• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of cmrPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalCMR ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
Clin Microbiol Rev. Jan 1995; 8(1): 48–86.
PMCID: PMC172849

Cholera.

Abstract

Despite more than a century of study, cholera still presents challenges and surprises to us. Throughout most of the 20th century, cholera was caused by Vibrio cholerae of the O1 serogroup and the disease was largely confined to Asia and Africa. However, the last decade of the 20th century has witnessed two major developments in the history of this disease. In 1991, a massive outbreak of cholera started in South America, the one continent previously untouched by cholera in this century. In 1992, an apparently new pandemic caused by a previously unknown serogroup of V. cholerae (O139) began in India and Bangladesh. The O139 epidemic has been occurring in populations assumed to be largely immune to V. cholerae O1 and has rapidly spread to many countries including the United States. In this review, we discuss all aspects of cholera, including the clinical microbiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical features of the disease. Special attention will be paid to the extraordinary advances that have been made in recent years in unravelling the molecular pathogenesis of this infection and in the development of new generations of vaccines to prevent it.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (674K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Abbott SL, Janda JM. Rapid detection of acute cholera in airline passengers by coagglutination assay. J Infect Dis. 1993 Sep;168(3):797–799. [PubMed]
  • Large epidemic of cholera-like disease in Bangladesh caused by Vibrio cholerae O139 synonym Bengal. Cholera Working Group, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, Bangladesh. Lancet. 1993 Aug 14;342(8868):387–390. [PubMed]
  • Albert MJ, Siddique AK, Islam MS, Faruque AS, Ansaruzzaman M, Faruque SM, Sack RB. Large outbreak of clinical cholera due to Vibrio cholerae non-O1 in Bangladesh. Lancet. 1993 Mar 13;341(8846):704–704. [PubMed]
  • Alm RA, Manning PA. Biotype-specific probe for Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1. J Clin Microbiol. 1990 Apr;28(4):823–824. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Alm RA, Stroeher UH, Manning PA. Extracellular proteins of Vibrio cholerae: nucleotide sequence of the structural gene (hlyA) for the haemolysin of the haemolytic El Tor strain 017 and characterization of the hlyA mutation in the non-haemolytic classical strain 569B. Mol Microbiol. 1988 Jul;2(4):481–488. [PubMed]
  • Almeida RJ, Hickman-Brenner FW, Sowers EG, Puhr ND, Farmer JJ, 3rd, Wachsmuth IK. Comparison of a latex agglutination assay and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting cholera toxin. J Clin Microbiol. 1990 Jan;28(1):128–130. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Apter FM, Michetti P, Winner LS, 3rd, Mack JA, Mekalanos JJ, Neutra MR. Analysis of the roles of antilipopolysaccharide and anti-cholera toxin immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies in protection against Vibrio cholerae and cholera toxin by use of monoclonal IgA antibodies in vivo. Infect Immun. 1993 Dec;61(12):5279–5285. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Attridge SR, Dearlove C, Beyer L, van den Bosch L, Howles A, Hackett J, Morona R, LaBrooy J, Rowley D. Characterization and immunogenicity of EX880, a Salmonella typhi Ty21a-based clone which produces Vibrio cholerae O antigen. Infect Immun. 1991 Jul;59(7):2279–2284. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Attridge SR, Rowley D. The role of the flagellum in the adherence of Vibrio cholerae. J Infect Dis. 1983 May;147(5):864–872. [PubMed]
  • Attridge SR, Rowley D. The specificity of Vibrio cholerae adherence and the significance of the slime agglutinin as a second mediator of in vitro attachment. J Infect Dis. 1983 May;147(5):873–881. [PubMed]
  • Azurin JC, Kobari K, Barua D, Alvero M, Gomez CZ, Dizon JJ, Nakano EI, Suplido R, Ledesma L. A long-term carrier of cholera: cholera Dolores. Bull World Health Organ. 1967;37(5):745–749. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bagchi K, Echeverria P, Arthur JD, Sethabutr O, Serichantalergs O, Hoge CW. Epidemic of diarrhea caused by Vibrio cholerae non-O1 that produced heat-stable toxin among Khmers in a camp in Thailand. J Clin Microbiol. 1993 May;31(5):1315–1317. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Baine WB, Mazzotti M, Greco D, Izzo E, Zampieri A, Angioni G, Di Gioia M, Gangarosa EJ, Pocchiari F. Epidemiology of cholera in Italy in 1973. Lancet. 1974 Dec 7;2(7893):1370–1374. [PubMed]
  • Barrett TJ, Blake PA. Epidemiological usefulness of changes in hemolytic activity of Vibrio cholerae biotype El Tor during the seventh pandemic. J Clin Microbiol. 1981 Jan;13(1):126–129. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bartowsky EJ, Attridge SR, Thomas CJ, Mayrhofer G, Manning PA. Role of the P plasmid in attenuation of Vibrio cholerae O1. Infect Immun. 1990 Sep;58(9):3129–3134. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Baselski V, Briggs R, Parker C. Intestinal fluid accumulation induced by oral challenge with Vibrio cholerae or cholera toxin in infant mice. Infect Immun. 1977 Mar;15(3):704–712. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Baudry B, Fasano A, Ketley J, Kaper JB. Cloning of a gene (zot) encoding a new toxin produced by Vibrio cholerae. Infect Immun. 1992 Feb;60(2):428–434. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bear CE, Li CH, Kartner N, Bridges RJ, Jensen TJ, Ramjeesingh M, Riordan JR. Purification and functional reconstitution of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Cell. 1992 Feb 21;68(4):809–818. [PubMed]
  • Benenson AS, Saad A, Mosley WH, Ahmed A. Serological studies in cholera. 3. Serum toxin neutralization--rise in titre in response to infection with Vibrio cholerae, and the level in the "normal" population of East Pakistan. Bull World Health Organ. 1968;38(2):287–295. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bennett A. Cholera and prostaglandins. Nature. 1971 Jun 25;231(5304):536–536. [PubMed]
  • Berschneider HM, Knowles MR, Azizkhan RG, Boucher RC, Tobey NA, Orlando RC, Powell DW. Altered intestinal chloride transport in cystic fibrosis. FASEB J. 1988 Jul;2(10):2625–2629. [PubMed]
  • Beubler E, Kollar G, Saria A, Bukhave K, Rask-Madsen J. Involvement of 5-hydroxytryptamine, prostaglandin E2, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate in cholera toxin-induced fluid secretion in the small intestine of the rat in vivo. Gastroenterology. 1989 Feb;96(2 Pt 1):368–376. [PubMed]
  • Bhattacharya SK, Bhattacharya MK, Nair GB, Dutta D, Deb A, Ramamurthy T, Garg S, Saha PK, Dutta P, Moitra A, et al. Clinical profile of acute diarrhoea cases infected with the new epidemic strain of Vibrio cholerae O139: designation of the disease as cholera. J Infect. 1993 Jul;27(1):11–15. [PubMed]
  • Black RE. The prophylaxis and therapy of secretory diarrhea. Med Clin North Am. 1982 May;66(3):611–621. [PubMed]
  • Blake PA, Allegra DT, Snyder JD, Barrett TJ, McFarland L, Caraway CT, Feeley JC, Craig JP, Lee JV, Puhr ND, et al. Cholera--a possible endemic focus in the United States. N Engl J Med. 1980 Feb 7;302(6):305–309. [PubMed]
  • Bornside GH. Jaime Ferran and preventive inoculation against cholera. Bull Hist Med. 1981 Winter;55(4):516–532. [PubMed]
  • Brayton PR, Tamplin ML, Huq A, Colwell RR. Enumeration of Vibrio cholerae O1 in Bangladesh waters by fluorescent-antibody direct viable count. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1987 Dec;53(12):2862–2865. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Brenner DJ, Davis BR, Kudoh Y, Ohashi M, Sakazaki R, Shimada T, Smith HL., Jr Serological comparison of two collections of Vibrio cholerae non O1. J Clin Microbiol. 1982 Aug;16(2):319–323. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bromander A, Holmgren J, Lycke N. Cholera toxin stimulates IL-1 production and enhances antigen presentation by macrophages in vitro. J Immunol. 1991 May 1;146(9):2908–2914. [PubMed]
  • Butterton JR, Stoebner JA, Payne SM, Calderwood SB. Cloning, sequencing, and transcriptional regulation of viuA, the gene encoding the ferric vibriobactin receptor of Vibrio cholerae. J Bacteriol. 1992 Jun;174(11):3729–3738. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Calderwood SB, Mekalanos JJ. Iron regulation of Shiga-like toxin expression in Escherichia coli is mediated by the fur locus. J Bacteriol. 1987 Oct;169(10):4759–4764. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cash RA, Music SI, Libonati JP, Snyder MJ, Wenzel RP, Hornick RB. Response of man to infection with Vibrio cholerae. I. Clinical, serologic, and bacteriologic responses to a known inoculum. J Infect Dis. 1974 Jan;129(1):45–52. [PubMed]
  • Cassel D, Selinger Z. Mechanism of adenylate cyclase activation by cholera toxin: inhibition of GTP hydrolysis at the regulatory site. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977 Aug;74(8):3307–3311. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cassuto J, Fahrenkrug J, Jodal M, Tuttle R, Lundgren O. Release of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide from the cat small intestine exposed to cholera toxin. Gut. 1981 Nov;22(11):958–963. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cassuto J, Jodal M, Lundgren O. The effect of nicotinic and muscarinic receptor blockade on cholera toxin induced intestinal secretion in rats and cats. Acta Physiol Scand. 1982 Apr;114(4):573–577. [PubMed]
  • Cassuto J, Jodal M, Tuttle R, Lundgren O. On the role of intramural nerves in the pathogenesis of cholera toxin-induced intestinal secretion. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1981 Apr;16(3):377–384. [PubMed]
  • Cassuto J, Siewert A, Jodal M, Lundgren O. The involvement of intramural nerves in cholera toxin induced intestinal secretion. Acta Physiol Scand. 1983 Feb;117(2):195–202. [PubMed]
  • Chaicumpa W, Atthasisiha N. Study of intestinal immunity against V. cholerae: role of antibody to V. cholerae haemagglutinin in intestinal immunity. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1977 Mar;8(1):13–18. [PubMed]
  • Chaicumpa W, Boonthum A, Kalumbaheti T, Tapchaisri P. Cell-bound haemagglutinin (CHA) of V. cholerae 01 as protective antigen. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1984 Sep;15(3):407–413. [PubMed]
  • Chattopadhyay DJ, Sarkar BL, Ansari MQ, Chakrabarti BK, Roy MK, Ghosh AN, Pal SC. New phage typing scheme for Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor strains. J Clin Microbiol. 1993 Jun;31(6):1579–1585. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Chitnis DS, Sharma KD, Kamat RS. Role of somatic antigen of Vibrio cholerae in adhesion to intestinal mucosa. J Med Microbiol. 1982 Feb;15(1):53–61. [PubMed]
  • Chongsa-nguan M, Chaicumpa W, Moolasart P, Kandhasingha P, Shimada T, Kurazono H, Takeda Y. Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal in Bangkok. Lancet. 1993 Aug 14;342(8868):430–431. [PubMed]
  • Clemens JD, Sack DA, Harris JR, Chakraborty J, Khan MR, Huda S, Ahmed F, Gomes J, Rao MR, Svennerholm AM, et al. ABO blood groups and cholera: new observations on specificity of risk and modification of vaccine efficacy. J Infect Dis. 1989 Apr;159(4):770–773. [PubMed]
  • Clemens JD, Sack DA, Harris JR, Chakraborty J, Khan MR, Stanton BF, Kay BA, Khan MU, Yunus M, Atkinson W, et al. Field trial of oral cholera vaccines in Bangladesh. Lancet. 1986 Jul 19;2(8499):124–127. [PubMed]
  • Clemens JD, Sack DA, Harris JR, Chakraborty J, Neogy PK, Stanton B, Huda N, Khan MU, Kay BA, Khan MR, et al. Cross-protection by B subunit-whole cell cholera vaccine against diarrhea associated with heat-labile toxin-producing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: results of a large-scale field trial. J Infect Dis. 1988 Aug;158(2):372–377. [PubMed]
  • Clemens JD, Sack DA, Harris JR, Khan MR, Chakraborty J, Chowdhury S, Rao MR, van Loon FP, Stanton BF, Yunus M, et al. Breast feeding and the risk of severe cholera in rural Bangladeshi children. Am J Epidemiol. 1990 Mar;131(3):400–411. [PubMed]
  • Clemens JD, van Loon F, Sack DA, Rao MR, Ahmed F, ChakrabortY J, Kay BA, Khan MR, Yunus MD, Harris JR, et al. Biotype as determinant of natural immunising effect of cholera. Lancet. 1991 Apr 13;337(8746):883–884. [PubMed]
  • Clements JD, El-Morshidy S. Construction of a potential live oral bivalent vaccine for typhoid fever and cholera-Escherichia coli-related diarrheas. Infect Immun. 1984 Nov;46(2):564–569. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Clements ML, Levine MM, Young CR, Black RE, Lim YL, Robins-Browne RM, Craig JP. Magnitude, kinetics, and duration of vibriocidal antibody responses in North Americans after ingestion of Vibrio cholerae. J Infect Dis. 1982 Apr;145(4):465–473. [PubMed]
  • Cohen J, Schwartz T, Klasmer R, Pridan D, Ghalayini H, Davies AM. Epidemiological aspects of cholera El Tor outbreak in a non-endemic area. Lancet. 1971 Jul 10;2(7715):86–89. [PubMed]
  • Colwell RR, Hasan JA, Huq A, Loomis L, Siebeling RJ, Torres M, Galvez S, Islam S, Tamplin MT, Bernstein D. Development and evaluation of a rapid, simple, sensitive, monoclonal antibody-based co-agglutination test for direct detection of Vibrio cholerae 01. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1992 Oct 15;76(3):215–219. [PubMed]
  • Colwell RR, Kaper J, Joseph SW. Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and other vibrios: occurrence and distribution in Chesapeake Bay. Science. 1977 Oct 28;198(4315):394–396. [PubMed]
  • Cook WL, Wachsmuth K, Johnson SR, Birkness KA, Samadi AR. Persistence of plasmids, cholera toxin genes, and prophage DNA in classical Vibrio cholerae O1. Infect Immun. 1984 Jul;45(1):222–226. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cray WC, Jr, Tokunaga E, Pierce NF. Successful colonization and immunization of adult rabbits by oral inoculation with Vibrio cholerae O1. Infect Immun. 1983 Aug;41(2):735–741. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cryz SJ, Jr, Levine MM, Kaper JB, Fürer E, Althaus B. Randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of the live oral cholera vaccine strain CVD 103-HgR in Swiss adults. Vaccine. 1990 Dec;8(6):577–580. [PubMed]
  • Czerkinsky C, Russell MW, Lycke N, Lindblad M, Holmgren J. Oral administration of a streptococcal antigen coupled to cholera toxin B subunit evokes strong antibody responses in salivary glands and extramucosal tissues. Infect Immun. 1989 Apr;57(4):1072–1077. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • DE SN. Enterotoxicity of bacteria-free culture-filtrate of Vibrio cholerae. Nature. 1959 May 30;183(4674):1533–1534. [PubMed]
  • Deb BC, Sircar BK, Sengupta PG, De SP, Mondal SK, Gupta DN, Saha NC, Ghosh S, Mitra U, Pal SC. Studies on interventions to prevent eltor cholera transmission in urban slums. Bull World Health Organ. 1986;64(1):127–131. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • DePaola A, Capers GM, Motes ML, Olsvik O, Fields PI, Wells J, Wachsmuth IK, Cebula TA, Koch WH, Khambaty F, et al. Isolation of Latin American epidemic strain of Vibrio cholerae O1 from US Gulf Coast. Lancet. 1992 Mar 7;339(8793):624–624. [PubMed]
  • Dertzbaugh MT, Peterson DL, Macrina FL. Cholera toxin B-subunit gene fusion: structural and functional analysis of the chimeric protein. Infect Immun. 1990 Jan;58(1):70–79. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Desmarchelier PM, Momen H, Salles CA. A zymovar analysis of Vibrio cholerae isolated in Australia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1988;82(6):914–917. [PubMed]
  • Desmarchelier PM, Senn CR. A molecular epidemiological study of Vibrio cholerae in Australia. Med J Aust. 1989 Jun 5;150(11):631–634. [PubMed]
  • Diamond JM. Twenty-first Bowditch lecture. The epithelial junction: bridge, gate, and fence. Physiologist. 1977 Feb;20(1):10–18. [PubMed]
  • DiRita VJ. Co-ordinate expression of virulence genes by ToxR in Vibrio cholerae. Mol Microbiol. 1992 Feb;6(4):451–458. [PubMed]
  • DiRita VJ, Mekalanos JJ. Periplasmic interaction between two membrane regulatory proteins, ToxR and ToxS, results in signal transduction and transcriptional activation. Cell. 1991 Jan 11;64(1):29–37. [PubMed]
  • DiRita VJ, Parsot C, Jander G, Mekalanos JJ. Regulatory cascade controls virulence in Vibrio cholerae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Jun 15;88(12):5403–5407. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Domínguez P, Velasco G, Barros F, Lazo PS. Intestinal brush border membranes contain regulatory subunits of adenylyl cyclase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Oct;84(20):6965–6969. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Donta ST. Differentiation between the steroidogenic effects of cholera enterotoxin and adrenocorticotropin through use of a mutant adrenal cell line. J Infect Dis. 1974 Jun;129(6):728–731. [PubMed]
  • Donta ST, Beristain S, Tomicic TK. Inhibition of heat-labile cholera and Escherichia coli enterotoxins by brefeldin A. Infect Immun. 1993 Aug;61(8):3282–3286. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dubey RS, Lindblad M, Holmgren J. Purification of El Tor cholera enterotoxins and comparisons with classical toxin. J Gen Microbiol. 1990 Sep;136(9):1839–1847. [PubMed]
  • DUTTA NK, PANSE MV, KULKARNI DR. Role of cholera a toxin in experimental cholera. J Bacteriol. 1959 Oct;78:594–595. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ehara M, Ishibashi M, Ichinose Y, Iwanaga M, Shimotori S, Naito T. Purification and partial characterization of fimbriae of Vibrio cholerae O1. Vaccine. 1987 Dec;5(4):283–288. [PubMed]
  • Eubanks ER, Guentzel MN, Berry LJ. Evaluation of surface components of Vibrio cholerae as protective immunogens. Infect Immun. 1977 Feb;15(2):533–538. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Faruque SM, Abdul Alim AR, Rahman MM, Siddique AK, Sack RB, Albert MJ. Clonal relationships among classical Vibrio cholerae O1 strains isolated between 1961 and 1992 in Bangladesh. J Clin Microbiol. 1993 Sep;31(9):2513–2516. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fasano A, Baudry B, Pumplin DW, Wasserman SS, Tall BD, Ketley JM, Kaper JB. Vibrio cholerae produces a second enterotoxin, which affects intestinal tight junctions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Jun 15;88(12):5242–5246. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Felsenfeld O. Notes on food, beverages and fomites contaminated with Vibrio cholerae. Bull World Health Organ. 1965;33(5):725–734. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Field M: Intestinal secretion: effect of cyclic AMP and its role in cholera. N Engl J Med. 1971 May 20;284(20):1137–1144. [PubMed]
  • Field M, Fromm D, al-Awqati Q, Greenough WB., 3rd Effect of cholera enterotoxin on ion transport across isolated ileal mucosa. J Clin Invest. 1972 Apr;51(4):796–804. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Field M, Rao MC, Chang EB. Intestinal electrolyte transport and diarrheal disease (2) N Engl J Med. 1989 Sep 28;321(13):879–883. [PubMed]
  • Fields PI, Popovic T, Wachsmuth K, Olsvik O. Use of polymerase chain reaction for detection of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 strains from the Latin American cholera epidemic. J Clin Microbiol. 1992 Aug;30(8):2118–2121. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Finch MJ, Morris JG, Jr, Kaviti J, Kagwanja W, Levine MM. Epidemiology of antimicrobial resistant cholera in Kenya and East Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1988 Nov;39(5):484–490. [PubMed]
  • Finelli L, Swerdlow D, Mertz K, Ragazzoni H, Spitalny K. Outbreak of cholera associated with crab brought from an area with epidemic disease. J Infect Dis. 1992 Dec;166(6):1433–1435. [PubMed]
  • Finkelstein RA, Boesman-Finkelstein M, Chang Y, Häse CC. Vibrio cholerae hemagglutinin/protease, colonial variation, virulence, and detachment. Infect Immun. 1992 Feb;60(2):472–478. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Finkelstein RA, Boesman-Finkelstein M, Holt P. Vibrio cholerae hemagglutinin/lectin/protease hydrolyzes fibronectin and ovomucin: F.M. Burnet revisited. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983 Feb;80(4):1092–1095. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • FINKELSTEIN RA, LABREC EH. Rapid identification of cholera vibrios with fluorescent antibody. J Bacteriol. 1959 Dec;78:886–891. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Finkelstein RA, LoSpalluto JJ. Pathogenesis of experimental cholera. Preparation and isolation of choleragen and choleragenoid. J Exp Med. 1969 Jul 1;130(1):185–202. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Finn TM, Reiser J, Germanier R, Cryz SJ., Jr Cell-associated hemagglutinin-deficient mutant of Vibrio cholerae. Infect Immun. 1987 Apr;55(4):942–946. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • FOLLETT EA, GORDON J. AN ELECTRON MICROSCOPE STUDY OF VIBRIO FLAGELLA. J Gen Microbiol. 1963 Aug;32:235–239. [PubMed]
  • Forrest BD, LaBrooy JT, Attridge SR, Boehm G, Beyer L, Morona R, Shearman DJ, Rowley D. Immunogenicity of a candidate live oral typhoid/cholera hybrid vaccine in humans. J Infect Dis. 1989 Jan;159(1):145–146. [PubMed]
  • Francis ML, Ryan J, Jobling MG, Holmes RK, Moss J, Mond JJ. Cyclic AMP-independent effects of cholera toxin on B cell activation. II. Binding of ganglioside GM1 induces B cell activation. J Immunol. 1992 Apr 1;148(7):1999–2005. [PubMed]
  • Franzon VL, Barker A, Manning PA. Nucleotide sequence encoding the mannose-fucose-resistant hemagglutinin of Vibrio cholerae O1 and construction of a mutant. Infect Immun. 1993 Jul;61(7):3032–3037. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Franzon VL, Manning PA. Molecular cloning and expression in Escherichia coli K-12 of the gene for a hemagglutinin from Vibrio cholerae. Infect Immun. 1986 Apr;52(1):279–284. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Freer JH, Birkbeck TH. Possible conformation of delta-lysin, a membrane-damaging peptide of Staphylococcus aureus. J Theor Biol. 1982 Feb 7;94(3):535–540. [PubMed]
  • Freter R, Allweiss B, O'Brien PC, Halstead SA, Macsai MS. Role of chemotaxis in the association of motile bacteria with intestinal mucosa: in vitro studies. Infect Immun. 1981 Oct;34(1):241–249. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Freter R, Jones GW. Adhesive properties of Vibrio cholerae: nature of the interaction with intact mucosal surfaces. Infect Immun. 1976 Jul;14(1):246–256. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Freter R, O'Brien PC. Role of chemotaxis in the association of motile bacteria with intestinal mucosa: fitness and virulence of nonchemotactic Vibrio cholerae mutants in infant mice. Infect Immun. 1981 Oct;34(1):222–233. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Freter R, O'Brien PC, Macsai MS. Role of chemotaxis in the association of motile bacteria with intestinal mucosa: in vivo studies. Infect Immun. 1981 Oct;34(1):234–240. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fuerst JA, Perry JW. Demonstration of lipopolysaccharide on sheathed flagella of Vibrio cholerae O:1 by protein A-gold immunoelectron microscopy. J Bacteriol. 1988 Apr;170(4):1488–1494. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Galen JE, Ketley JM, Fasano A, Richardson SH, Wasserman SS, Kaper JB. Role of Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase in the function of cholera toxin. Infect Immun. 1992 Feb;60(2):406–415. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gennaro ML, Greenaway PJ, Broadbent DA. The expression of biologically active cholera toxin in Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Res. 1982 Aug 25;10(16):4883–4890. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gill DM, King CA. The mechanism of action of cholera toxin in pigeon erythrocyte lysates. J Biol Chem. 1975 Aug 25;250(16):6424–6432. [PubMed]
  • Gill DM, Rappaport RS. Origin of the enzymatically active A1 fragment of cholera toxin. J Infect Dis. 1979 Jun;139(6):674–680. [PubMed]
  • Glass RI, Becker S, Huq MI, Stoll BJ, Khan MU, Merson MH, Lee JV, Black RE. Endemic cholera in rural Bangladesh, 1966-1980. Am J Epidemiol. 1982 Dec;116(6):959–970. [PubMed]
  • Glass RI, Claeson M, Blake PA, Waldman RJ, Pierce NF. Cholera in Africa: lessons on transmission and control for Latin America. Lancet. 1991 Sep 28;338(8770):791–795. [PubMed]
  • Glass RI, Holmgren J, Haley CE, Khan MR, Svennerholm AM, Stoll BJ, Belayet Hossain KM, Black RE, Yunus M, Barua D. Predisposition for cholera of individuals with O blood group. Possible evolutionary significance. Am J Epidemiol. 1985 Jun;121(6):791–796. [PubMed]
  • Glass RI, Huq I, Alim AR, Yunus M. Emergence of multiply antibiotic-resistant Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh. J Infect Dis. 1980 Dec;142(6):939–942. [PubMed]
  • Glass RI, Svennerholm AM, Khan MR, Huda S, Huq MI, Holmgren J. Seroepidemiological studies of El Tor cholera in Bangladesh: association of serum antibody levels with protection. J Infect Dis. 1985 Feb;151(2):236–242. [PubMed]
  • Glass RI, Svennerholm AM, Stoll BJ, Khan MR, Hossain KM, Huq MI, Holmgren J. Protection against cholera in breast-fed children by antibodies in breast milk. N Engl J Med. 1983 Jun 9;308(23):1389–1392. [PubMed]
  • Goldberg I, Mekalanos JJ. Effect of a recA mutation on cholera toxin gene amplification and deletion events. J Bacteriol. 1986 Mar;165(3):723–731. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Goldberg MB, Boyko SA, Calderwood SB. Transcriptional regulation by iron of a Vibrio cholerae virulence gene and homology of the gene to the Escherichia coli fur system. J Bacteriol. 1990 Dec;172(12):6863–6870. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Goldberg MB, Boyko SA, Calderwood SB. Positive transcriptional regulation of an iron-regulated virulence gene in Vibrio cholerae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Feb 15;88(4):1125–1129. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Goldberg MB, DiRita VJ, Calderwood SB. Identification of an iron-regulated virulence determinant in Vibrio cholerae, using TnphoA mutagenesis. Infect Immun. 1990 Jan;58(1):55–60. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Goldberg S, Murphy JR. Molecular epidemiological studies of United States Gulf Coast Vibrio cholerae strains: integration site of mutator vibriophage VcA-3. Infect Immun. 1983 Oct;42(1):224–230. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Goodgame RW, Greenough WB. Cholera in Africa: a message for the West. Ann Intern Med. 1975 Jan;82(1):101–106. [PubMed]
  • Griffiths GL, Sigel SP, Payne SM, Neilands JB. Vibriobactin, a siderophore from Vibrio cholerae. J Biol Chem. 1984 Jan 10;259(1):383–385. [PubMed]
  • Griffiths SL, Finkelstein RA, Critchley DR. Characterization of the receptor for cholera toxin and Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin in rabbit intestinal brush borders. Biochem J. 1986 Sep 1;238(2):313–322. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Guentzel MN, Berry LJ. Motility as a virulence factor for Vibrio cholerae. Infect Immun. 1975 May;11(5):890–897. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Guerrant RL, Brunton LL, Schnaitman TC, Rebhun LI, Gilman AG. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate and alteration of Chinese hamster ovary cell morphology: a rapid, sensitive in vitro assay for the enterotoxins of Vibrio cholerae and Escherichia coli. Infect Immun. 1974 Aug;10(2):320–327. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gustafsson B, Holme T. Rapid detection of Vibrio cholerae O:1 by motility inhibition and immunofluorescence with monoclonal antibodies. Eur J Clin Microbiol. 1985 Jun;4(3):291–294. [PubMed]
  • Hall RH, Khambaty FM, Kothary M, Keasler SP. Non-O1 Vibrio cholerae. Lancet. 1993 Aug 14;342(8868):430–430. [PubMed]
  • Hall RH, Losonsky G, Silveira AP, Taylor RK, Mekalanos JJ, Witham ND, Levine MM. Immunogenicity of Vibrio cholerae O1 toxin-coregulated pili in experimental and clinical cholera. Infect Immun. 1991 Jul;59(7):2508–2512. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hall RH, Vial PA, Kaper JB, Mekalanos JJ, Levine MM. Morphological studies on fimbriae expressed by Vibrio cholerae 01. Microb Pathog. 1988 Apr;4(4):257–265. [PubMed]
  • Hanne LF, Finkelstein RA. Characterization and distribution of the hemagglutinins produced by Vibrio cholerae. Infect Immun. 1982 Apr;36(1):209–214. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hasan JA, Huq A, Tamplin ML, Siebeling RJ, Colwell RR. A novel kit for rapid detection of Vibrio cholerae O1. J Clin Microbiol. 1994 Jan;32(1):249–252. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Häse CC, Finkelstein RA. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the Vibrio cholerae hemagglutinin/protease (HA/protease) gene and construction of an HA/protease-negative strain. J Bacteriol. 1991 Jun;173(11):3311–3317. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hecht G, Pothoulakis C, LaMont JT, Madara JL. Clostridium difficile toxin A perturbs cytoskeletal structure and tight junction permeability of cultured human intestinal epithelial monolayers. J Clin Invest. 1988 Nov;82(5):1516–1524. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hedges RW, Vialard JL, Pearson NJ, O'Grady F. R plasmids from Asian strains of Vibrio cholerae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1977 Apr;11(4):585–588. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Henderson DP, Payne SM. Cloning and characterization of the Vibrio cholerae genes encoding the utilization of iron from haemin and haemoglobin. Mol Microbiol. 1993 Feb;7(3):461–469. [PubMed]
  • Hepler JR, Gilman AG. G proteins. Trends Biochem Sci. 1992 Oct;17(10):383–387. [PubMed]
  • Herrington DA, Hall RH, Losonsky G, Mekalanos JJ, Taylor RK, Levine MM. Toxin, toxin-coregulated pili, and the toxR regulon are essential for Vibrio cholerae pathogenesis in humans. J Exp Med. 1988 Oct 1;168(4):1487–1492. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Higgins DE, Nazareno E, DiRita VJ. The virulence gene activator ToxT from Vibrio cholerae is a member of the AraC family of transcriptional activators. J Bacteriol. 1992 Nov;174(21):6974–6980. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hoge CW, Sethabutr O, Bodhidatta L, Echeverria P, Robertson DC, Morris JG., Jr Use of a synthetic oligonucleotide probe to detect strains of non-serovar O1 Vibrio cholerae carrying the gene for heat-stable enterotoxin (NAG-ST). J Clin Microbiol. 1990 Jun;28(6):1473–1476. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Holmberg SD, Harris JR, Kay DE, Hargrett NT, Parker RD, Kansou N, Rao NU, Blake PA. Foodborne transmission of cholera in Micronesian households. Lancet. 1984 Feb 11;1(8372):325–328. [PubMed]
  • Holmgren J, Lönnroth I, Månsson J, Svennerholm L. Interaction of cholera toxin and membrane GM1 ganglioside of small intestine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1975 Jul;72(7):2520–2524. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Holmgren J, Lycke N, Czerkinsky C. Cholera toxin and cholera B subunit as oral-mucosal adjuvant and antigen vector systems. Vaccine. 1993 Sep;11(12):1179–1184. [PubMed]
  • Holmgren J, Svennerholm AM. Mechanisms of disease and immunity in cholera: a review. J Infect Dis. 1977 Aug;136 (Suppl):S105–S112. [PubMed]
  • Honda T, Finkelstein RA. Selection and characteristics of a Vibrio cholerae mutant lacking the A (ADP-ribosylating) portion of the cholera enterotoxin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979 Apr;76(4):2052–2056. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Honda T, Finkelstein RA. Purification and characterization of a hemolysin produced by Vibrio cholerae biotype El Tor: another toxic substance produced by cholera vibrios. Infect Immun. 1979 Dec;26(3):1020–1027. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Honda T, Nishibuchi M, Miwatani T, Kaper JB. Demonstration of a plasmid-borne gene encoding a thermostable direct hemolysin in Vibrio cholerae non-O1 strains. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1986 Nov;52(5):1218–1220. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hood MA, Guckert JB, White DC, Deck F. Effect of nutrient deprivation on lipid, carbohydrate, DNA, RNA, and protein levels in Vibrio cholerae. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1986 Oct;52(4):788–793. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hranitzky KW, Mulholland A, Larson AD, Eubanks ER, Hart LT. Characterization of a flagellar sheath protein of Vibrio cholerae. Infect Immun. 1980 Feb;27(2):597–603. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hughes JM, Boyce JM, Levine RJ, Khan M, Aziz KM, Huq MI, Curlin GT. Epidemiology of eltor cholera in rural Bangladesh: importance of surface water in transmission. Bull World Health Organ. 1982;60(3):395–404. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hughes JM, Hollis DG, Gangarosa EJ, Weaver RE. Non-cholera vibrio infections in the United States. Clinical, epidemiologic, and laboratory features. Ann Intern Med. 1978 May;88(5):602–606. [PubMed]
  • Huq A, Small EB, West PA, Huq MI, Rahman R, Colwell RR. Ecological relationships between Vibrio cholerae and planktonic crustacean copepods. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1983 Jan;45(1):275–283. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ichinose Y, Yamamoto K, Nakasone N, Tanabe MJ, Takeda T, Miwatani T, Iwanaga M. Enterotoxicity of El Tor-like hemolysin of non-O1 Vibrio cholerae. Infect Immun. 1987 May;55(5):1090–1093. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Iredell JR, Manning PA. Biotype-specific tcpA genes in Vibrio cholerae. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1994 Aug 1;121(1):47–54. [PubMed]
  • Islam MS, Hasan MK, Miah MA, Qadri F, Yunus M, Sack RB, Albert MJ. Isolation of Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal from water in Bangladesh. Lancet. 1993 Aug 14;342(8868):430–430. [PubMed]
  • Ito T, Hiramatsu K, Ohshita Y, Yokota T. Mutations in the rfbT gene are responsible for the Ogawa to inaba serotype conversion in Vibrio cholerae O1. Microbiol Immunol. 1993;37(4):281–288. [PubMed]
  • Jacob A, Sinha VB, Sahib MK, Srivastava R, Kaper JB, Srivastava BS. Identification of a 33 kDa antigen associated with an adhesive and colonizing strain of Vibrio cholerae El Tor and its role in protection. Vaccine. 1993;11(3):376–382. [PubMed]
  • Jalajakumari MB, Manning PA. Nucleotide sequence of the gene, ompW, encoding a 22kDa immunogenic outer membrane protein of Vibrio cholerae. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990 Apr 25;18(8):2180–2180. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Janicot M, Fouque F, Desbuquois B. Activation of rat liver adenylate cyclase by cholera toxin requires toxin internalization and processing in endosomes. J Biol Chem. 1991 Jul 15;266(20):12858–12865. [PubMed]
  • Jesudason MV, Cherian AM, John TJ. Blood stream invasion by Vibrio cholerae O139. Lancet. 1993 Aug 14;342(8868):431–431. [PubMed]
  • Jesudason MV, Thangavelu CP, Lalitha MK. Rapid screening of fecal samples for Vibrio cholerae by a coagglutination technique. J Clin Microbiol. 1984 May;19(5):712–713. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Johnson JA, Morris JG, Jr, Kaper JB. Gene encoding zonula occludens toxin (zot) does not occur independently from cholera enterotoxin genes (ctx) in Vibrio cholerae. J Clin Microbiol. 1993 Mar;31(3):732–733. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Johnson JA, Panigrahi P, Morris JG., Jr Non-O1 Vibrio cholerae NRT36S produces a polysaccharide capsule that determines colony morphology, serum resistance, and virulence in mice. Infect Immun. 1992 Mar;60(3):864–869. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Johnson JA, Salles CA, Panigrahi P, Albert MJ, Wright AC, Johnson RJ, Morris JG., Jr Vibrio cholerae O139 synonym bengal is closely related to Vibrio cholerae El Tor but has important differences. Infect Immun. 1994 May;62(5):2108–2110. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Johnston JM, Martin DL, Perdue J, McFarland LM, Caraway CT, Lippy EC, Blake PA. Cholera on a Gulf Coast oil rig. N Engl J Med. 1983 Sep 1;309(9):523–526. [PubMed]
  • Jones GW, Freter R. Adhesive properties of Vibrio cholerae: nature of the interaction with isolated rabbit brush border membranes and human erythrocytes. Infect Immun. 1976 Jul;14(1):240–245. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Jonson G, Holmgren J, Svennerholm AM. Identification of a mannose-binding pilus on Vibrio cholerae El Tor. Microb Pathog. 1991 Dec;11(6):433–441. [PubMed]
  • Jonson G, Holmgren J, Svennerholm AM. Epitope differences in toxin-coregulated pili produced by classical and El Tor Vibrio cholerae O1. Microb Pathog. 1991 Sep;11(3):179–188. [PubMed]
  • Jonson G, Holmgren J, Svennerholm AM. Analysis of expression of toxin-coregulated pili in classical and El Tor Vibrio cholerae O1 in vitro and in vivo. Infect Immun. 1992 Oct;60(10):4278–4284. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Jonson G, Lebens M, Holmgren J. Cloning and sequencing of Vibrio cholerae mannose-sensitive haemagglutinin pilin gene: localization of mshA within a cluster of type 4 pilin genes. Mol Microbiol. 1994 Jul;13(1):109–118. [PubMed]
  • Jonson G, Svennerholm AM, Holmgren J. Vibrio cholerae expresses cell surface antigens during intestinal infection which are not expressed during in vitro culture. Infect Immun. 1989 Jun;57(6):1809–1815. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kahn RA, Gilman AG. ADP-ribosylation of Gs promotes the dissociation of its alpha and beta subunits. J Biol Chem. 1984 May 25;259(10):6235–6240. [PubMed]
  • Kaper J, Lockman H, Colwell RR, Joseph SW. Ecology, serology, and enterotoxin production of Vibrio cholerae in Chesapeake Bay. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1979 Jan;37(1):91–103. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kaper JB, Bradford HB, Roberts NC, Falkow S. Molecular epidemiology of Vibrio cholerae in the U.S. Gulf Coast. J Clin Microbiol. 1982 Jul;16(1):129–134. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kaper JB, Levine MM. Cloned cholera enterotoxin genes in study and prevention of cholera. Lancet. 1981 Nov 21;2(8256):1162–1163. [PubMed]
  • Kaper JB, Lockman H, Baldini MM, Levine MM. Recombinant nontoxinogenic Vibrio cholerae strains as attenuated cholera vaccine candidates. Nature. 1984 Apr 12;308(5960):655–658. [PubMed]
  • Kaper JB, Moseley SL, Falkow S. Molecular characterization of environmental and nontoxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae. Infect Immun. 1981 May;32(2):661–667. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kaper JB, Nataro JP, Roberts NC, Siebeling RJ, Bradford HB. Molecular epidemiology of non-O1 Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio mimicus in the U.S. Gulf Coast region. J Clin Microbiol. 1986 Mar;23(3):652–654. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kapral FA, O'Brien AD, Ruff PD, Drugan WJ., Jr Inhibition of water absorption in the intestine by Staphylococcus aureus delta-toxin. Infect Immun. 1976 Jan;13(1):140–145. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Karasawa T, Mihara T, Kurazono H, Nair GB, Garg S, Ramamurthy T, Takeda Y. Distribution of the zot (zonula occludens toxin) gene among strains of Vibrio cholerae 01 and non-01. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1993 Jan 15;106(2):143–145. [PubMed]
  • Kaufman MR, Shaw CE, Jones ID, Taylor RK. Biogenesis and regulation of the Vibrio cholerae toxin-coregulated pilus: analogies to other virulence factor secretory systems. Gene. 1993 Apr 15;126(1):43–49. [PubMed]
  • Keasler SP, Hall RH. Detecting and biotyping Vibrio cholerae O1 with multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Lancet. 1993 Jun 26;341(8861):1661–1661. [PubMed]
  • Kenne L, Lindberg B, Unger P, Gustafsson B, Holme T. Structural studies of the Vibrio cholerae O-antigen. Carbohydr Res. 1982 Mar 1;100:341–349. [PubMed]
  • Ketley JM, Michalski J, Galen J, Levine MM, Kaper JB. Construction of genetically marked Vibrio cholerae O1 vaccine strains. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1993 Jul 15;111(1):15–21. [PubMed]
  • Kimberg DV, Field M, Johnson J, Henderson A, Gershon E. Stimulation of intestinal mucosal adenyl cyclase by cholera enterotoxin and prostaglandins. J Clin Invest. 1971 Jun;50(6):1218–1230. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • King CA, Van Heyningen WE. Deactivation of cholera toxin by a sialidase-resistant monosialosylganglioside. J Infect Dis. 1973 Jun;127(6):639–647. [PubMed]
  • Klontz KC, Tauxe RV, Cook WL, Riley WH, Wachsmuth IK. Cholera after the consumption of raw oysters. A case report. Ann Intern Med. 1987 Dec;107(6):846–848. [PubMed]
  • Koblavi S, Grimont F, Grimont PA. Clonal diversity of Vibrio cholerae O1 evidenced by rRNA gene restriction patterns. Res Microbiol. 1990 Jul-Aug;141(6):645–657. [PubMed]
  • Koch WH, Payne WL, Wentz BA, Cebula TA. Rapid polymerase chain reaction method for detection of Vibrio cholerae in foods. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1993 Feb;59(2):556–560. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kolvin JL, Roberts D. Studies on the growth of Vibrio cholerae biotype eltor and biotype classical in foods. J Hyg (Lond) 1982 Oct;89(2):243–252. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Koonin EV. The second cholera toxin, Zot, and its plasmid-encoded and phage-encoded homologues constitute a group of putative ATPases with an altered purine NTP-binding motif. FEBS Lett. 1992 Nov 2;312(1):3–6. [PubMed]
  • Kotloff KL, Wasserman SS, O'Donnell S, Losonsky GA, Cryz SJ, Levine MM. Safety and immunogenicity in North Americans of a single dose of live oral cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR: results of a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover trial. Infect Immun. 1992 Oct;60(10):4430–4432. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Krause M, Roudier C, Fierer J, Harwood J, Guiney D. Molecular analysis of the virulence locus of the Salmonella dublin plasmid pSDL2. Mol Microbiol. 1991 Feb;5(2):307–316. [PubMed]
  • Lång H, Palva ET. The ompS gene of Vibrio cholerae encodes a growth-phase-dependent maltoporin. Mol Microbiol. 1993 Nov;10(4):891–901. [PubMed]
  • Lång HA, Palva ET. A major outer membrane protein in Vibrio cholerae is maltose-inducible. Microb Pathog. 1987 Aug;3(2):143–147. [PubMed]
  • Lebens M, Johansson S, Osek J, Lindblad M, Holmgren J. Large-scale production of Vibrio cholerae toxin B subunit for use in oral vaccines. Biotechnology (N Y) 1993 Dec;11(13):1574–1578. [PubMed]
  • Lencer WI, de Almeida JB, Moe S, Stow JL, Ausiello DA, Madara JL. Entry of cholera toxin into polarized human intestinal epithelial cells. Identification of an early brefeldin A sensitive event required for A1-peptide generation. J Clin Invest. 1993 Dec;92(6):2941–2951. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lencer WI, Delp C, Neutra MR, Madara JL. Mechanism of cholera toxin action on a polarized human intestinal epithelial cell line: role of vesicular traffic. J Cell Biol. 1992 Jun;117(6):1197–1209. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lesmana M, Subekti D, Tjaniadi P, Pazzaglia G. Modified CAMP test for biogrouping Vibrio cholerae O1 strains and distinguishing them from strains of V. cholerae non-O1. J Clin Microbiol. 1994 Jan;32(1):235–237. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Levine MM, Black RE, Clements ML, Cisneros L, Nalin DR, Young CR. Duration of infection-derived immunity to cholera. J Infect Dis. 1981 Jun;143(6):818–820. [PubMed]
  • Levine MM, Black RE, Clements ML, Cisneros L, Saah A, Nalin DR, Gill DM, Craig JP, Young CR, Ristaino P. The pathogenicity of nonenterotoxigenic Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 biotype El Tor isolated from sewage water in Brazil. J Infect Dis. 1982 Mar;145(3):296–299. [PubMed]
  • Levine MM, Black RE, Clements ML, Lanata C, Sears S, Honda T, Young CR, Finkelstein RA. Evaluation in humans of attenuated Vibrio cholerae El Tor Ogawa strain Texas Star-SR as a live oral vaccine. Infect Immun. 1984 Feb;43(2):515–522. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Levine MM, Kaper JB. Live oral vaccines against cholera: an update. Vaccine. 1993;11(2):207–212. [PubMed]
  • Levine MM, Kaper JB, Black RE, Clements ML. New knowledge on pathogenesis of bacterial enteric infections as applied to vaccine development. Microbiol Rev. 1983 Dec;47(4):510–550. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Levine MM, Kaper JB, Herrington D, Ketley J, Losonsky G, Tacket CO, Tall B, Cryz S. Safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of recombinant live oral cholera vaccines, CVD 103 and CVD 103-HgR. Lancet. 1988 Aug 27;2(8609):467–470. [PubMed]
  • Levine MM, Kaper JB, Herrington D, Losonsky G, Morris JG, Clements ML, Black RE, Tall B, Hall R. Volunteer studies of deletion mutants of Vibrio cholerae O1 prepared by recombinant techniques. Infect Immun. 1988 Jan;56(1):161–167. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Levine MM, Nalin DR, Craig JP, Hoover D, Bergquist EJ, Waterman D, Holley HP, Hornick RB, Pierce NP, Libonati JP. Immunity of cholera in man: relative role of antibacterial versus antitoxic immunity. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1979;73(1):3–9. [PubMed]
  • Levine MM, Nalin DR, Rennels MB, Hornick RB, Sotman S, Van Blerk G, Hughes TP, O'Donnell S, Barua D. Genetic susceptibility to cholera. Ann Hum Biol. 1979 Jul-Aug;6(4):369–374. [PubMed]
  • Levine MM, Young CR, Black RE, Takeda Y, Finkelstein RA. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure antibodies to purified heat-labile enterotoxins from human and porcine strains of Escherichia coli and to cholera toxin: application in serodiagnosis and seroepidemiology. J Clin Microbiol. 1985 Feb;21(2):174–179. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Levine MM, Young CR, Hughes TP, O'Donnell S, Black RE, Clements ML, Robins-Browne R, Lim YL. Duration of serum antitoxin response following Vibrio cholerae infection in North Americans: relevance for seroepidemiology. Am J Epidemiol. 1981 Sep;114(3):348–354. [PubMed]
  • Lin FY, Morris JG, Jr, Kaper JB, Gross T, Michalski J, Morrison C, Libonati JP, Israel E. Persistence of cholera in the United States: isolation of Vibrio cholerae O1 from a patient with diarrhea in Maryland. J Clin Microbiol. 1986 Mar;23(3):624–626. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lockman H, Kaper JB. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the A2 and B subunits of Vibrio cholerae enterotoxin. J Biol Chem. 1983 Nov 25;258(22):13722–13726. [PubMed]
  • Lockman HA, Galen JE, Kaper JB. Vibrio cholerae enterotoxin genes: nucleotide sequence analysis of DNA encoding ADP-ribosyltransferase. J Bacteriol. 1984 Sep;159(3):1086–1089. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lowry PW, Pavia AT, McFarland LM, Peltier BH, Barrett TJ, Bradford HB, Quan JM, Lynch J, Mathison JB, Gunn RA, et al. Cholera in Louisiana. Widening spectrum of seafood vehicles. Arch Intern Med. 1989 Sep;149(9):2079–2084. [PubMed]
  • Lycke N, Holmgren J. Strong adjuvant properties of cholera toxin on gut mucosal immune responses to orally presented antigens. Immunology. 1986 Oct;59(2):301–308. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lycke N, Karlsson U, Sjölander A, Magnusson KE. The adjuvant action of cholera toxin is associated with an increased intestinal permeability for luminal antigens. Scand J Immunol. 1991 Jun;33(6):691–698. [PubMed]
  • Lycke N, Strober W. Cholera toxin promotes B cell isotype differentiation. J Immunol. 1989 Jun 1;142(11):3781–3787. [PubMed]
  • Lycke N, Tsuji T, Holmgren J. The adjuvant effect of Vibrio cholerae and Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxins is linked to their ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. Eur J Immunol. 1992 Sep;22(9):2277–2281. [PubMed]
  • Madara JL. Loosening tight junctions. Lessons from the intestine. J Clin Invest. 1989 Apr;83(4):1089–1094. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Manoil C, Beckwith J. TnphoA: a transposon probe for protein export signals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Dec;82(23):8129–8133. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mathias JR, Carlson GM, DiMarino AJ, Bertiger G, Morton HE, Cohen S. Intestinal myoelectric activity in response to live Vibrio cholerae and cholera enterotoxin. J Clin Invest. 1976 Jul;58(1):91–96. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • McCardell BA, Madden JM, Shah DB. Isolation and characterization of a cytolysin produced by Vibrio cholerae serogroup non-O1. Can J Microbiol. 1985 Aug;31(8):711–720. [PubMed]
  • McCormack WM, Chowdhury AM, Jahangir N, Ahmed AB, Mosley WH. Tetracycline prophylaxis in families of cholera patients. Bull World Health Organ. 1968;38(5):787–792. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mekalanos JJ. Duplication and amplification of toxin genes in Vibrio cholerae. Cell. 1983 Nov;35(1):253–263. [PubMed]
  • Mekalanos JJ. Cholera toxin: genetic analysis, regulation, and role in pathogenesis. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1985;118:97–118. [PubMed]
  • Mekalanos JJ, Swartz DJ, Pearson GD, Harford N, Groyne F, de Wilde M. Cholera toxin genes: nucleotide sequence, deletion analysis and vaccine development. Nature. 1983 Dec 8;306(5943):551–557. [PubMed]
  • Michalski J, Galen JE, Fasano A, Kaper JB. CVD110, an attenuated Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor live oral vaccine strain. Infect Immun. 1993 Oct;61(10):4462–4468. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Miller CJ, Feachem RG, Drasar BS. Cholera epidemiology in developed and developing countries: new thoughts on transmission, seasonality, and control. Lancet. 1985 Feb 2;1(8423):261–262. [PubMed]
  • Miller JF, Mekalanos JJ, Falkow S. Coordinate regulation and sensory transduction in the control of bacterial virulence. Science. 1989 Feb 17;243(4893):916–922. [PubMed]
  • Miller VL, Mekalanos JJ. Synthesis of cholera toxin is positively regulated at the transcriptional level by toxR. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984 Jun;81(11):3471–3475. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Miller VL, Mekalanos JJ. A novel suicide vector and its use in construction of insertion mutations: osmoregulation of outer membrane proteins and virulence determinants in Vibrio cholerae requires toxR. J Bacteriol. 1988 Jun;170(6):2575–2583. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Miller VL, Taylor RK, Mekalanos JJ. Cholera toxin transcriptional activator toxR is a transmembrane DNA binding protein. Cell. 1987 Jan 30;48(2):271–279. [PubMed]
  • Miller-Podraza H, Bradley RM, Fishman PH. Biosynthesis and localization of gangliosides in cultured cells. Biochemistry. 1982 Jul 6;21(14):3260–3265. [PubMed]
  • Minami A, Hashimoto S, Abe H, Arita M, Taniguchi T, Honda T, Miwatani T, Nishibuchi M. Cholera enterotoxin production in Vibrio cholerae O1 strains isolated from the environment and from humans in Japan. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1991 Aug;57(8):2152–2157. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Momen H, Salles CA. Enzyme markers for Vibrio cholerae: identification of classical, El Tor and environmental strains. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1985;79(6):773–776. [PubMed]
  • Morris JG, Jr, Black RE. Cholera and other vibrioses in the United States. N Engl J Med. 1985 Feb 7;312(6):343–350. [PubMed]
  • Morris JG., Jr Non-O group 1 Vibrio cholerae: a look at the epidemiology of an occasional pathogen. Epidemiol Rev. 1990;12:179–191. [PubMed]
  • Morris JG, Jr, Picardi JL, Lieb S, Lee JV, Roberts A, Hood M, Gunn RA, Blake PA. Isolation of nontoxigenic Vibrio cholerae O group 1 from a patient with severe gastrointestinal disease. J Clin Microbiol. 1984 Feb;19(2):296–297. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Morris JG, Jr, Takeda T, Tall BD, Losonsky GA, Bhattacharya SK, Forrest BD, Kay BA, Nishibuchi M. Experimental non-O group 1 Vibrio cholerae gastroenteritis in humans. J Clin Invest. 1990 Mar;85(3):697–705. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Morris JG, Jr, Tenney JH, Drusano GL. In vitro susceptibility of pathogenic Vibrio species to norfloxacin and six other antimicrobial agents. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1985 Sep;28(3):442–445. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Morris JG, Jr, Wilson R, Davis BR, Wachsmuth IK, Riddle CF, Wathen HG, Pollard RA, Blake PA. Non-O group 1 Vibrio cholerae gastroenteritis in the United States: clinical, epidemiologic, and laboratory characteristics of sporadic cases. Ann Intern Med. 1981 May;94(5):656–658. [PubMed]
  • Moseley SL, Falkow S. Nucleotide sequence homology between the heat-labile enterotoxin gene of Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae deoxyribonucleic acid. J Bacteriol. 1980 Oct;144(1):444–446. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mosley WH, McCormack WM, Ahmed A, Chowdhury AK, Barui RK. Report of the 1966-67 cholera vaccine field trial in rural East Pakistan. 2. Results of the serological surveys in the study population--the relationship of case rate to antibody titre and an estimate of the inapparent infection rate with Vibrio cholerae. Bull World Health Organ. 1969;40(2):187–197. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Moss J, Vaughan M. Mechanism of action of choleragen. Evidence for ADP-ribosyltransferase activity with arginine as an acceptor. J Biol Chem. 1977 Apr 10;252(7):2455–2457. [PubMed]
  • Moss J, Vaughan M. Activation of cholera toxin and Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxins by ADP-ribosylation factors, a family of 20 kDa guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. Mol Microbiol. 1991 Nov;5(11):2621–2627. [PubMed]
  • Mostow P, Richardson K. High-frequency spontaneous mutation of classical Vibrio cholerae to a nonmotile phenotype. Infect Immun. 1990 Nov;58(11):3633–3639. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Motes ML, Jr, Zywno SR, DePaola A, Becker RE, Presnell MW. Isolation of Vibrio cholerae serotype Ogawa from a Florida estuary. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1983 Jan;45(1):321–322. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Muñoz E, Zubiaga AM, Merrow M, Sauter NP, Huber BT. Cholera toxin discriminates between T helper 1 and 2 cells in T cell receptor-mediated activation: role of cAMP in T cell proliferation. J Exp Med. 1990 Jul 1;172(1):95–103. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nakasone N, Iwanaga M. Pili of Vibrio cholerae non-O1. Infect Immun. 1990 Jun;58(6):1640–1646. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nalin DR, Daya V, Reid A, Levine MM, Cisneros L. Adsorption and growth of Vibrio cholerae on chitin. Infect Immun. 1979 Aug;25(2):768–770. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nalin DR, Levine MM, Hornick RB, Bergquist EJ, Hoover D, Holley HP, Waterman D, VanBlerk J, Matheny S, Sotman S, et al. The problem of emesis during oral glucose-electrolytes therapy given from the onset of severe cholera. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1979;73(1):10–14. [PubMed]
  • Nambiar MP, Oda T, Chen C, Kuwazuru Y, Wu HC. Involvement of the Golgi region in the intracellular trafficking of cholera toxin. J Cell Physiol. 1993 Feb;154(2):222–228. [PubMed]
  • Nath G, Sanyal SC. Emergence of Vibrio cholerae O1 resistant to vibriostatic agent 0/129. Lancet. 1992 Aug 8;340(8815):366–367. [PubMed]
  • Nilsson O, Cassuto J, Larsson PA, Jodal M, Lidberg P, Ahlman H, Dahlström A, Lundgren O. 5-Hydroxytryptamine and cholera secretion: a histochemical and physiological study in cats. Gut. 1983 Jun;24(6):542–548. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nishibuchi M, Fasano A, Russell RG, Kaper JB. Enterotoxigenicity of Vibrio parahaemolyticus with and without genes encoding thermostable direct hemolysin. Infect Immun. 1992 Sep;60(9):3539–3545. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • O'Brien AD, Chen ME, Holmes RK, Kaper J, Levine MM. Environmental and human isolates of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus produce a Shigella dysenteriae 1 (Shiga)-like cytotoxin. Lancet. 1984 Jan 14;1(8368):77–78. [PubMed]
  • O'Brien AD, Kapral FA. Increased cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate content in guinea pig ileum after exposure to Staphylococcus aureus delta-toxin. Infect Immun. 1976 Jan;13(1):152–162. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ogawa A, Kato J, Watanabe H, Nair BG, Takeda T. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of a heat-stable enterotoxin gene from Vibrio cholerae non-O1 isolated from a patient with traveler's diarrhea. Infect Immun. 1990 Oct;58(10):3325–3329. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ogawa A, Takeda T. The gene encoding the heat-stable enterotoxin of Vibrio cholerae is flanked by 123-base pair direct repeats. Microbiol Immunol. 1993;37(8):607–616. [PubMed]
  • Ogierman MA, Manning PA. Homology of TcpN, a putative regulatory protein of Vibrio cholerae, to the AraC family of transcriptional activators. Gene. 1992 Jul 1;116(1):93–97. [PubMed]
  • Ogierman MA, Manning PA. TCP pilus biosynthesis in Vibrio cholerae O1: gene sequence of tcpC encoding an outer membrane lipoprotein. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1992 Oct 1;76(1-2):179–184. [PubMed]
  • Ogierman MA, Zabihi S, Mourtzios L, Manning PA. Genetic organization and sequence of the promoter-distal region of the tcp gene cluster of Vibrio cholerae. Gene. 1993 Apr 15;126(1):51–60. [PubMed]
  • Olsvik O, Wahlberg J, Petterson B, Uhlén M, Popovic T, Wachsmuth IK, Fields PI. Use of automated sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-generated amplicons to identify three types of cholera toxin subunit B in Vibrio cholerae O1 strains. J Clin Microbiol. 1993 Jan;31(1):22–25. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Osek J, Svennerholm AM, Holmgren J. Protection against Vibrio cholerae El Tor infection by specific antibodies against mannose-binding hemagglutinin pili. Infect Immun. 1992 Nov;60(11):4961–4964. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Owen RL, Pierce NF, Apple RT, Cray WC., Jr M cell transport of Vibrio cholerae from the intestinal lumen into Peyer's patches: a mechanism for antigen sampling and for microbial transepithelial migration. J Infect Dis. 1986 Jun;153(6):1108–1118. [PubMed]
  • Pal A, Ramamurthy T, Bhadra RK, Takeda T, Shimada T, Takeda Y, Nair GB, Pal SC, Chakrabarti S. Reassessment of the prevalence of heat-stable enterotoxin (NAG-ST) among environmental Vibrio cholerae non-O1 strains isolated from Calcutta, India, by using a NAG-ST DNA probe. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1992 Aug;58(8):2485–2489. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Parsot C, Mekalanos JJ. Expression of ToxR, the transcriptional activator of the virulence factors in Vibrio cholerae, is modulated by the heat shock response. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Dec;87(24):9898–9902. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Parsot C, Taxman E, Mekalanos JJ. ToxR regulates the production of lipoproteins and the expression of serum resistance in Vibrio cholerae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Mar 1;88(5):1641–1645. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Payne SM, Finkelstein RA. Siderophore production by Vibrio cholerae. Infect Immun. 1978 Apr;20(1):310–311. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pearson GD, DiRita VJ, Goldberg MB, Boyko SA, Calderwood SB, Mekalanos JJ. New attenuated derivatives of Vibrio cholerae. Res Microbiol. 1990 Sep-Oct;141(7-8):893–899. [PubMed]
  • Pearson GD, Mekalanos JJ. Molecular cloning of Vibrio cholerae enterotoxin genes in Escherichia coli K-12. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982 May;79(9):2976–2980. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pearson GD, Woods A, Chiang SL, Mekalanos JJ. CTX genetic element encodes a site-specific recombination system and an intestinal colonization factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Apr 15;90(8):3750–3754. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Peek JA, Taylor RK. Characterization of a periplasmic thiol:disulfide interchange protein required for the functional maturation of secreted virulence factors of Vibrio cholerae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Jul 1;89(13):6210–6214. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Peltola H, Siitonen A, Kyrönseppä H, Simula I, Mattila L, Oksanen P, Kataja MJ, Cadoz M. Prevention of travellers' diarrhoea by oral B-subunit/whole-cell cholera vaccine. Lancet. 1991 Nov 23;338(8778):1285–1289. [PubMed]
  • Peterson JW. Synergistic protection against experimental cholera by immunization with cholera toxoid and vaccine. Infect Immun. 1979 Nov;26(2):528–533. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Peterson JW, Hejtmancik KE, Markel DE, Craig JP, Kurosky A. Antigenic specificity of neutralizing antibody to cholera toxin. Infect Immun. 1979 Jun;24(3):774–779. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Peterson JW, Ochoa LG. Role of prostaglandins and cAMP in the secretory effects of cholera toxin. Science. 1989 Aug 25;245(4920):857–859. [PubMed]
  • Peterson JW, Reitmeyer JC, Jackson CA, Ansari GA. Protein synthesis is required for cholera toxin-induced stimulation of arachidonic acid metabolism. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1991 Mar 19;1092(1):79–84. [PubMed]
  • Peterson KM, Mekalanos JJ. Characterization of the Vibrio cholerae ToxR regulon: identification of novel genes involved in intestinal colonization. Infect Immun. 1988 Nov;56(11):2822–2829. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pierce NF. Differential inhibitory effects of cholera toxoids and ganglioside on the enterotoxins of Vibrio cholerae and Escherichia coli. J Exp Med. 1973 Apr 1;137(4):1009–1023. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pierce NF, Cray WC, Jr, Sacci JB., Jr Oral immunization of dogs with purified cholera toxin, crude cholera toxin, or B subunit: evidence for synergistic protection by antitoxic and antibacterial mechanisms. Infect Immun. 1982 Aug;37(2):687–694. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pierce NF, Kaper JB, Mekalanos JJ, Cray WC., Jr Role of cholera toxin in enteric colonization by Vibrio cholerae O1 in rabbits. Infect Immun. 1985 Dec;50(3):813–816. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pohlner J, Meyer TF, Jalajakumari MB, Manning PA. Nucleotide sequence of ompV, the gene for a major Vibrio cholerae outer membrane protein. Mol Gen Genet. 1986 Dec;205(3):494–500. [PubMed]
  • Popovic T, Bopp C, Olsvik O, Wachsmuth K. Epidemiologic application of a standardized ribotype scheme for Vibrio cholerae O1. J Clin Microbiol. 1993 Sep;31(9):2474–2482. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Rahman M, Sack DA, Wadood A, Yasmin M, Latif A. Rapid identification of Vibrio cholerae serotype O1 from primary isolation plates by a coagglutination test. J Med Microbiol. 1989 Jan;28(1):39–41. [PubMed]
  • Ramamurthy T, Bhattacharya SK, Uesaka Y, Horigome K, Paul M, Sen D, Pal SC, Takeda T, Takeda Y, Nair GB. Evaluation of the bead enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of cholera toxin directly from stool specimens. J Clin Microbiol. 1992 Jul;30(7):1783–1786. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ramamurthy T, Garg S, Sharma R, Bhattacharya SK, Nair GB, Shimada T, Takeda T, Karasawa T, Kurazano H, Pal A, et al. Emergence of novel strain of Vibrio cholerae with epidemic potential in southern and eastern India. Lancet. 1993 Mar 13;341(8846):703–704. [PubMed]
  • Ramamurthy T, Pal A, Bag PK, Bhattacharya SK, Nair GB, Kurozano H, Yamasaki S, Shirai H, Takeda T, Uesaka Y, et al. Detection of cholera toxin gene in stool specimens by polymerase chain reaction: comparison with bead enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and culture method for laboratory diagnosis of cholera. J Clin Microbiol. 1993 Nov;31(11):3068–3070. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ramamurthy T, Pal A, Pal SC, Nair GB. Taxonomical implications of the emergence of high frequency of occurrence of 2,4-diamino-6,7-diisopropylpteridine-resistant strains of Vibrio cholerae from clinical cases of cholera in Calcutta, India. J Clin Microbiol. 1992 Mar;30(3):742–743. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Redmond JW. The structure of the O-antigenic side chain of the lipopolysaccharide of Vibrio cholerae 569B (Inaba). Biochim Biophys Acta. 1979 May 1;584(2):346–352. [PubMed]
  • Reitmeyer JC, Peterson JW. Stimulatory effects of cholera toxin on arachidonic acid metabolism in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1990 Mar;193(3):181–184. [PubMed]
  • Rennels MB, Levine MM, Daya V, Angle P, Young C. Selective vs. nonselective media and direct plating vs. enrichment technique in isolation of Vibrio cholerae: recommendations for clinical laboratories. J Infect Dis. 1980 Sep;142(3):328–331. [PubMed]
  • Rhine JA, Taylor RK. TcpA pilin sequences and colonization requirements for O1 and O139 vibrio cholerae. Mol Microbiol. 1994 Sep;13(6):1013–1020. [PubMed]
  • Rice EW, Johnson CJ, Clark RM, Fox KR, Reasoner DJ, Dunnigan ME, Panigrahi P, Johnson JA, Morris JG., Jr Chlorine and survival of "rugose" Vibrio cholerae. Lancet. 1992 Sep 19;340(8821):740–740. [PubMed]
  • Richardson K. Roles of motility and flagellar structure in pathogenicity of Vibrio cholerae: analysis of motility mutants in three animal models. Infect Immun. 1991 Aug;59(8):2727–2736. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Richardson K, Kaper JB, Levine MM. Human immune response to Vibrio cholerae O1 whole cells and isolated outer membrane antigens. Infect Immun. 1989 Feb;57(2):495–501. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Richardson K, Michalski J, Kaper JB. Hemolysin production and cloning of two hemolysin determinants from classical Vibrio cholerae. Infect Immun. 1986 Nov;54(2):415–420. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Richardson K, Parker CD. Identification and occurrence of Vibrio cholerae flagellar core proteins in isolated outer membrane. Infect Immun. 1985 Mar;47(3):674–679. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Richardson SH. Factors influencing in vitro skin permeability factor production by Vibrio cholerae. J Bacteriol. 1969 Oct;100(1):27–34. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Richardson SH, Giles JC, Kruger KS. Sealed adult mice: new model for enterotoxin evaluation. Infect Immun. 1984 Feb;43(2):482–486. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ries AA, Vugia DJ, Beingolea L, Palacios AM, Vasquez E, Wells JG, Garcia Baca N, Swerdlow DL, Pollack M, Bean NH, et al. Cholera in Piura, Peru: a modern urban epidemic. J Infect Dis. 1992 Dec;166(6):1429–1433. [PubMed]
  • Roberts AB, Harris JR, Taitai T, Taraam T, Tekanene J, Cati A, Flood T, Teburae M. Cholera in the Gilbert Islands. II. Clinical and laboratory findings. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1979 Jul;28(4):685–691. [PubMed]
  • Robins-Browne RM, Young CR, Levine MM, Craig JP. Microtiter enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for immunoglobulin g cholera antitoxin in humans: sensitivity and specificity. Infect Immun. 1980 Feb;27(2):497–500. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Rodman DM, Zamudio S. The cystic fibrosis heterozygote--advantage in surviving cholera? Med Hypotheses. 1991 Nov;36(3):253–258. [PubMed]
  • Roszak DB, Colwell RR. Survival strategies of bacteria in the natural environment. Microbiol Rev. 1987 Sep;51(3):365–379. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sack RB, Carpenter CC. Experimental canine cholera. I. Development of the model. J Infect Dis. 1969 Feb;119(2):138–149. [PubMed]
  • Sack RB, Miller CE. Progressive changes of Vibrio serotypes in germ-free mice infected with Vibrio cholerae. J Bacteriol. 1969 Sep;99(3):688–695. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Saha S, Sanyal SC. Immunobiological relationships of the enterotoxins produced by cholera toxin gene-positive (CT+) and -negative (CT-) strains of Vibrio cholerae O1. J Med Microbiol. 1990 May;32(1):33–37. [PubMed]
  • Sakazaki R, Shimada T. Serovars of Vibrio cholerae identified during 1970-1975. Jpn J Med Sci Biol. 1977 Oct;30(5):279–282. [PubMed]
  • Sanchez J, Johansson S, Löwenadler B, Svennerholm AM, Holmgren J. Recombinant cholera toxin B subunit and gene fusion proteins for oral vaccination. Res Microbiol. 1990 Sep-Oct;141(7-8):971–979. [PubMed]
  • Sanyal SC, Alam K, Neogi PK, Huq MI, Al-Mahmud KA. A new cholera toxin. Lancet. 1983 Jun 11;1(8337):1337–1337. [PubMed]
  • Schödel F, Will H, Johansson S, Sanchez J, Holmgren J. Synthesis in Vibrio cholerae and secretion of hepatitis B virus antigens fused to Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin subunit B. Gene. 1991 Mar 15;99(2):255–259. [PubMed]
  • Schrank GD, Verwey WF. Distribution of cholera organisms in experimental Vibrio cholerae infections: proposed mechanisms of pathogenesis and antibacterial immunity. Infect Immun. 1976 Jan;13(1):195–203. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sciortino CV, Finkelstein RA. Vibrio cholerae expresses iron-regulated outer membrane proteins in vivo. Infect Immun. 1983 Dec;42(3):990–996. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sears SD, Richardson K, Young C, Parker CD, Levine MM. Evaluation of the human immune response to outer membrane proteins of Vibrio cholerae. Infect Immun. 1984 May;44(2):439–444. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Selander RK, Caugant DA, Ochman H, Musser JM, Gilmour MN, Whittam TS. Methods of multilocus enzyme electrophoresis for bacterial population genetics and systematics. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1986 May;51(5):873–884. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sengupta DK, Sengupta TK, Ghose AC. Major outer membrane proteins of Vibrio cholerae and their role in induction of protective immunity through inhibition of intestinal colonization. Infect Immun. 1992 Nov;60(11):4848–4855. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Shandera WX, Hafkin B, Martin DL, Taylor JP, Maserang DL, Wells JG, Kelly M, Ghandi K, Kaper JB, Lee JV, et al. Persistence of cholera in the United States. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1983 Jul;32(4):812–817. [PubMed]
  • Sharma DP, Stroeher UH, Thomas CJ, Manning PA, Attridge SR. The toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) of Vibrio cholerae: molecular cloning of genes involved in pilus biosynthesis and evaluation of TCP as a protective antigen in the infant mouse model. Microb Pathog. 1989 Dec;7(6):437–448. [PubMed]
  • Shaw CE, Taylor RK. Vibrio cholerae O395 tcpA pilin gene sequence and comparison of predicted protein structural features to those of type 4 pilins. Infect Immun. 1990 Sep;58(9):3042–3049. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bhattacharya MK, Bhattacharya SK, Garg S, Saha PK, Dutta D, Nair GB, Deb BC, Das KP. Outbreak of Vibrio cholerae non-O1 in India and Bangladesh. Lancet. 1993 May 22;341(8856):1346–1347. [PubMed]
  • Shimada T, Sakazaki R. R antigen of vibrio cholerae. Jpn J Med Sci Biol. 1973 Aug;26(4):155–160. [PubMed]
  • Shimada T, Sakazaki R, Fujimura S, Niwano K, Mishina M, Takizawa K. A new selective, differential agar medium for isolation of Vibrio cholerae O1: PMT (polymyxin-mannose-tellurite) agar. Jpn J Med Sci Biol. 1990 Apr;43(2):37–41. [PubMed]
  • Shirai H, Nishibuchi M, Ramamurthy T, Bhattacharya SK, Pal SC, Takeda Y. Polymerase chain reaction for detection of the cholera enterotoxin operon of Vibrio cholerae. J Clin Microbiol. 1991 Nov;29(11):2517–2521. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Siddique AK, Baqui AH, Eusof A, Haider K, Hossain MA, Bashir I, Zaman K. Survival of classic cholera in Bangladesh. Lancet. 1991 May 11;337(8750):1125–1127. [PubMed]
  • Sigel SP, Payne SM. Effect of iron limitation on growth, siderophore production, and expression of outer membrane proteins of Vibrio cholerae. J Bacteriol. 1982 Apr;150(1):148–155. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sigel SP, Stoebner JA, Payne SM. Iron-vibriobactin transport system is not required for virulence of Vibrio cholerae. Infect Immun. 1985 Feb;47(2):360–362. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Simonson JG, Siebeling RJ. Coagglutination of Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio mimicus, and Vibrio vulnificus with anti-flagellar monoclonal antibody. J Clin Microbiol. 1988 Oct;26(10):1962–1966. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sinha VB, Jacob A, Srivastava R, Kaper JB, Srivastava BS. Identification of the flagellar antigens of Vibrio cholerae El Tor and their role in protection. Vaccine. 1993;11(3):372–375. [PubMed]
  • Sircar BK, Dutta P, De SP, Sikdar SN, Deb BC, Pal SC, Mitra SS. ABO blood group distributions in diarrhoea cases including cholera in Calcutta. Ann Hum Biol. 1981 May-Jun;8(3):289–291. [PubMed]
  • Sixma TK, Pronk SE, Kalk KH, Wartna ES, van Zanten BA, Witholt B, Hol WG. Crystal structure of a cholera toxin-related heat-labile enterotoxin from E. coli. Nature. 1991 May 30;351(6325):371–377. [PubMed]
  • Sjöqvist A, Cassuto J, Jodal M, Lundgren O. Actions of serotonin antagonists on cholera-toxin-induced intestinal fluid secretion. Acta Physiol Scand. 1992 Jul;145(3):229–237. [PubMed]
  • Smith HL., Jr Serotyping of non-cholera vibrios. J Clin Microbiol. 1979 Jul;10(1):85–90. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Smith HW, Linggood MA. Observations on the pathogenic properties of the K88, Hly and Ent plasmids of Escherichia coli with particular reference to porcine diarrhoea. J Med Microbiol. 1971 Nov;4(4):467–485. [PubMed]
  • Snyder JD, Allegra DT, Levine MM, Craig JP, Feeley JC, DeWitt WE, Blake PA. Serologic studies of naturally acquired infection with Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 in the United States. J Infect Dis. 1981 Feb;143(2):182–187. [PubMed]
  • Spangler BD. Structure and function of cholera toxin and the related Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin. Microbiol Rev. 1992 Dec;56(4):622–647. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Speelman P, Rabbani GH, Bukhave K, Rask-Madsen J. Increased jejunal prostaglandin E2 concentrations in patients with acute cholera. Gut. 1985 Feb;26(2):188–193. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Spira WM, Huq A, Ahmed QS, Saeed YA. Uptake of Vibrio cholerae biotype eltor from contaminated water by water hyacinth (eichornia crassipes). Appl Environ Microbiol. 1981 Sep;42(3):550–553. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Spira WM, Khan MU, Saeed YA, Sattar MA. Microbiological surveillance of intra-neighbourhood E1 Tor cholera transmission in rural Bangladesh. Bull World Health Organ. 1980;58(5):731–740. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Spira WM, Sack RB, Froehlich JL. Simple adult rabbit model for Vibrio cholerae and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli diarrhea. Infect Immun. 1981 May;32(2):739–747. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • St Louis ME, Porter JD, Helal A, Drame K, Hargrett-Bean N, Wells JG, Tauxe RV. Epidemic cholera in West Africa: the role of food handling and high-risk foods. Am J Epidemiol. 1990 Apr;131(4):719–728. [PubMed]
  • Stoebner JA, Butterton JR, Calderwood SB, Payne SM. Identification of the vibriobactin receptor of Vibrio cholerae. J Bacteriol. 1992 May;174(10):3270–3274. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Stoebner JA, Payne SM. Iron-regulated hemolysin production and utilization of heme and hemoglobin by Vibrio cholerae. Infect Immun. 1988 Nov;56(11):2891–2895. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Stroeher UH, Karageorgos LE, Morona R, Manning PA. Serotype conversion in Vibrio cholerae O1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Apr 1;89(7):2566–2570. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Su-Arehawaratana P, Singharaj P, Taylor DN, Hoge C, Trofa A, Kuvanont K, Migasena S, Pitisuttitham P, Lim YL, Losonsky G, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of different immunization regimens of CVD 103-HgR live oral cholera vaccine in soldiers and civilians in Thailand. J Infect Dis. 1992 Jun;165(6):1042–1048. [PubMed]
  • Suharyono, Simanjuntak C, Witham N, Punjabi N, Heppner DG, Losonsky G, Totosudirjo H, Rifai AR, Clemens J, Lim YL, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of single-dose live oral cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR in 5-9-year-old Indonesian children. Lancet. 1992 Sep 19;340(8821):689–694. [PubMed]
  • Sun DX, Mekalanos JJ, Taylor RK. Antibodies directed against the toxin-coregulated pilus isolated from Vibrio cholerae provide protection in the infant mouse experimental cholera model. J Infect Dis. 1990 Jun;161(6):1231–1236. [PubMed]
  • Svennerholm AM, Holmgren J. Synergistic protective effect in rabbits of immunization with Vibrio cholerae lipopolysaccharide and toxin/toxoid. Infect Immun. 1976 Mar;13(3):735–740. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Svennerholm AM, Strömberg GJ, Holmgren J. Purification of Vibrio cholerae soluble hemagglutinin and development of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for antigen and antibody quantitations. Infect Immun. 1983 Jul;41(1):237–243. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Swaddiwudhipong W, Limpakarnjanarat K. An outbreak of El Tor cholera in an institution for the mentally retarded in Nonthaburi, June-July 1987. J Med Assoc Thai. 1991 Jun;74(6):306–310. [PubMed]
  • Swerdlow DL, Mintz ED, Rodriguez M, Tejada E, Ocampo C, Espejo L, Greene KD, Saldana W, Seminario L, Tauxe RV, et al. Waterborne transmission of epidemic cholera in Trujillo, Peru: lessons for a continent at risk. Lancet. 1992 Jul 4;340(8810):28–33. [PubMed]
  • Swerdlow DL, Ries AA. Cholera in the Americas. Guidelines for the clinician. JAMA. 1992 Mar 18;267(11):1495–1499. [PubMed]
  • Swerdlow DL, Ries AA. Vibrio cholerae non-O1--the eighth pandemic? Lancet. 1993 Aug 14;342(8868):382–383. [PubMed]
  • Tabtieng R, Wattanasri S, Echeverria P, Seriwatana J, Bodhidatta L, Chatkaeomorakot A, Rowe B. An epidemic of Vibrio cholerae el tor Inaba resistant to several antibiotics with a conjugative group C plasmid coding for type II dihydrofolate reductase in Thailand. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1989 Dec;41(6):680–686. [PubMed]
  • Tacket CO, Clemens J, Kaper JB. Cholera vaccines. Biotechnology. 1992;20:53–68. [PubMed]
  • Tacket CO, Forrest B, Morona R, Attridge SR, LaBrooy J, Tall BD, Reymann M, Rowley D, Levine MM. Safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy against cholera challenge in humans of a typhoid-cholera hybrid vaccine derived from Salmonella typhi Ty21a. Infect Immun. 1990 Jun;58(6):1620–1627. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tacket CO, Losonsky G, Nataro JP, Cryz SJ, Edelman R, Fasano A, Michalski J, Kaper JB, Levine MM. Safety and immunogenicity of live oral cholera vaccine candidate CVD 110, a delta ctxA delta zot delta ace derivative of El Tor Ogawa Vibrio cholerae. J Infect Dis. 1993 Dec;168(6):1536–1540. [PubMed]
  • Tacket CO, Losonsky G, Nataro JP, Cryz SJ, Edelman R, Kaper JB, Levine MM. Onset and duration of protective immunity in challenged volunteers after vaccination with live oral cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR. J Infect Dis. 1992 Oct;166(4):837–841. [PubMed]
  • Takeda T, Peina Y, Ogawa A, Dohi S, Abe H, Nair GB, Pal SC. Detection of heat-stable enterotoxin in a cholera toxin gene-positive strain of Vibrio cholerae O1. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1991 May 1;64(1):23–27. [PubMed]
  • Ramamurthy T, Pal A, Bhattacharya MK, Bhattacharya SK, Chowdhury AS, Takeda Y, Takeda T, Pal SC, Nair GB. Serovar, biotype, phage type, toxigenicity & antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Vibrio cholerae isolated during two consecutive cholera seasons (1989-90) in Calcutta. Indian J Med Res. 1992 May;95:125–129. [PubMed]
  • Takeya K, Otohuji T, Tokiwa H. FK phage for differentiating the classical and El T or groups of Vibrio cholerae. J Clin Microbiol. 1981 Aug;14(2):222–224. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tamplin ML, Carrillo Parodi C. Environmental spread of Vibrio cholerae in Peru. Lancet. 1991 Nov 9;338(8776):1216–1217. [PubMed]
  • Tamplin ML, Colwell RR, Hall S, Kogure K, Strichartz GR. Sodium-channel inhibitors produced by enteropathogenic Vibrio cholerae and Aeromonas hydrophila. Lancet. 1987 Apr 25;1(8539):975–975. [PubMed]
  • Tamplin ML, Gauzens AL, Huq A, Sack DA, Colwell RR. Attachment of Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 to zooplankton and phytoplankton of Bangladesh waters. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1990 Jun;56(6):1977–1980. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tamura K, Shimada S, Prescott LM. Vibrio agar: a new plating medium for isolation of Vibrio cholerae. Jpn J Med Sci Biol. 1971 Apr;24(2):125–127. [PubMed]
  • Taylor JL, Tuttle J, Pramukul T, O'Brien K, Barrett TJ, Jolbitado B, Lim YL, Vugia D, Morris JG, Jr, Tauxe RV, et al. An outbreak of cholera in Maryland associated with imported commercial frozen fresh coconut milk. J Infect Dis. 1993 Jun;167(6):1330–1335. [PubMed]
  • Taylor R, Shaw C, Peterson K, Spears P, Mekalanos J. Safe, live Vibrio cholerae vaccines? Vaccine. 1988 Apr;6(2):151–154. [PubMed]
  • Taylor RK, Miller VL, Furlong DB, Mekalanos JJ. Use of phoA gene fusions to identify a pilus colonization factor coordinately regulated with cholera toxin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 May;84(9):2833–2837. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Teppema JS, Guinée PA, Ibrahim AA, Pâques M, Ruitenberg EJ. In vivo adherence and colonization of Vibrio cholerae strains that differ in hemagglutinating activity and motility. Infect Immun. 1987 Sep;55(9):2093–2102. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Terai A, Baba K, Shirai H, Yoshida O, Takeda Y, Nishibuchi M. Evidence for insertion sequence-mediated spread of the thermostable direct hemolysin gene among Vibrio species. J Bacteriol. 1991 Aug;173(16):5036–5046. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Towner KJ, Pearson NJ, Mhalu FS, O'Grady F. Resistance to antimicrobial agents of Vibrio cholerae E1 Tor strains isolated during the fourth cholera epidemic in the United Republic of Tanzania. Bull World Health Organ. 1980;58(5):747–751. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Trucksis M, Galen JE, Michalski J, Fasano A, Kaper JB. Accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace), the third toxin of a Vibrio cholerae virulence cassette. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Jun 1;90(11):5267–5271. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Twedt RM, Madden JM, Hunt JM, Francis DW, Peeler JT, Duran AP, Hebert WO, McCay SG, Roderick CN, Spite GT, et al. Characterization of Vibrio cholerae isolated from oysters. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1981 Jun;41(6):1475–1478. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Varela P, Rivas M, Binsztein N, Cremona ML, Herrmann P, Burrone O, Ugalde RA, Frasch AC. Identification of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae from the Argentine outbreak by PCR for ctx A1 and ctx A2-B. FEBS Lett. 1993 Jan 2;315(1):74–76. [PubMed]
  • Voss E, Attridge SR. In vitro production of toxin-coregulated pili by Vibrio cholerae El Tor. Microb Pathog. 1993 Oct;15(4):255–268. [PubMed]
  • Wachsmuth IK, Evins GM, Fields PI, Olsvik O, Popovic T, Bopp CA, Wells JG, Carrillo C, Blake PA. The molecular epidemiology of cholera in Latin America. J Infect Dis. 1993 Mar;167(3):621–626. [PubMed]
  • Wang F, Butler T, Rabbani GH, Jones PK. The acidosis of cholera. Contributions of hyperproteinemia, lactic acidemia, and hyperphosphatemia to an increased serum anion gap. N Engl J Med. 1986 Dec 18;315(25):1591–1595. [PubMed]
  • Wanke CA, Guerrant RL. Small-bowel colonization alone is a cause of diarrhea. Infect Immun. 1987 Aug;55(8):1924–1926. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • WATTEN RH, MORGAN FM, YACHAI NA SONGKHLA, VANIKIATI B, PHILLIPS RA. Water and electrolyte studies in cholera. J Clin Invest. 1959 Nov;38:1879–1889. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Winner L, 3rd, Mack J, Weltzin R, Mekalanos JJ, Kraehenbuhl JP, Neutra MR. New model for analysis of mucosal immunity: intestinal secretion of specific monoclonal immunoglobulin A from hybridoma tumors protects against Vibrio cholerae infection. Infect Immun. 1991 Mar;59(3):977–982. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Woodward WE. Cholera reinfection in man. J Infect Dis. 1971 Jan;123(1):61–66. [PubMed]
  • Wright AC, Guo Y, Johnson JA, Nataro JP, Morris JG., Jr Development and testing of a nonradioactive DNA oligonucleotide probe that is specific for Vibrio cholerae cholera toxin. J Clin Microbiol. 1992 Sep;30(9):2302–2306. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Yam WC, Lung ML, Ng KY, Ng MH. Molecular epidemiology of Vibrio cholerae in Hong Kong. J Clin Microbiol. 1989 Aug;27(8):1900–1902. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Yamamoto K, Ichinose Y, Nakasone N, Tanabe M, Nagahama M, Sakurai J, Iwanaga M. Identity of hemolysins produced by Vibrio cholerae non-O1 and V. cholerae O1, biotype El Tor. Infect Immun. 1986 Mar;51(3):927–931. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Yamamoto K, Ichinose Y, Shinagawa H, Makino K, Nakata A, Iwanaga M, Honda T, Miwatani T. Two-step processing for activation of the cytolysin/hemolysin of Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor: nucleotide sequence of the structural gene (hlyA) and characterization of the processed products. Infect Immun. 1990 Dec;58(12):4106–4116. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Yamamoto T, Kamano T, Uchimura M, Iwanaga M, Yokota T. Vibrio cholerae O1 adherence to villi and lymphoid follicle epithelium: in vitro model using formalin-treated human small intestine and correlation between adherence and cell-associated hemagglutinin levels. Infect Immun. 1988 Dec;56(12):3241–3250. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Yamamoto T, Tamura T, Yokota T. Primary structure of heat-labile enterotoxin produced by Escherichia coli pathogenic for humans. J Biol Chem. 1984 Apr 25;259(8):5037–5044. [PubMed]
  • Yamamoto T, Yokota T. Sequence of heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli pathogenic for humans. J Bacteriol. 1983 Aug;155(2):728–733. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Yamamoto T, Yokota T. Electron microscopic study of Vibrio cholerae O1 adherence to the mucus coat and villus surface in the human small intestine. Infect Immun. 1988 Oct;56(10):2753–2759. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Yamamoto T, Yokota T. Vibrio cholerae O1 adherence to human small intestinal M cells in vitro. J Infect Dis. 1989 Jul;160(1):168–169. [PubMed]
  • Yancey RJ, Willis DL, Berry LJ. Flagella-induced immunity against experimental cholera in adult rabbits. Infect Immun. 1979 Jul;25(1):220–228. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Yoh M, Miyagi K, Matsumoto Y, Hayashi K, Takarada Y, Yamamoto K, Honda T. Development of an enzyme-labeled oligonucleotide probe for the cholera toxin gene. J Clin Microbiol. 1993 May;31(5):1312–1314. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Yu J, Webb H, Hirst TR. A homologue of the Escherichia coli DsbA protein involved in disulphide bond formation is required for enterotoxin biogenesis in Vibrio cholerae. Mol Microbiol. 1992 Jul;6(14):1949–1958. [PubMed]

Articles from Clinical Microbiology Reviews are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

Recent Activity

  • Cholera.
    Cholera.
    Clinical Microbiology Reviews. Jan 1995; 8(1)48
    PMC

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...