley A, Della Sala S, Papagno C, Spinnler H. Dual-task performance in dysexecutive and nondysexecutive patients with a frontal lesion. Neuropsychology. 1997 Apr;11(2):187–194. [PubMed]
  • Baddeley A, Logie R, Bressi S, Della Sala S, Spinnler H. Dementia and working memory. Q J Exp Psychol A. 1986 Nov;38(4):603–618. [PubMed]
  • Pastor MA, Artieda J, Jahanshahi M, Obeso JA. Time estimation and reproduction is abnormal in Parkinson's disease. Brain. 1992 Feb;115(Pt 1):211–225. [PubMed]
  • Lange KW, Tucha O, Steup A, Gsell W, Naumann M. Subjective time estimation in Parkinson's disease. J Neural Transm Suppl. 1995;46:433–438. [PubMed]
  • Harrington DL, Haaland KY, Knight RT. Cortical networks underlying mechanisms of time perception. J Neurosci. 1998 Feb 1;18(3):1085–1095. [PubMed]
  • Maylor Elizabeth A, Smith Geoff, Della Sala Sergio, Logie Robert H. Prospective and retrospective memory in normal aging and dementia: an experimental study. Mem Cognit. 2002 Sep;30(6):871–884. [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry are provided here courtesy of BMJ Group


Save items

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...