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Infect Immun. May 1995; 63(5): 1820–1826.
PMCID: PMC173230

Regulation of macrophage activation and human immunodeficiency virus production by invasive Salmonella strains.


Salmonellae possess the ability to adhere to and invade macrophages and in so doing trigger a number of intracellular events that are associated with cellular activation. As an initial approach to defining the mechanisms by which invasive salmonellae alter macrophage function, we have explored the impact of Salmonella infection on the production of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in U1 cells, a promonocytic cell line latently infected with the virus. Infection of U1 cells with a pathogenic strain of Salmonella enteritidis resulted in a marked induction of macrophage activation and HIV production. The stimulatory effect of salmonellae was mediated by signals other than lipopolysaccharide. Salmonella mutants with specific defects in invasion or intracellular survival were markedly less effective in the induction of HIV production. In contrast to S. enteritidis, strains of Yersinia enterocolitica, Legionella pneumophila, and Escherichia coli did not induce HIV production. However, all of these bacteria induced comparable levels of gene expression mediated by the HIV long terminal repeat. The results of this study are consistent with the notion that invasive salmonellae possess the ability to activate the macrophage by at least one mechanism that is not shared with several other species of gram-negative bacteria. Furthermore, the expression of this unique property is maximal with Salmonella strains that are not only invasive but also capable of prolonged survival within the macrophage. Our results indicate that the U1 cell line may be a very useful model system with which to examine the biochemical pathways by which internalized salmonellae modulate the activation state of the macrophage.

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Selected References

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