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Gut. Dec 1998; 43(6): 791–797.
PMCID: PMC1727341

Matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in gastric cancer


Background—The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are strongly implicated in tumour invasion and metastasis.
Aims—To investigate the presence of individual MMPs and TIMPs in gastric cancer.
Methods—The presence of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 was identified in a group of gastric cancers (n=74) by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies. These antibodies were effective on formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded sections.
Results—A large proportion (94%) of gastric cancers contained MMP-2; MMP-1 and MMP-9 were also detected in 73% and 70% of tumours respectively. MMP-3 was only present in 27% of tumours. MMP-1 and MMP-9 were found predominantly in intestinal type tumours. TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were identified in 41% and 57% of tumours respectively. Immunoreactivity for individual MMPs or TIMPs was not identified in normal stomach.
Conclusions—This study shows the presence of matrix metalloproteinases, particularly MMP-2, and TIMPs in stomach cancer. Antibodies which are effective in formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded sections are useful for the identification of MMPs and TIMPs in diagnostic specimens.

Keywords: immunohistochemistry; matrix metalloproteinase; neoplasm; stomach

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Selected References

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Figures and Tables

Figure 1
Immunoblot showing the specificity of the MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, and MMP-9 antibodies. The membrane was immunostained with MMP-1 (A), MMP-2 (B), MMP-3 (C), and MMP-9 antibody (D). Lane 1, MMP-1; lane 2, MMP-3; lane 3, MMP-2; lane 4, MMP-9. Molecular weight ...
Figure 2
Immunoblots showing the reaction of the MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, and MMP-9 monoclonal antibodies with the proenzyme and activated forms of the corresponding MMPs. The membrane was immunostained with MMP-1 (A), MMP-2 (B), MMP-3 (C), and MMP-9 antibody (D). ...
Figure 3
Immunohistochemical localisation of: (A) MMP-1; (B) MMP-2; (C) MMP-3; (D) MMP-9 in gastric cancers of intestinal type; and (E) MMP-1 in normal gastric epithelium (similar results were obtained with antibodies to the other MMPs). Strong immunoreactivity for ...
Figure 4
Immunoblot showing the specificity of the TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 antibodies. Section A was immunostained with TIMP-1 antibody and section B with TIMP-2 antibody. Lane 1, TIMP-1; lane 2, TIMP-2. Molecular weight markers are shown on the right in kDa.
Figure 5
Immunohistochemical localisation of (A) TIMP-1 and (B) TIMP-2 in gastric cancers of intestinal type. TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 immunoreactivity is present in tumour cells (arrows). Immunostaining for TIMP-1 is also present in macrophages (arrowhead) and immunostaining ...

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