Logo of gutGutVisit this articleSubmit a manuscriptReceive email alertsContact usBMJ
Gut. 2000 Oct; 47(4): 589–594.
PMCID: PMC1728059

Mucins and mucosal protection in the gastrointestinal tract: new prospects for mucins in the pathology of gastrointestinal disease

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (117K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Gendler SJ, Spicer AP. Epithelial mucin genes. Annu Rev Physiol. 1995;57:607–634. [PubMed]
  • Kim YS, Gum J, Jr, Brockhausen I. Mucin glycoproteins in neoplasia. Glycoconj J. 1996 Oct;13(5):693–707. [PubMed]
  • Williams SJ, McGuckin MA, Gotley DC, Eyre HJ, Sutherland GR, Antalis TM. Two novel mucin genes down-regulated in colorectal cancer identified by differential display. Cancer Res. 1999 Aug 15;59(16):4083–4089. [PubMed]
  • Van Klinken BJ, Dekker J, Büller HA, Einerhand AW. Mucin gene structure and expression: protection vs. adhesion. Am J Physiol. 1995 Nov;269(5 Pt 1):G613–G627. [PubMed]
  • Jass JR, Roberton AM. Colorectal mucin histochemistry in health and disease: a critical review. Pathol Int. 1994 Jul;44(7):487–504. [PubMed]
  • Mullen PJ, Carr N, Milton JD, Rhodes JM. Immunohistochemical detection of O-acetylated sialomucins in intestinal metaplasia and carcinoma of the stomach. Histopathology. 1995 Aug;27(2):161–167. [PubMed]
  • David L, Nesland JM, Clausen H, Carneiro F, Sobrinho-Simões M. Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens (Tn, sialosyl-Tn and T) in gastric mucosa, carcinomas and metastases. APMIS Suppl. 1992;27:162–172. [PubMed]
  • Ho SB, Shekels LL, Toribara NW, Kim YS, Lyftogt C, Cherwitz DL, Niehans GA. Mucin gene expression in normal, preneoplastic, and neoplastic human gastric epithelium. Cancer Res. 1995 Jun 15;55(12):2681–2690. [PubMed]
  • Reis CA, David L, Correa P, Carneiro F, de Bolós C, Garcia E, Mandel U, Clausen H, Sobrinho-Simões M. Intestinal metaplasia of human stomach displays distinct patterns of mucin (MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC, and MUC6) expression. Cancer Res. 1999 Mar 1;59(5):1003–1007. [PubMed]
  • Ota H, Nakayama J, Momose M, Hayama M, Akamatsu T, Katsuyama T, Graham DY, Genta RM. Helicobacter pylori infection produces reversible glycosylation changes to gastric mucins. Virchows Arch. 1998 Nov;433(5):419–426. [PubMed]
  • Miller-Podraza H, Bergström J, Milh MA, Karlsson KA. Recognition of glycoconjugates by Helicobacter pylori. Comparison of two sialic acid-dependent specificities based on haemagglutination and binding to human erythrocyte glycoconjugates. Glycoconj J. 1997 Jun;14(4):467–471. [PubMed]
  • Slomiany BL, Slomiany A. Mechanism of Helicobacter pylori pathogenesis: focus on mucus. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1992;14 (Suppl 1):S114–S121. [PubMed]
  • Sidebotham RL, Batten JJ, Karim QN, Spencer J, Baron JH. Breakdown of gastric mucus in presence of Helicobacter pylori. J Clin Pathol. 1991 Jan;44(1):52–57. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Newton JL, Jordan N, Oliver L, Strugala V, Pearson J, James OF, Allen A. Helicobacter pylori in vivo causes structural changes in the adherent gastric mucus layer but barrier thickness is not compromised. Gut. 1998 Oct;43(4):470–475. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Byrd JC, Yan P, Sternberg L, Yunker CK, Scheiman JM, Bresalier RS. Aberrant expression of gland-type gastric mucin in the surface epithelium of Helicobacter pylori-infected patients. Gastroenterology. 1997 Aug;113(2):455–464. [PubMed]
  • Pullan RD, Thomas GA, Rhodes M, Newcombe RG, Williams GT, Allen A, Rhodes J. Thickness of adherent mucus gel on colonic mucosa in humans and its relevance to colitis. Gut. 1994 Mar;35(3):353–359. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • McCormick DA, Horton LW, Mee AS. Mucin depletion in inflammatory bowel disease. J Clin Pathol. 1990 Feb;43(2):143–146. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Smithson JE, Campbell A, Andrews JM, Milton JD, Pigott R, Jewell DP. Altered expression of mucins throughout the colon in ulcerative colitis. Gut. 1997 Feb;40(2):234–240. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Smith AC, Podolsky DK. Biosynthesis and secretion of human colonic mucin glycoproteins. J Clin Invest. 1987 Aug;80(2):300–307. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Corfield AP, Myerscough N, Bradfield N, Corfield C do A, Gough M, Clamp JR, Durdey P, Warren BF, Bartolo DC, King KR, et al. Colonic mucins in ulcerative colitis: evidence for loss of sulfation. Glycoconj J. 1996 Oct;13(5):809–822. [PubMed]
  • Van Klinken BJ, Van der Wal JW, Einerhand AW, Büller HA, Dekker J. Sulphation and secretion of the predominant secretory human colonic mucin MUC2 in ulcerative colitis. Gut. 1999 Mar;44(3):387–393. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Probert CS, Warren BF, Perry T, Mackay EH, Mayberry JF, Corfield AP. South Asian and European colitics show characteristic differences in colonic mucus glycoprotein type and turnover. Gut. 1995 May;36(5):696–702. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Raouf AH, Tsai HH, Parker N, Hoffman J, Walker RJ, Rhodes JM. Sulphation of colonic and rectal mucin in inflammatory bowel disease: reduced sulphation of rectal mucus in ulcerative colitis. Clin Sci (Lond) 1992 Nov;83(5):623–626. [PubMed]
  • Itzkowitz SH, Young E, Dubois D, Harpaz N, Bodian C, Chen A, Sachar DB. Sialosyl-Tn antigen is prevalent and precedes dysplasia in ulcerative colitis: a retrospective case-control study. Gastroenterology. 1996 Mar;110(3):694–704. [PubMed]
  • McMahon RF, Warren BF, Jones CJ, Mayberry JF, Probert CS, Corfield AP, Stoddart RW. South Asians with ulcerative colitis exhibit altered lectin binding compared with matched European cases. Histochem J. 1997 Jun;29(6):469–477. [PubMed]
  • Tytgat KM, van der Wal JW, Einerhand AW, Büller HA, Dekker J. Quantitative analysis of MUC2 synthesis in ulcerative colitis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996 Jul 16;224(2):397–405. [PubMed]
  • Myerscough N, Warren B, Gough M, Corfield A. Expression of mucin genes in ulcerative colitis. Biochem Soc Trans. 1995 Nov;23(4):536S–536S. [PubMed]
  • Weiss AA, Babyatsky MW, Ogata S, Chen A, Itzkowitz SH. Expression of MUC2 and MUC3 mRNA in human normal, malignant, and inflammatory intestinal tissues. J Histochem Cytochem. 1996 Oct;44(10):1161–1166. [PubMed]
  • Kyo K, Parkes M, Takei Y, Nishimori H, Vyas P, Satsangi J, Simmons J, Nagawa H, Baba S, Jewell D, et al. Association of ulcerative colitis with rare VNTR alleles of the human intestinal mucin gene, MUC3. Hum Mol Genet. 1999 Feb;8(2):307–311. [PubMed]
  • Buisine MP, Desreumaux P, Debailleul V, Gambiez L, Geboes K, Ectors N, Delescaut MP, Degand P, Aubert JP, Colombel JF, et al. Abnormalities in mucin gene expression in Crohn's disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 1999 Feb;5(1):24–32. [PubMed]
  • Hanski C, Born M, Foss HD, Marowski B, Mansmann U, Arastéh K, Bachler B, Papenfuss M, Niedobitek F. Defective post-transcriptional processing of MUC2 mucin in ulcerative colitis and in Crohn's disease increases detectability of the MUC2 protein core. J Pathol. 1999 Jul;188(3):304–311. [PubMed]
  • Aksoy N, Thornton DJ, Corfield A, Paraskeva C, Sheehan JK. A study of the intracellular and secreted forms of the MUC2 mucin from the PC/AA intestinal cell line. Glycobiology. 1999 Jul;9(7):739–746. [PubMed]
  • Corfield AP, Warren BF, Bartolo DC, Wagner SA, Clamp JR. Mucin changes in ileoanal pouches monitored by metabolic labelling and histochemistry. Br J Surg. 1992 Nov;79(11):1209–1212. [PubMed]
  • Shepherd NA, Healey CJ, Warren BF, Richman PI, Thomson WH, Wilkinson SP. Distribution of mucosal pathology and an assessment of colonic phenotypic change in the pelvic ileal reservoir. Gut. 1993 Jan;34(1):101–105. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Jass JR. Mucin histochemistry of the columnar epithelium of the oesophagus: a retrospective study. J Clin Pathol. 1981 Aug;34(8):866–870. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lapertosa G, Baracchini P, Fulcheri E. Mucin histochemical analysis in the interpretation of Barrett's esophagus. Results of a multicenter study. The Operative Group for the Study of Esophageal Precancer. Am J Clin Pathol. 1992 Jul;98(1):61–66. [PubMed]
  • Torrado J, Ruiz B, Garay J, Asenjo JL, Tovar JA, Cosme A, Correa P. Blood-group phenotypes, sulfomucins, and Helicobacter pylori in Barrett's esophagus. Am J Surg Pathol. 1997 Sep;21(9):1023–1029. [PubMed]
  • Springer GF. Immunoreactive T and Tn epitopes in cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and immunotherapy. J Mol Med (Berl) 1997 Aug;75(8):594–602. [PubMed]
  • Carneiro F, Santos L, David L, Dabelsteen E, Clausen H, Sobrinho-Simões M. T (Thomsen-Friedenreich) antigen and other simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens in precursor lesions of gastric carcinoma. Histopathology. 1994 Feb;24(2):105–113. [PubMed]
  • Baldus SE, Zirbes TK, Mönig SP, Engel S, Monaca E, Rafiqpoor K, Hanisch FG, Hanski C, Thiele J, Pichlmaier H, et al. Histopathological subtypes and prognosis of gastric cancer are correlated with the expression of mucin-associated sialylated antigens: Sialosyl-Lewis(a), Sialosyl-Lewis(x) and sialosyl-Tn. Tumour Biol. 1998;19(6):445–453. [PubMed]
  • Iwata H, Itzkowitz SH, Werther JL, Hayashi K, Nakamura H, Ichinose M, Miki K, Tatematsu M. Expression of sialosyl-Tn in intestinal type cancer cells of human gastric cancers. Acta Pathol Jpn. 1993 Nov;43(11):646–653. [PubMed]
  • Werther JL, Tatematsu M, Klein R, Kurihara M, Kumagai K, Llorens P, Guidugli Neto J, Bodian C, Pertsemlidis D, Yamachika T, et al. Sialosyl-Tn antigen as a marker of gastric cancer progression: an international study. Int J Cancer. 1996 Jun 21;69(3):193–199. [PubMed]
  • Torrado J, Ruiz B, Garay J, Cosme A, Arenas JI, Bravo JC, Fontham E, Correa P. Lewis, secretor, and ABO phenotypes, and sulfomucin expression in gastric intestinal metaplasia. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1997 Apr;6(4):287–289. [PubMed]
  • Ohe Y, Hinoda Y, Irimura T, Imai K, Yachi A. Expression of sulfated carbohydrate chains detected by monoclonal antibody 91.9H in human gastric cancer tissues. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1994 Apr;85(4):400–408. [PubMed]
  • Reis CA, David L, Seixas M, Burchell J, Sobrinho-Simões M. Expression of fully and under-glycosylated forms of MUC1 mucin in gastric carcinoma. Int J Cancer. 1998 Aug 21;79(4):402–410. [PubMed]
  • Utsunomiya T, Yonezawa S, Sakamoto H, Kitamura H, Hokita S, Aiko T, Tanaka S, Irimura T, Kim YS, Sato E. Expression of MUC1 and MUC2 mucins in gastric carcinomas: its relationship with the prognosis of the patients. Clin Cancer Res. 1998 Nov;4(11):2605–2614. [PubMed]
  • Nakagawa K, Akagi J, Takai E, Tamori Y, Okino T, Kako H, Egami H, Ogawa M. Prognostic values of MUC-1 molecule expressing cytokine receptor-like epitope and DF3 in patients with gastric carcinoma. Int J Oncol. 1999 Mar;14(3):425–435. [PubMed]
  • Sakamoto H, Yonezawa S, Utsunomiya T, Tanaka S, Kim YS, Sato E. Mucin antigen expression in gastric carcinomas of young and old adults. Hum Pathol. 1997 Sep;28(9):1056–1065. [PubMed]
  • Filipe MI, Linehan JM, Durrant LG, Price MR, Smeeton NC, Pathak S, Swallow DM. Expression of a peptide epitope of the colonic mucin MUC2 in precursor lesions to gastric carcinoma. Eur J Cancer Prev. 1996 Aug;5(4):287–295. [PubMed]
  • Reis CA, David L, Nielsen PA, Clausen H, Mirgorodskaya K, Roepstorff P, Sobrinho-Simões M. Immunohistochemical study of MUC5AC expression in human gastric carcinomas using a novel monoclonal antibody. Int J Cancer. 1997 Feb 20;74(1):112–121. [PubMed]
  • Carvalho F, Seruca R, David L, Amorim A, Seixas M, Bennett E, Clausen H, Sobrinho-Simões M. MUC1 gene polymorphism and gastric cancer--an epidemiological study. Glycoconj J. 1997 Jan;14(1):107–111. [PubMed]
  • Garcia E, Carvalho F, Amorim A, David L. MUC6 gene polymorphism in healthy individuals and in gastric cancer patients from northern Portugal. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1997 Dec;6(12):1071–1074. [PubMed]
  • Hanski C, Hofmeier M, Schmitt-Gräff A, Riede E, Hanski ML, Borchard F, Sieber E, Niedobitek F, Foss HD, Stein H, et al. Overexpression or ectopic expression of MUC2 is the common property of mucinous carcinomas of the colon, pancreas, breast, and ovary. J Pathol. 1997 Aug;182(4):385–391. [PubMed]
  • Ogata S, Koganty R, Reddish M, Longenecker BM, Chen A, Perez C, Itzkowitz SH. Different modes of sialyl-Tn expression during malignant transformation of human colonic mucosa. Glycoconj J. 1998 Jan;15(1):29–35. [PubMed]
  • Itzkowitz SH, Yuan M, Montgomery CK, Kjeldsen T, Takahashi HK, Bigbee WL, Kim YS. Expression of Tn, sialosyl-Tn, and T antigens in human colon cancer. Cancer Res. 1989 Jan 1;49(1):197–204. [PubMed]
  • Itzkowitz SH, Yuan M, Fukushi Y, Lee H, Shi ZR, Zurawski V, Jr, Hakomori S, Kim YS. Immunohistochemical comparison of Lea, monosialosyl Lea (CA 19-9), and disialosyl Lea antigens in human colorectal and pancreatic tissues. Cancer Res. 1988 Jul 1;48(13):3834–3842. [PubMed]
  • Corfield AP, Myerscough N, Warren BF, Durdey P, Paraskeva C, Schauer R. Reduction of sialic acid O-acetylation in human colonic mucins in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Glycoconj J. 1999 Jun;16(6):307–317. [PubMed]
  • Jass JR, Allison LJ, Edgar SG. Distribution of sialosyl Tn and Tn antigens within normal and malignant colorectal epithelium. J Pathol. 1995 Jun;176(2):143–149. [PubMed]
  • Mann B, Klussmann E, Vandamme-Feldhaus V, Iwersen M, Hanski ML, Riecken EO, Buhr HJ, Schauer R, Kim YS, Hanski C. Low O-acetylation of sialyl-Le(x) contributes to its overexpression in colon carcinoma metastases. Int J Cancer. 1997 Jul 17;72(2):258–264. [PubMed]
  • Hanski C, Bornhoeft G, Topf N, Hermann U, Stein H, Riecken EO. Detection of a mucin marker for the adenoma-carcinoma sequence inhuman colonic mucosa by monoclonal antibody AM-3. J Clin Pathol. 1990 May;43(5):379–384. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Yamori T, Kimura H, Stewart K, Ota DM, Cleary KR, Irimura T. Differential production of high molecular weight sulfated glycoproteins in normal colonic mucosa, primary colon carcinoma, and metastases. Cancer Res. 1987 May 15;47(10):2741–2747. [PubMed]
  • Matsushita Y, Yamamoto N, Shirahama H, Tanaka S, Yonezawa S, Yamori T, Irimura T, Sato E. Expression of sulfomucins in normal mucosae, colorectal adenocarcinomas, and metastases. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1995 Nov;86(11):1060–1067. [PubMed]
  • Ogata S, Uehara H, Chen A, Itzkowitz SH. Mucin gene expression in colonic tissues and cell lines. Cancer Res. 1992 Nov 1;52(21):5971–5978. [PubMed]
  • Ajioka Y, Xing PX, Hinoda Y, Jass JR. Correlative histochemical study providing evidence for the dual nature of human colorectal cancer mucin. Histochem J. 1997 Feb;29(2):143–152. [PubMed]
  • Buisine MP, Janin A, Maunoury V, Audié JP, Delescaut MP, Copin MC, Colombel JF, Degand P, Aubert JP, Porchet N. Aberrant expression of a human mucin gene (MUC5AC) in rectosigmoid villous adenoma. Gastroenterology. 1996 Jan;110(1):84–91. [PubMed]
  • Ho SB, Ewing SL, Montgomery CK, Kim YS. Altered mucin core peptide immunoreactivity in the colon polyp-carcinoma sequence. Oncol Res. 1996;8(2):53–61. [PubMed]
  • Bartman AE, Sanderson SJ, Ewing SL, Niehans GA, Wiehr CL, Evans MK, Ho SB. Aberrant expression of MUC5AC and MUC6 gastric mucin genes in colorectal polyps. Int J Cancer. 1999 Jan 18;80(2):210–218. [PubMed]
  • Biemer-Hüttmann AE, Walsh MD, McGuckin MA, Ajioka Y, Watanabe H, Leggett BA, Jass JR. Immunohistochemical staining patterns of MUC1, MUC2, MUC4, and MUC5AC mucins in hyperplastic polyps, serrated adenomas, and traditional adenomas of the colorectum. J Histochem Cytochem. 1999 Aug;47(8):1039–1048. [PubMed]
  • Ajioka Y, Watanabe H, Jass JR. MUC1 and MUC2 mucins in flat and polypoid colorectal adenomas. J Clin Pathol. 1997 May;50(5):417–421. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hanski C, Riede E, Gratchev A, Foss HD, Böhm C, Klussmann E, Hummel M, Mann B, Buhr HJ, Stein H, et al. MUC2 gene suppression in human colorectal carcinomas and their metastases: in vitro evidence of the modulatory role of DNA methylation. Lab Invest. 1997 Dec;77(6):685–695. [PubMed]
  • Nakamori S, Ota DM, Cleary KR, Shirotani K, Irimura T. MUC1 mucin expression as a marker of progression and metastasis of human colorectal carcinoma. Gastroenterology. 1994 Feb;106(2):353–361. [PubMed]
  • Hiraga Y, Tanaka S, Haruma K, Yoshihara M, Sumii K, Kajiyama G, Shimamoto F, Kohno N. Immunoreactive MUC1 expression at the deepest invasive portion correlates with prognosis of colorectal cancer. Oncology. 1998 Jul-Aug;55(4):307–319. [PubMed]
  • MacLean GD, Reddish MA, Longenecker BM. Prognostic significance of preimmunotherapy serum CA27.29 (MUC-1) mucin level after active specific immunotherapy of metastatic adenocarcinoma patients. J Immunother. 1997 Jan;20(1):70–78. [PubMed]
  • Medina M, Vélez D, Asenjo JA, Egea G, Real FX, Gil J, Subiza JL. Human colon adenocarcinomas express a MUC1-associated novel carbohydrate epitope on core mucin glycans defined by a monoclonal antibody (A10) raised against murine Ehrlich tumor cells. Cancer Res. 1999 Mar 1;59(5):1061–1070. [PubMed]
  • Burdick MD, Harris A, Reid CJ, Iwamura T, Hollingsworth MA. Oligosaccharides expressed on MUC1 produced by pancreatic and colon tumor cell lines. J Biol Chem. 1997 Sep 26;272(39):24198–24202. [PubMed]
  • Hanski C, Hanski ML, Zimmer T, Ogorek D, Devine P, Riecken EO. Characterization of the major sialyl-Lex-positive mucins present in colon, colon carcinoma, and sera of patients with colorectal cancer. Cancer Res. 1995 Feb 15;55(4):928–933. [PubMed]
  • Baldus SE, Hanisch FG, Kotlarek GM, Zirbes TK, Thiele J, Isenberg J, Karsten UR, Devine PL, Dienes HP. Coexpression of MUC1 mucin peptide core and the Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen in colorectal neoplasms. Cancer. 1998 Mar 15;82(6):1019–1027. [PubMed]
  • Agrawal B, Gendler SJ, Longenecker BM. The biological role of mucins in cellular interactions and immune regulation: prospects for cancer immunotherapy. Mol Med Today. 1998 Sep;4(9):397–403. [PubMed]
  • Aslam A, Spicer RD, Corfield AP. Histochemical and genetic analysis of colonic mucin glycoproteins in Hirschsprung's disease. J Pediatr Surg. 1999 Feb;34(2):330–333. [PubMed]
  • Aslam A, Spicer RD, Corfield AP. Children with Hirschsprung's disease have an abnormal colonic mucus defensive barrier independent of the bowel innervation status. J Pediatr Surg. 1997 Aug;32(8):1206–1210. [PubMed]
  • Teitelbaum DH, Caniano DA, Qualman SJ. The pathophysiology of Hirschsprung's-associated enterocolitis: importance of histologic correlates. J Pediatr Surg. 1989 Dec;24(12):1271–1277. [PubMed]
  • Israel EJ. Neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis, a disease of the immature intestinal mucosal barrier. Acta Paediatr Suppl. 1994;396:27–32. [PubMed]

Articles from Gut are provided here courtesy of BMJ Group


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • Cited in Books
    Cited in Books
    PubMed Central articles cited in books
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...