• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of jnnpsycJournal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and PsychiatryCurrent TOCInstructions for authors
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. Jul 2001; 71(1): 13–22.
PMCID: PMC1737485

Structural MRI volumetric analysis in patients with organic amnesia, 1: methods and comparative findings across diagnostic groups

Abstract

BACKGROUND—If they are to be replicable, MRI volume measurements require explicit definitions of structures and of criteria for delineating these structures on MRI. Previously published volumes in healthy subjects show considerable differences in measurements across different studies, including a fourfold variation in estimates of hippocampal volume. Previous neuroimaging reports in patients with Korsakoff syndrome have generally found widespread or non-specific change, whereas in patients with herpes encephalitis the extent of pathological involvement reported beyond the temporal lobes has varied.
METHOD—In the present study, a clear set of anatomical criteria and detailed MRI segmentation procedures were applied to measure whole brain, frontal and temporal lobe, and anterolateral and medial temporal volumes, as well as thalamic areas in patients with organic amnesia (from Korsakoff's syndrome, herpes encephalitis, and focal frontal lesions) as well as healthy controls.
RESULTS—Patients with Korsakoff's syndrome showed decreased thalamic measurements but no significant changes in the medial temporal lobes, whereas patients with herpes encephalitis showed severe medial temporal but not thalamic atrophy. In the patients with known frontal lobe lesions, quantitative analysis on MRI showed reduced frontal lobe volume but no significant temporal lobe or thalamic atrophy.
CONCLUSION—Quantified MRI can be a useful technique with which to examine brain-cognitive relations, provided that detailed techniques are explicitly described. In particular, specific patterns of volume change can be found in vivo in patients with Korsakoff's syndrome and those with herpes encephalitis.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (224K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Jernigan TL, Schafer K, Butters N, Cermak LS. Magnetic resonance imaging of alcoholic Korsakoff patients. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1991 May;4(3):175–186. [PubMed]
  • Press GA, Amaral DG, Squire LR. Hippocampal abnormalities in amnesic patients revealed by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Nature. 1989 Sep 7;341(6237):54–57. [PubMed]
  • Squire LR, Amaral DG, Press GA. Magnetic resonance imaging of the hippocampal formation and mammillary nuclei distinguish medial temporal lobe and diencephalic amnesia. J Neurosci. 1990 Sep;10(9):3106–3117. [PubMed]
  • Yoneda Y, Mori E, Yamashita H, Yamadori A. MRI volumetry of medial temporal lobe structures in amnesia following herpes simplex encephalitis. Eur Neurol. 1994;34(5):243–252. [PubMed]
  • Mackay Clare E, Roberts Neil, Mayes Andrew R, Downes John J, Foster Jonathan K, Mann David. An exploratory study of the relationship between face recognition memory and the volume of medial temporal lobe structures in healthy young males. Behav Neurol. 1998;11(1):3–20. [PubMed]
  • Ashburner J, Hutton C, Frackowiak R, Johnsrude I, Price C, Friston K. Identifying global anatomical differences: deformation-based morphometry. Hum Brain Mapp. 1998;6(5-6):348–357. [PubMed]
  • Deweer B, Lehéricy S, Pillon B, Baulac M, Chiras J, Marsault C, Agid Y, Dubois B. Memory disorders in probable Alzheimer's disease: the role of hippocampal atrophy as shown with MRI. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1995 May;58(5):590–597. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Golomb J, Kluger A, de Leon MJ, Ferris SH, Convit A, Mittelman MS, Cohen J, Rusinek H, De Santi S, George AE. Hippocampal formation size in normal human aging: a correlate of delayed secondary memory performance. Learn Mem. 1994 May-Jun;1(1):45–54. [PubMed]
  • Jack CR., Jr MRI-based hippocampal volume measurements in epilepsy. Epilepsia. 1994;35 (Suppl 6):S21–S29. [PubMed]
  • Bronen RA, Cheung G. Relationship of hippocampus and amygdala to coronal MRI landmarks. Magn Reson Imaging. 1991;9(3):449–457. [PubMed]
  • Mori E, Yoneda Y, Yamashita H, Hirono N, Ikeda M, Yamadori A. Medial temporal structures relate to memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease: an MRI volumetric study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1997 Aug;63(2):214–221. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bremner JD, Randall P, Scott TM, Bronen RA, Seibyl JP, Southwick SM, Delaney RC, McCarthy G, Charney DS, Innis RB. MRI-based measurement of hippocampal volume in patients with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1995 Jul;152(7):973–981. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Killiany RJ, Moss MB, Albert MS, Sandor T, Tieman J, Jolesz F. Temporal lobe regions on magnetic resonance imaging identify patients with early Alzheimer's disease. Arch Neurol. 1993 Sep;50(9):949–954. [PubMed]
  • Kopelman MD, Lasserson D, Kingsley D, Bello F, Rush C, Stanhope N, Stevens T, Goodman G, Heilpern G, Kendall B, et al. Structural MRI volumetric analysis in patients with organic amnesia, 2: correlations with anterograde memory and executive tests in 40 patients. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2001 Jul;71(1):23–28. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Steinmetz H, Fürst G, Freund HJ. Cerebral cortical localization: application and validation of the proportional grid system in MR imaging. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 1989 Jan-Feb;13(1):10–19. [PubMed]
  • Kopelman MD, Stanhope N, Kingsley D. Retrograde amnesia in patients with diencephalic, temporal lobe or frontal lesions. Neuropsychologia. 1999 Jul;37(8):939–958. [PubMed]
  • Kapur N, Barker S, Burrows EH, Ellison D, Brice J, Illis LS, Scholey K, Colbourn C, Wilson B, Loates M. Herpes simplex encephalitis: long term magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological profile. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1994 Nov;57(11):1334–1342. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Jacobson RR, Lishman WA. Cortical and diencephalic lesions in Korsakoff's syndrome: a clinical and CT scan study. Psychol Med. 1990 Feb;20(1):63–75. [PubMed]
  • Shimamura AP, Jernigan TL, Squire LR. Korsakoff's syndrome: radiological (CT) findings and neuropsychological correlates. J Neurosci. 1988 Nov;8(11):4400–4410. [PubMed]
  • Köhler S, Black SE, Sinden M, Szekely C, Kidron D, Parker JL, Foster JK, Moscovitch M, Winocour G, Szalai JP, et al. Memory impairments associated with hippocampal versus parahippocampal-gyrus atrophy: an MR volumetry study in Alzheimer's disease. Neuropsychologia. 1998 Sep;36(9):901–914. [PubMed]
  • Jack CR, Jr, Twomey CK, Zinsmeister AR, Sharbrough FW, Petersen RC, Cascino GD. Anterior temporal lobes and hippocampal formations: normative volumetric measurements from MR images in young adults. Radiology. 1989 Aug;172(2):549–554. [PubMed]
  • Watson C, Andermann F, Gloor P, Jones-Gotman M, Peters T, Evans A, Olivier A, Melanson D, Leroux G. Anatomic basis of amygdaloid and hippocampal volume measurement by magnetic resonance imaging. Neurology. 1992 Sep;42(9):1743–1750. [PubMed]
  • Van Paesschen W, Duncan JS, Stevens JM, Connelly A. Longitudinal quantitative hippocampal magnetic resonance imaging study of adults with newly diagnosed partial seizures: one-year follow-up results. Epilepsia. 1998 Jun;39(6):633–639. [PubMed]
  • Cook MJ, Fish DR, Shorvon SD, Straughan K, Stevens JM. Hippocampal volumetric and morphometric studies in frontal and temporal lobe epilepsy. Brain. 1992 Aug;115(Pt 4):1001–1015. [PubMed]
  • Ho SS, Kuzniecky RI, Gilliam F, Faught E, Bebin M, Morawetz R. Congenital porencephaly: MR features and relationship to hippocampal sclerosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1998 Jan;19(1):135–141. [PubMed]
  • Balcer LJ, Liu GT, Forman S, Pun K, Volpe NJ, Galetta SL, Maguire MG. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension: relation of age and obesity in children. Neurology. 1999 Mar 10;52(4):870–872. [PubMed]
  • Juottonen K, Laakso MP, Partanen K, Soininen H. Comparative MR analysis of the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus in diagnosing Alzheimer disease. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1999 Jan;20(1):139–144. [PubMed]
  • Janowsky JS, Shimamura AP, Kritchevsky M, Squire LR. Cognitive impairment following frontal lobe damage and its relevance to human amnesia. Behav Neurosci. 1989 Jun;103(3):548–560. [PubMed]
  • Mayes AR, Meudell PR, Mann D, Pickering A. Location of lesions in Korsakoff's syndrome: neuropsychological and neuropathological data on two patients. Cortex. 1988 Sep;24(3):367–388. [PubMed]
  • Fox NC, Warrington EK, Freeborough PA, Hartikainen P, Kennedy AM, Stevens JM, Rossor MN. Presymptomatic hippocampal atrophy in Alzheimer's disease. A longitudinal MRI study. Brain. 1996 Dec;119(Pt 6):2001–2007. [PubMed]
  • Breier A, Buchanan RW, Elkashef A, Munson RC, Kirkpatrick B, Gellad F. Brain morphology and schizophrenia. A magnetic resonance imaging study of limbic, prefrontal cortex, and caudate structures. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1992 Dec;49(12):921–926. [PubMed]
  • Murphy DG, DeCarli C, Schapiro MB, Rapoport SI, Horwitz B. Age-related differences in volumes of subcortical nuclei, brain matter, and cerebrospinal fluid in healthy men as measured with magnetic resonance imaging. Arch Neurol. 1992 Aug;49(8):839–845. [PubMed]
  • Murphy DG, DeCarli CD, Daly E, Gillette JA, McIntosh AR, Haxby JV, Teichberg D, Schapiro MB, Rapoport SI, Horwitz B. Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging in men with dementia of the Alzheimer type: correlations with disease severity. Biol Psychiatry. 1993 Nov 1;34(9):612–621. [PubMed]
  • Bhatia S, Bookheimer SY, Gaillard WD, Theodore WH. Measurement of whole temporal lobe and hippocampus for MR volumetry: normative data. Neurology. 1993 Oct;43(10):2006–2010. [PubMed]
  • Aylward EH, Brandt J, Codori AM, Mangus RS, Barta PE, Harris GJ. Reduced basal ganglia volume associated with the gene for Huntington's disease in asymptomatic at-risk persons. Neurology. 1994 May;44(5):823–828. [PubMed]
  • Schlaepfer TE, Harris GJ, Tien AY, Peng LW, Lee S, Federman EB, Chase GA, Barta PE, Pearlson GD. Decreased regional cortical gray matter volume in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 1994 Jun;151(6):842–848. [PubMed]
  • Howard RJ, Almeida O, Levy R, Graves P, Graves M. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging volumetry distinguishes delusional disorder from late-onset schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry. 1994 Oct;165(4):474–480. [PubMed]
  • Woodruff PW, Wright IC, Shuriquie N, Russouw H, Rushe T, Howard RJ, Graves M, Bullmore ET, Murray RM. Structural brain abnormalities in male schizophrenics reflect fronto-temporal dissociation. Psychol Med. 1997 Nov;27(6):1257–1266. [PubMed]
  • Murphy DG, DeCarli C, Daly E, Haxby JV, Allen G, White BJ, McIntosh AR, Powell CM, Horwitz B, Rapoport SI, et al. X-chromosome effects on female brain: a magnetic resonance imaging study of Turner's syndrome. Lancet. 1993 Nov 13;342(8881):1197–1200. [PubMed]
  • Briellmann RS, Jackson GD, Kalnins R, Berkovic SF. Hemicranial volume deficits in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy with and without hippocampal sclerosis. Epilepsia. 1998 Nov;39(11):1174–1181. [PubMed]
  • Cheon JE, Chang KH, Kim HD, Han MH, Hong SH, Seong SO, Kim IO, Lee SG, Hwang YS, Kim HJ. MR of hippocampal sclerosis: comparison of qualitative and quantitative assessments. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1998 Mar;19(3):465–468. [PubMed]
  • Hashimoto M, Kitagaki H, Imamura T, Hirono N, Shimomura T, Kazui H, Tanimukai S, Hanihara T, Mori E. Medial temporal and whole-brain atrophy in dementia with Lewy bodies: a volumetric MRI study. Neurology. 1998 Aug;51(2):357–362. [PubMed]
  • Laakso MP, Soininen H, Partanen K, Lehtovirta M, Hallikainen M, Hänninen T, Helkala EL, Vainio P, Riekkinen PJ., Sr MRI of the hippocampus in Alzheimer's disease: sensitivity, specificity, and analysis of the incorrectly classified subjects. Neurobiol Aging. 1998 Jan-Feb;19(1):23–31. [PubMed]
  • Deicken RF, Pegues M, Amend D. Reduced hippocampal N-acetylaspartate without volume loss in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 1999 Jun 22;37(3):217–223. [PubMed]
  • Dickey CC, McCarley RW, Voglmaier MM, Niznikiewicz MA, Seidman LJ, Hirayasu Y, Fischer I, Teh EK, Van Rhoads R, Jakab M, et al. Schizotypal personality disorder and MRI abnormalities of temporal lobe gray matter. Biol Psychiatry. 1999 Jun 1;45(11):1393–1402. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Warwick MM, Doody GA, Lawrie SM, Kestelman JN, Best JJ, Johnstone EC. Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain in subjects with sex chromosome aneuploidies. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1999 May;66(5):628–632. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Laakso MP, Partanen K, Riekkinen P, Lehtovirta M, Helkala EL, Hallikainen M, Hanninen T, Vainio P, Soininen H. Hippocampal volumes in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease with and without dementia, and in vascular dementia: An MRI study. Neurology. 1996 Mar;46(3):678–681. [PubMed]
  • Kuzniecky R, Hugg JW, Hetherington H, Butterworth E, Bilir E, Faught E, Gilliam F. Relative utility of 1H spectroscopic imaging and hippocampal volumetry in the lateralization of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Neurology. 1998 Jul;51(1):66–71. [PubMed]
  • Woermann FG, Barker GJ, Birnie KD, Meencke HJ, Duncan JS. Regional changes in hippocampal T2 relaxation and volume: a quantitative magnetic resonance imaging study of hippocampal sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1998 Nov;65(5):656–664. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Golebiowski M, Barcikowska M, Pfeffer A. Magnetic resonance imaging-based hippocampal volumetry in patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 1999 Jul-Aug;10(4):284–288. [PubMed]
  • Kuzniecky R, Bilir E, Gilliam F, Faught E, Martin R, Hugg J. Quantitative MRI in temporal lobe epilepsy: evidence for fornix atrophy. Neurology. 1999 Aug 11;53(3):496–501. [PubMed]
  • Maguire EA, Gadian DG, Johnsrude IS, Good CD, Ashburner J, Frackowiak RS, Frith CD. Navigation-related structural change in the hippocampi of taxi drivers. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Apr 11;97(8):4398–4403. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry are provided here courtesy of BMJ Group

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • MedGen
    MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...