• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of jepicomhInstructions for authorsCurrent TOCJournal of Epidemiology and Community Health
J Epidemiol Community Health. May 2001; 55(5): 316–322.
PMCID: PMC1731895

Long working hours and risk for hypertension in Japanese male white collar workers

Abstract

STUDY OBJECTIVE—To evaluate the association of long working hours with the risk for hypertension.
DESIGN—A five year prospective cohort study.
SETTING—Work site in Osaka, Japan.
PARTICIPANTS—941 hypertension free Japanese male white collar workers aged 35-54 years were prospectively examined by serial annual health examinations. Men in whom borderline hypertension and hypertension were found during repeated surveys were defined as incidental cases of borderline hypertension and hypertension.
MAIN RESULTS—336 and 88 men developed hypertension above the borderline level and definite hypertension during the 3940 and 4531 person years, respectively. After controlling for potential predictors of hypertension, the relative risk for hypertension above the borderline level, compared with those who worked < 8.0 hours per day, was 0.63 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.43, 0.91) for those who worked 10.0-10.9 hours per day and 0.48 (95% CI: 0.31, 0.74) for those who worked [gt-or-equal, slanted] 11.0 hours per day. The relative risk for definite hypertension, compared with those who worked < 8.0 hours per day, was 0.33 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.95) for those who worked [gt-or-equal, slanted] 11.0 hours per day. The multivariate adjusted slopes of diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) during five years of follow up decreased as working hours per day increased. From the multiple regression analyses, working hours per day remained as an independent negative factor for the slopes of systolic blood pressure, DBP, and MABP.
CONCLUSIONS—These results indicate that long working hours are negatively associated with the risk for hypertension in Japanese male white collar workers.


Keywords: hypertension; longitudinal study; working hours

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (154K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Ono Y, Watanabe S, Kaneko S, Matsumoto K, Miyao M. Working hours and fatigue of Japanese flight attendants (FA). J Hum Ergol (Tokyo) 1991 Dec;20(2):155–164. [PubMed]
  • Proctor SP, White RF, Robins TG, Echeverria D, Rocskay AZ. Effect of overtime work on cognitive function in automotive workers. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1996 Apr;22(2):124–132. [PubMed]
  • Waersted M, Westgaard RH. Working hours as a risk factor in the development of musculoskeletal complaints. Ergonomics. 1991 Mar;34(3):265–276. [PubMed]
  • Cooper CL, Davidson MJ, Robinson P. Stress in the police service. J Occup Med. 1982 Jan;24(1):30–36. [PubMed]
  • Richardsen AM, Burke RJ. Occupational stress and job satisfaction among physicians: sex differences. Soc Sci Med. 1991;33(10):1179–1187. [PubMed]
  • Cooper CL, Roden J. Mental health and satisfaction among tax officers. Soc Sci Med. 1985;21(7):747–751. [PubMed]
  • Hurrell JJ, Jr, Lindström K. Comparison of job demands, control and psychosomatic complaints at different career stages of managers in Finland and the United States. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1992;18 (Suppl 2):11–13. [PubMed]
  • Watanabe S, Torii J, Shinkai S, Watanabe T. Relationships between health status and working conditions and personalities among VDT workers. Environ Res. 1993 May;61(2):258–265. [PubMed]
  • RUSSEK HI, ZOHMAN BL. Relative significance of heredity, diet and occupational stress in coronary heart disease of young adults; based on an analysis of 100 patients between the ages of 25 and 40 years and a similar group of 100 normal control subjects. Am J Med Sci. 1958 Mar;235(3):266–277. [PubMed]
  • BUELL P, BRESLOW L. Mortality from coronary heart disease in California men who work long hours. J Chronic Dis. 1960 Jun;11:615–626. [PubMed]
  • Uehata T. Long working hours and occupational stress-related cardiovascular attacks among middle-aged workers in Japan. J Hum Ergol (Tokyo) 1991 Dec;20(2):147–153. [PubMed]
  • Kageyama T, Nishikido N, Kobayashi T, Kurokawa Y, Kabuto M. Commuting, overtime, and cardiac autonomic activity in Tokyo. Lancet. 1997 Aug 30;350(9078):639–639. [PubMed]
  • Watson RD, Hamilton CA, Reid JL, Littler WA. Changes in plasma norepinephrine, blood pressure and heart rate during physical activity in hypertensive man. Hypertension. 1979 Jul-Aug;1(4):341–346. [PubMed]
  • Date C, Yamaguchi M, Tanaka H. Development of a food frequency questionnaire in Japan. J Epidemiol. 1996 Aug;6(3 Suppl):S131–S136. [PubMed]
  • Spurgeon A, Harrington JM, Cooper CL. Health and safety problems associated with long working hours: a review of the current position. Occup Environ Med. 1997 Jun;54(6):367–375. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hayashi T, Kobayashi Y, Yamaoka K, Yano E. Effect of overtime work on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure. J Occup Environ Med. 1996 Oct;38(10):1007–1011. [PubMed]
  • Sorensen G, Pirie P, Folsom A, Luepker R, Jacobs D, Gillum R. Sex differences in the relationship between work and health: the Minnesota Heart Survey. J Health Soc Behav. 1985 Dec;26(4):379–394. [PubMed]
  • Lindquist TL, Beilin LJ, Knuiman MW. Influence of lifestyle, coping, and job stress on blood pressure in men and women. Hypertension. 1997 Jan;29(1 Pt 1):1–7. [PubMed]
  • Bouchard C, Tremblay A, Leblanc C, Lortie G, Savard R, Thériault G. A method to assess energy expenditure in children and adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 1983 Mar;37(3):461–467. [PubMed]
  • Harrington JM. Working long hours and health. BMJ. 1994 Jun 18;308(6944):1581–1582. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kromhout D, Bosschieter EB, Coulander CD. Potassium, calcium, alcohol intake and blood pressure: the Zutphen Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1985 Jun;41(6):1299–1304. [PubMed]
  • Friedman GD, Selby JV, Quesenberry CP, Jr, Armstrong MA, Klatsky AL. Precursors of essential hypertension: body weight, alcohol and salt use, and parental history of hypertension. Prev Med. 1988 Jul;17(4):387–402. [PubMed]
  • Langford HG. Dietary potassium and hypertension: epidemiologic data. Ann Intern Med. 1983 May;98(5 Pt 2):770–772. [PubMed]
  • Hayashi T, Tsumura K, Suematsu C, Okada K, Fujii S, Endo G. Walking to work and the risk for hypertension in men: the Osaka Health Survey. Ann Intern Med. 1999 Jul 6;131(1):21–26. [PubMed]
  • Netterstrøm B, Kristensen TS, Damsgaard MT, Olsen O, Sjøl A. Job strain and cardiovascular risk factors: a cross sectional study of employed Danish men and women. Br J Ind Med. 1991 Oct;48(10):684–689. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kawakami N, Haratani T. Epidemiology of job stress and health in Japan: review of current evidence and future direction. Ind Health. 1999 Apr;37(2):174–186. [PubMed]
  • Johnson JV, Hall EM. Job strain, work place social support, and cardiovascular disease: a cross-sectional study of a random sample of the Swedish working population. Am J Public Health. 1988 Oct;78(10):1336–1342. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health are provided here courtesy of BMJ Group

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • MedGen
    MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...