Logo of jnnpsycJournal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and PsychiatryVisit this articleSubmit a manuscriptReceive email alertsContact usBMJ
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. Aug 2000; 69(2): 204–209.
PMCID: PMC1737066

Emotional and cognitive consequences of head injury in relation to the Glasgow outcome scale

Abstract

OBJECTIVE—There is current debate over the issue of the best way of assessing outcome after head injury. One criticism of scales of disability and handicap such as the Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) is that they fail to capture the subjective perspective of the person with head injury. The aims of the study were to investigate aspects of the validity of structured interviews for the GOS, and address the issue of the relation between the GOS and subjective reports of health outcome.
METHODS—A total of 135 patients with head injury were assessed using the GOS and an extended GOS (GOSE) and other measures of outcome and clinical status at 6 months after injury.
RESULTS—There were robust correlations between the GOS and measures of initial injury severity (particularly post-traumatic amnesia) and outcome assessed by disability scales (particularly the disbility rating scale (DRS)); however, associations with cognitive tests were generally modest. There were also strong correlations with self report measures of health outcome: both the GOS and GOSE were related to depression measured by the Beck depression inventory, mental wellbeing assessed by the general health questionnaire, and to all subscales of the short form-36. The GOS scales were also strongly associated with frequency of reported symptoms and problems on the neurobehavioural functioning inventory.
CONCLUSIONS—The GOS and GOSE show consistent relations with other outcome measures including subjective reports of health outcome; they thus remain useful overall summary assessments of outcome of head injury.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (133K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Jennett B, Bond M. Assessment of outcome after severe brain damage. Lancet. 1975 Mar 1;1(7905):480–484. [PubMed]
  • Wilson JT, Pettigrew LE, Teasdale GM. Structured interviews for the Glasgow Outcome Scale and the extended Glasgow Outcome Scale: guidelines for their use. J Neurotrauma. 1998 Aug;15(8):573–585. [PubMed]
  • Teasdale GM, Pettigrew LE, Wilson JT, Murray G, Jennett B. Analyzing outcome of treatment of severe head injury: a review and update on advancing the use of the Glasgow Outcome Scale. J Neurotrauma. 1998 Aug;15(8):587–597. [PubMed]
  • Anderson SI, Housley AM, Jones PA, Slattery J, Miller JD. Glasgow Outcome Scale: an inter-rater reliability study. Brain Inj. 1993 Jul-Aug;7(4):309–317. [PubMed]
  • Levin HS, Grossman RG, Rose JE, Teasdale G. Long-term neuropsychological outcome of closed head injury. J Neurosurg. 1979 Apr;50(4):412–422. [PubMed]
  • Brooks DN, Hosie J, Bond MR, Jennett B, Aughton M. Cognitive sequelae of severe head injury in relation to the Glasgow Outcome Scale. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1986 May;49(5):549–553. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Boake C, High WM., Jr Functional outcome from traumatic brain injury: unidimensional or multidimensional? Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 1996 Mar-Apr;75(2):105–113. [PubMed]
  • Hall K, Cope DN, Rappaport M. Glasgow Outcome Scale and Disability Rating Scale: comparative usefulness in following recovery in traumatic head injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1985 Jan;66(1):35–37. [PubMed]
  • Pettigrew LE, Wilson JT, Teasdale GM. Assessing disability after head injury: improved use of the Glasgow Outcome Scale. J Neurosurg. 1998 Dec;89(6):939–943. [PubMed]
  • Teasdale G, Jennett B. Assessment of coma and impaired consciousness. A practical scale. Lancet. 1974 Jul 13;2(7872):81–84. [PubMed]
  • Rappaport M, Hall KM, Hopkins K, Belleza T, Cope DN. Disability rating scale for severe head trauma: coma to community. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1982 Mar;63(3):118–123. [PubMed]
  • Collin C, Wade DT, Davies S, Horne V. The Barthel ADL Index: a reliability study. Int Disabil Stud. 1988;10(2):61–63. [PubMed]
  • Clifton GL, Hayes RL, Levin HS, Michel ME, Choi SC. Outcome measures for clinical trials involving traumatically brain-injured patients: report of a conference. Neurosurgery. 1992 Nov;31(5):975–978. [PubMed]
  • Kreutzer JS, Marwitz JH, Seel R, Serio CD. Validation of a neurobehavioral functioning inventory for adults with traumatic brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1996 Feb;77(2):116–124. [PubMed]
  • Jennett B, Snoek J, Bond MR, Brooks N. Disability after severe head injury: observations on the use of the Glasgow Outcome Scale. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1981 Apr;44(4):285–293. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • McCleary C, Satz P, Forney D, Light R, Zaucha K, Asarnow R, Namerow N. Depression after traumatic brain injury as a function of Glasgow Outcome Score. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 1998 Apr;20(2):270–279. [PubMed]
  • Satz P, Zaucha K, Forney DL, McCleary C, Asarnow RF, Light R, Levin H, Kelly D, Bergsneider M, Hovda D, et al. Neuropsychological, psychosocial and vocational correlates of the Glasgow Outcome Scale at 6 months post-injury: a study of moderate to severe traumatic brain injury patients. Brain Inj. 1998 Jul;12(7):555–567. [PubMed]
  • Smith-Knapp K, Corrigan JD, Arnett JA. Predicting functional independence from neuropsychological tests following traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj. 1996 Sep;10(9):651–661. [PubMed]
  • Girard D, Brown J, Burnett-Stolnack M, Hashimoto N, Hier-Wellmer S, Perlman OZ, Seigerman C. The relationship of neuropsychological status and productive outcomes following traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj. 1996 Sep;10(9):663–676. [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry are provided here courtesy of BMJ Group

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • Cited in Books
    Cited in Books
    PubMed Central articles cited in books
  • MedGen
    MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...