Logo of cmrPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalCMR ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
Clin Microbiol Rev. Oct 1995; 8(4): 479–495.
PMCID: PMC172872

Identification, classification, and clinical relevance of catalase-negative, gram-positive cocci, excluding the streptococci and enterococci.


Several new genera and species of gram-positive, catalase-negative cocci that can cause infections in humans have been described. Although these bacteria were isolated in the clinical laboratory, they were considered nonpathogenic culture contaminants and were not thought to be the cause of any diseases. Isolation of pure cultures of these bacteria from normally sterile sites has led to the conclusion that these bacteria can be an infrequent cause of infection. This review describes the new bacteria and the procedures useful for clinical laboratories to aid in their identification. The clinical relevance and our experience with the various genera and species are reviewed and discussed.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (294K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Aguirre M, Collins MD. Phylogenetic analysis of Alloiococcus otitis gen. nov., sp. nov., an organism from human middle ear fluid. Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1992 Jan;42(1):79–83. [PubMed]
  • Aguirre M, Collins MD. Phylogenetic analysis of some Aerococcus-like organisms from urinary tract infections: description of Aerococcus urinae sp. nov. J Gen Microbiol. 1992 Feb;138(2):401–405. [PubMed]
  • Aguirre M, Collins MD. Development of a polymerase chain reaction test for specific identification of the urinary tract pathogen Aerococcus urinae. J Clin Microbiol. 1993 May;31(5):1350–1353. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Aguirre M, Collins MD. Lactic acid bacteria and human clinical infection. J Appl Bacteriol. 1993 Aug;75(2):95–107. [PubMed]
  • Aspevall O, Hillebrant E, Linderoth B, Rylander M. Meningitis due to Gemella haemolysans after neurosurgical treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. Scand J Infect Dis. 1991;23(4):503–505. [PubMed]
  • Barreau C, Wagener G. Characterization of Leuconostoc lactis strains from human sources. J Clin Microbiol. 1990 Aug;28(8):1728–1733. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Barry H, Clancy MT, Brady A, O'Higgins N. Isolation of a Leuconostoc species from a retroareolar breast abscess. J Infect. 1993 Sep;27(2):208–210. [PubMed]
  • Bell E, McCartney AC. Gemella morbillorum endocarditis in an intravenous drug abuser. J Infect. 1992 Jul;25(1):110–112. [PubMed]
  • Benkerroum N, Misbah M, Sandine WE, Elaraki AT. Development and use of a selective medium for isolation of Leuconostoc spp. from vegetables and dairy products. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1993 Feb;59(2):607–609. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Berger U. Prevalence of Gemella haemolysans on the pharyngeal mucosa of man. Med Microbiol Immunol. 1985;174(5):267–274. [PubMed]
  • Berger U, Pervanidis A. Differentiation of Gemella haemolysans (Thjøtta and Bøe 1938) Berger 1960, from Streptococcus morbillorum (Prevot 1933) Holdeman and Moore 1974. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg A. 1986 May;261(3):311–321. [PubMed]
  • Bernaldo de Quirós JC, Muñoz P, Cercenado E, Hernandez Sampelayo T, Moreno S, Bouza E. Leuconostoc species as a cause of bacteremia: two case reports and a literature review. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1991 Jun;10(6):505–509. [PubMed]
  • Betzl D, Ludwig W, Schleifer KH. Identification of lactococci and enterococci by colony hybridization with 23S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1990 Sep;56(9):2927–2929. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bosley GS, Wallace PL, Moss CW, Steigerwalt AG, Brenner DJ, Swenson JM, Hebert GA, Facklam RR. Phenotypic characterization, cellular fatty acid composition, and DNA relatedness of aerococci and comparison to related genera. J Clin Microbiol. 1990 Mar;28(3):416–421. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Brack MJ, Avery PG, Hubner PJ, Swann RA. Gemella haemolysans: a rare and unusual cause of infective endocarditis. Postgrad Med J. 1991 Feb;67(784):210–210. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bru P, Manuel C, Iacono C, Vaillant A, Malméjac C, Houël J. Indications et résultats de la chirurgie dans l'endocardite infectieuse sur valve native. A propos de 104 cas opérés. Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss. 1986 Jan;79(1):47–51. [PubMed]
  • Buu-Hoï A, Branger C, Acar JF. Vancomycin-resistant streptococci or Leuconostoc sp. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1985 Sep;28(3):458–460. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Buu-Hoï A, Sapoetra A, Branger C, Acar JF. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Gemella haemolysans isolated from patients with subacute endocarditis. Eur J Clin Microbiol. 1982 Apr;1(2):102–106. [PubMed]
  • Buu-Hoï A, Le Bouguénec C, Horaud T. Genetic basis of antibiotic resistance in Aerococcus viridans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1989 Apr;33(4):529–534. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cancilla MR, Powell IB, Hillier AJ, Davidson BE. Rapid genomic fingerprinting of Lactococcus lactis strains by arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction with 32P and fluorescent labels. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1992 May;58(5):1772–1775. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Christensen JJ, Gutschik E, Friis-Møller A, Korner B. Urosepticemia and fatal endocarditis caused by aerococcus-like organisms. Scand J Infect Dis. 1991;23(6):717–721. [PubMed]
  • Christensen JJ, Korner B, Kjaergaard H. Aerococcus-like organism--an unnoticed urinary tract pathogen. APMIS. 1989 Jun;97(6):539–546. [PubMed]
  • Christensen JJ, Vibits H, Ursing J, Korner B. Aerococcus-like organism, a newly recognized potential urinary tract pathogen. J Clin Microbiol. 1991 May;29(5):1049–1053. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Collins LA, Eliopoulos GM, Wennersten CB, Ferraro MJ, Moellering RC., Jr In vitro activity of ramoplanin against vancomycin-resistant gram-positive organisms. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1993 Jun;37(6):1364–1366. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Collins MD, Aguirre M, Facklam RR, Shallcross J, Williams AM. Globicatella sanguis gen.nov., sp.nov., a new gram-positive catalase-negative bacterium from human sources. J Appl Bacteriol. 1992 Nov;73(5):433–437. [PubMed]
  • Collins MD, Facklam RR, Rodrigues UM, Ruoff KL. Phylogenetic analysis of some Aerococcus-like organisms from clinical sources: description of Helcococcus kunzii gen. nov., sp. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1993 Jul;43(3):425–429. [PubMed]
  • Collins MD, Farrow JA, Phillips BA, Kandler O. Streptococcus garvieae sp. nov. and Streptococcus plantarum sp. nov. J Gen Microbiol. 1983 Nov;129(11):3427–3431. [PubMed]
  • Collins MD, Samelis J, Metaxopoulos J, Wallbanks S. Taxonomic studies on some leuconostoc-like organisms from fermented sausages: description of a new genus Weissella for the Leuconostoc paramesenteroides group of species. J Appl Bacteriol. 1993 Dec;75(6):595–603. [PubMed]
  • Collins MD, Williams AM, Wallbanks S. The phylogeny of Aerococcus and Pediococcus as determined by 16S rRNA sequence analysis: description of Tetragenococcus gen. nov. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1990 Aug;58(3):255–262. [PubMed]
  • Colman G. Aerococcus-like organisms isolated from human infections. J Clin Pathol. 1967 May;20(3):294–297. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Colman G, Ball LC. Identification of streptococci in a medical laboratory. J Appl Bacteriol. 1984 Aug;57(1):1–14. [PubMed]
  • Colman G, Efstratiou A. Vancomycin-resistant leuconostocs, lactobacilli and now pediococci. J Hosp Infect. 1987 Jul;10(1):1–3. [PubMed]
  • Coovadia YM, Solwa Z, van den Ende J. Meningitis caused by vancomycin-resistant Leuconostoc sp. J Clin Microbiol. 1987 Sep;25(9):1784–1785. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Coovadia YM, Solwa Z, van Den Ende J. Potential pathogenicity of Leuconostoc. Lancet. 1988 Feb 6;1(8580):306–306. [PubMed]
  • Corcoran GD, Gibbons N, Mulvihill TE. Septicaemia caused by Pediococcus pentosaceus: a new opportunistic pathogen. J Infect. 1991 Sep;23(2):179–182. [PubMed]
  • Debast SB, Koot R, Meis JF. Infections caused by Gemella morbillorum. Lancet. 1993 Aug 28;342(8870):560–560. [PubMed]
  • DEIBEL RH, NIVEN CF., Jr Comparative study of Gaffkya homari, Aerococcus viridans, tetrad-forming cocci from meat curing brines, and the genus Pediococcus. J Bacteriol. 1960 Feb;79:175–180. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dyas A, Chauhan N. Vancomycin-resistant Leuconostoc. Lancet. 1988 Feb 6;1(8580):306–306. [PubMed]
  • Dykes G, von Holy A. Taxonomy of lactic acid bacteria from spoiled, vacuum packaged vienna sausages by total soluble protein profiles. J Basic Microbiol. 1993;33(3):169–177. [PubMed]
  • Elliott JA, Collins MD, Pigott NE, Facklam RR. Differentiation of Lactococcus lactis and Lactococcus garvieae from humans by comparison of whole-cell protein patterns. J Clin Microbiol. 1991 Dec;29(12):2731–2734. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Elliott JA, Facklam RR. Identification of Leuconostoc spp. by analysis of soluble whole-cell protein patterns. J Clin Microbiol. 1993 May;31(5):1030–1033. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Evans JB, Kerbaugh MA. Recognition of Aerococcus viridans by the clinical microbiologist. Health Lab Sci. 1970 Apr;7(2):76–77. [PubMed]
  • Facklam R, Bosley GS, Rhoden D, Franklin AR, Weaver N, Schulman R. Comparative evaluation of the API 20S and AutoMicrobic gram-positive identification systems for non-beta-hemolytic streptococci and aerococci. J Clin Microbiol. 1985 Apr;21(4):535–541. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Facklam RR. Comparison of several laboratory media for presumptive identification of enterococci and group D streptococci. Appl Microbiol. 1973 Aug;26(2):138–145. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Facklam RR, Collins MD. Identification of Enterococcus species isolated from human infections by a conventional test scheme. J Clin Microbiol. 1989 Apr;27(4):731–734. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Facklam R, Hollis D, Collins MD. Identification of gram-positive coccal and coccobacillary vancomycin-resistant bacteria. J Clin Microbiol. 1989 Apr;27(4):724–730. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Facklam RR, Rhoden DL, Smith PB. Evaluation of the Rapid Strep system for the identification of clinical isolates of Streptococcus species. J Clin Microbiol. 1984 Nov;20(5):894–898. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Faden H, Dryja D. Recovery of a unique bacterial organism in human middle ear fluid and its possible role in chronic otitis media. J Clin Microbiol. 1989 Nov;27(11):2488–2491. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fertally SS, Facklam R. Comparison of physiologic tests used to identify non-beta-hemolytic aerococci, enterococci, and streptococci. J Clin Microbiol. 1987 Oct;25(10):1845–1850. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Freney J, Bland S, Etienne J, Desmonceaux M, Boeufgras JM, Fleurette J. Description and evaluation of the semiautomated 4-hour rapid ID 32 Strep method for identification of streptococci and members of related genera. J Clin Microbiol. 1992 Oct;30(10):2657–2661. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Frésard A, Michel VP, Rueda X, Aubert G, Dorche G, Lucht F. Gemella haemolysans endocarditis. Clin Infect Dis. 1993 Apr;16(4):586–587. [PubMed]
  • Friedland IR, Snipelisky M, Khoosal M. Meningitis in a neonate caused by Leuconostoc sp. J Clin Microbiol. 1990 Sep;28(9):2125–2126. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Garver KI, Muriana PM. Detection, identification and characterization of bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria from retail food products. Int J Food Microbiol. 1993 Sep;19(4):241–258. [PubMed]
  • Giacometti A, Ranaldi R, Siquini FM, Scalise G. Leuconostoc citreum isolated from lung in AIDS patient. Lancet. 1993 Sep 4;342(8871):622–622. [PubMed]
  • Giraud P, Attal M, Lemouzy J, Huguet F, Schlaifer D, Pris J. Leuconostoc, a potential pathogen in bone marrow transplantation. Lancet. 1993 Jun 5;341(8858):1481–1482. [PubMed]
  • Golledge CL. Infection due to Leuconostoc species. Rev Infect Dis. 1991 Jan-Feb;13(1):184–185. [PubMed]
  • Golledge CL, Stingemore N, Aravena M, Joske D. Septicemia caused by vancomycin-resistant Pediococcus acidilactici. J Clin Microbiol. 1990 Jul;28(7):1678–1679. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gordon DB, DeGirolami PC, Bolivar S, Karafotias G, Eichelberger K. A comparison of the identification of group A streptococci and enterococci by two rapid pyrrolidonyl aminopeptidase methods. Am J Clin Pathol. 1988 Aug;90(2):210–212. [PubMed]
  • Grant KA, Dickinson JH, Collins MD, Kroll RG. Rapid identification of Aerococcus viridans using the polymerase chain reaction and an oligonucleotide probe. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1992 Aug 1;74(1):63–69. [PubMed]
  • Green M, Wadowsky RM, Barbadora K. Recovery of vancomycin-resistant gram-positive cocci from children. J Clin Microbiol. 1990 Mar;28(3):484–488. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Handwerger S, Horowitz H, Coburn K, Kolokathis A, Wormser GP. Infection due to Leuconostoc species: six cases and review. Rev Infect Dis. 1990 Jul-Aug;12(4):602–610. [PubMed]
  • Hardy S, Ruoff KL, Catlin EA, Ignacio Santos J. Catheter-associated infection with a vancomycin-resistant gram-positive coccus of the Leuconostoc sp. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1988 Jul;7(7):519–520. [PubMed]
  • Horowitz HW, Handwerger S, van Horn KG, Wormser GP. Leuconostoc, an emerging vancomycin-resistant pathogen. Lancet. 1987 Dec 5;2(8571):1329–1330. [PubMed]
  • Idika N, Lawal SF, Odugbemi T, Cocker HA. Occurrence of Leuconostoc mesenteroides and leuconostoc-like organisms in Lagos, Nigeria. East Afr Med J. 1991 Dec;68(12):969–974. [PubMed]
  • Isenberg HD, Vellozzi EM, Shapiro J, Rubin LG. Clinical laboratory challenges in the recognition of Leuconostoc spp. J Clin Microbiol. 1988 Mar;26(3):479–483. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Janosek J, Eckert J, Hudác A. Aerococcus viridans as a causative agent of infectious endocarditis. J Hyg Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol. 1980;24(1):92–96. [PubMed]
  • Jarvis AW, Jarvis BD. Deoxyribonucleic Acid homology among lactic streptococci. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1981 Jan;41(1):77–83. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kaufhold A, Franzen D, Lütticken R. Endocarditis caused by Gemella haemolysans. Infection. 1989 Nov-Dec;17(6):385–387. [PubMed]
  • Kerbaugh MA, Evans JB. Aerococcus viridans in the hospital environment. Appl Microbiol. 1968 Mar;16(3):519–523. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kern W, Vanek E. Aerococcus bacteremia associated with granulocytopenia. Eur J Clin Microbiol. 1987 Dec;6(6):670–673. [PubMed]
  • Klijn N, Weerkamp AH, de Vos WM. Identification of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria by using polymerase chain reaction-amplified variable regions of 16S rRNA and specific DNA probes. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1991 Nov;57(11):3390–3393. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Köhler G, Ludwig W, Schleifer KH. Differentiation of lactococci by rRNA gene restriction analysis. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1991 Dec 1;68(3):307–312. [PubMed]
  • Ling ML. Leuconostoc bacteraemia. Singapore Med J. 1992 Jun;33(3):241–243. [PubMed]
  • Lütticken R, Kunstmann G. Vancomycin-resistant Streptococcaceae from clinical material. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg A. 1988 Jan;267(3):379–382. [PubMed]
  • Mackey T, Lejeune V, Janssens M, Wauters G. Identification of vancomycin-resistant lactic bacteria isolated from humans. J Clin Microbiol. 1993 Sep;31(9):2499–2501. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mannion PT, Rothburn MM. Diagnosis of bacterial endocarditis caused by Streptococcus lactis and assisted by immunoblotting of serum antibodies. J Infect. 1990 Nov;21(3):317–318. [PubMed]
  • Martinez-Murcia AJ, Collins MD. A phylogenetic analysis of the genus Leuconostoc based on reverse transcriptase sequencing of 16 S rRNA. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1990 Jun 15;58(1):73–83. [PubMed]
  • Martinez-Murcia AJ, Collins MD. A phylogenetic analysis of an atypical leuconostoc: description of Leuconostoc fallax sp. nov. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1991 Jul 15;66(1):55–59. [PubMed]
  • Martinez-Murcia AJ, Harland NM, Collins MD. Phylogenetic analysis of some leuconostocs and related organisms as determined from large-subunit rRNA gene sequences: assessment of congruence of small- and large-subunit rRNA derived trees. J Appl Bacteriol. 1993 May;74(5):532–541. [PubMed]
  • Mastro TD, Spika JS, Lozano P, Appel J, Facklam RR. Vancomycin-resistant Pediococcus acidilactici: nine cases of bacteremia. J Infect Dis. 1990 May;161(5):956–960. [PubMed]
  • Matthews HW, Baker CN, Thornsberry C. Relationship between in vitro susceptibility test results for chloramphenicol and production of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase by Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Aerococcus species. J Clin Microbiol. 1988 Nov;26(11):2387–2390. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Maugein J, Crouzit P, Cony Makhoul P, Fourche J. Characterization and antibiotic susceptibility of Pediococcus acidilactici strains isolated from neutropenic patients. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1992 Apr;11(4):383–385. [PubMed]
  • Maxwell S. Endocarditis due to Streptococcus morbillorum. J Infect. 1989 Jan;18(1):67–72. [PubMed]
  • May T, Amiel C, Lion C, Weber M, Gerard A, Canton P. Meningitis due to Gemella haemolysans. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1993 Aug;12(8):644–645. [PubMed]
  • Mitchell RG, Teddy PJ. Meningitis due to Gemella haemolysans after radiofrequency trigeminal rhizotomy. J Clin Pathol. 1985 May;38(5):558–560. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Morea P, Toni M, Bressan M, Stritoni P. Prosthetic valve endocarditis by Gemella haemolysans. Infection. 1991 Nov-Dec;19(6):446–446. [PubMed]
  • Mundt JO, Beattie WG, Wieland FR. Pediococci residing on plants. J Bacteriol. 1969 Jun;98(3):938–942. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nakel M, Ghuysen JM, Kandler O. Wall peptidoglycan in Aerococcus viridans strains 201 Evans and ATCC 11563 and in Gaffkya homari strain ATCC 10400. Biochemistry. 1971 May 25;10(11):2170–2175. [PubMed]
  • Nathavitharana KA, Arseculeratne SN, Aponso HA, Vijeratnam R, Jayasena L, Navaratnam C. Acute meningitis in early childhood caused by Aerococcus viridans. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1983 Apr 16;286(6373):1248–1248. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Noriega FR, Kotloff KL, Martin MA, Schwalbe RS. Nosocomial bacteremia caused by Enterobacter sakazakiki and Leuconostoc mesenteroides resulting from extrinsic contamination of infant formula. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1990 Jun;9(6):447–449. [PubMed]
  • Limas Nzouzi N, Guerin MF, Hayes DH. Comparison of electrophoretic distribution patterns of ribosomal RNA gene restriction fragments and of ribosomal subunit proteins of Lactococci, Streptococci, and Pediococci. Biochimie. 1992 Nov;74(11):1007–1017. [PubMed]
  • Omran Y, Wood CA. Endovascular infection and septic arthritis caused by Gemella morbillorum. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 1993 Feb;16(2):131–134. [PubMed]
  • Orberg PK, Sandine WE. Survey of antimicrobial resistance in lactic streptococci. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1985 Mar;49(3):538–542. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Park JW, Grossman O. Aerococcus viridans infection. Case report and review. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 1990 Sep;29(9):525–526. [PubMed]
  • Parker MT, Ball LC. Streptococci and aerococci associated with systemic infection in man. J Med Microbiol. 1976 Aug;9(3):275–302. [PubMed]
  • PEDERSON CS. The genus Pediococcus. Bacteriol Rev. 1949 Dec;13(4):225–232. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Peters VB, Bottone EJ, Barzilai A, Hyatt AC, Blank S, Hodes DS. Leuconostoc species bacteremia in a child with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 1992 Nov;31(11):699–701. [PubMed]
  • Pien FD, Wilson WR, Kunz K, Washington JA., 2nd Aerococcus viridans endocarditis. Mayo Clin Proc. 1984 Jan;59(1):47–48. [PubMed]
  • Raccach M. Pediococci and biotechnology. Crit Rev Microbiol. 1987;14(4):291–309. [PubMed]
  • Riebel WJ, Washington JA. Clinical and microbiologic characteristics of pediococci. J Clin Microbiol. 1990 Jun;28(6):1348–1355. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Rodrigues UM, Aguirre M, Facklam RR, Collins MD. Specific and intraspecific molecular typing of lactococci based on polymorphism of DNA encoding rRNA. J Appl Bacteriol. 1991 Dec;71(6):509–516. [PubMed]
  • Rubin LG, Vellozzi E, Shapiro J, Isenberg HD. Infection with vancomycin-resistant "streptococci" due to Leuconostoc species. J Infect Dis. 1988 Jan;157(1):216–216. [PubMed]
  • Ruoff KL, Kuritzkes DR, Wolfson JS, Ferraro MJ. Vancomycin-resistant gram-positive bacteria isolated from human sources. J Clin Microbiol. 1988 Oct;26(10):2064–2068. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Salama M, Sandine W, Giovannoni S. Development and application of oligonucleotide probes for identification of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1991 May;57(5):1313–1318. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sire JM, Donnio PY, Mesnard R, Pouëdras P, Avril JL. Septicemia and hepatic abscess caused by Pediococcus acidilactici. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1992 Jul;11(7):623–625. [PubMed]
  • Steenbergen JF, Kimball HS, Low DA, Schapiro HC, Phelps LN. Serological grouping of virulent and avirulent strains of the lobster pathogen Aerococcus viridans. J Gen Microbiol. 1977 Apr;99(2):425–430. [PubMed]
  • Swenson JM, Facklam RR, Thornsberry C. Antimicrobial susceptibility of vancomycin-resistant Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, and Lactobacillus species. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1990 Apr;34(4):543–549. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Stein GE, Mummaw N. Placebo-controlled trial of itraconazole for treatment of acute vaginal candidiasis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1993 Jan;37(1):89–92. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tanskanen EI, Tulloch DL, Hillier AJ, Davidson BE. Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis of SmaI Digests of Lactococcal Genomic DNA, a Novel Method of Strain Identification. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1990 Oct;56(10):3105–3111. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Taylor PW, Trueblood MC. Septic arthritis due to Aerococcus viridans. J Rheumatol. 1985 Oct;12(5):1004–1005. [PubMed]
  • Untereker WJ, Hanna BA. Endocarditis and osteomyelitis caused by Aerococcus viridans. Mt Sinai J Med. 1976 May-Jun;43(3):248–252. [PubMed]
  • Uttley AH, Collins CH, Naidoo J, George RC. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Lancet. 1988 Jan 2;1(8575-6):57–58. [PubMed]
  • von Essen R, Ikävalko M, Forsblom B. Isolation of Gemella morbillorum from joint fluid. Lancet. 1993 Jul 17;342(8864):177–178. [PubMed]
  • Wallbanks S, Martinez-Murcia AJ, Fryer JL, Phillips BA, Collins MD. 16S rRNA sequence determination for members of the genus Carnobacterium and related lactic acid bacteria and description of Vagococcus salmoninarum sp. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1990 Jul;40(3):224–230. [PubMed]
  • Wenocur HS, Smith MA, Vellozzi EM, Shapiro J, Isenberg HD. Odontogenic infection secondary to Leuconostoc species. J Clin Microbiol. 1988 Sep;26(9):1893–1894. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Whitney AM, O'Connor SP. Phylogenetic relationship of Gemella morbillorum to Gemella haemolysans. Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1993 Oct;43(4):832–838. [PubMed]
  • WILLIAMS RE, HIRCH A, COWAN ST. Aerococcus, a new bacterial genus. J Gen Microbiol. 1953 Jun;8(3):475–480. [PubMed]
  • Wong JD. Porphyrin test as an alternative to benzidine test for detecting cytochromes in catalase-negative gram-positive cocci. J Clin Microbiol. 1987 Oct;25(10):2006–2007. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • WOOD HF, JACOBS K, McCARTY M. Streptococcus lactis isolated from a patient with subacute bacterial endocarditis. Am J Med. 1955 Feb;18(2):345–347. [PubMed]
  • Yamane N, Jones RN. In vitro activity of 43 antimicrobial agents tested against ampicillin-resistant enterococci and gram-positive species resistant to vancomycin. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 1991 Jul-Aug;14(4):337–345. [PubMed]
  • You MS, Facklam RR. New test system for identification of Aerococcus, Enterococcus, and Streptococcus species. J Clin Microbiol. 1986 Oct;24(4):607–611. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Clinical Microbiology Reviews are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...