• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of emermedjEmergency Medical JournalCurrent TOCInstructions to authors
Emerg Med J. Sep 2003; 20(5): 402–405.
PMCID: PMC1726173

Emergency department overcrowding in the United States: an emerging threat to patient safety and public health

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (86K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Richardson LD, Hwang U. America's Health Care Safety Net: intact or unraveling? Acad Emerg Med. 2001 Nov;8(11):1056–1063. [PubMed]
  • Derlet Robert W. Overcrowding in emergency departments: increased demand and decreased capacity. Ann Emerg Med. 2002 Apr;39(4):430–432. [PubMed]
  • Derlet R, Richards J, Kravitz R. Frequent overcrowding in U.S. emergency departments. Acad Emerg Med. 2001 Feb;8(2):151–155. [PubMed]
  • Derlet RW, Richards JR. Overcrowding in the nation's emergency departments: complex causes and disturbing effects. Ann Emerg Med. 2000 Jan;35(1):63–68. [PubMed]
  • Derlet Robert W, Richards John R. Emergency department overcrowding in Florida, New York, and Texas. South Med J. 2002 Aug;95(8):846–849. [PubMed]
  • Taylor TB. Threats to the health care safety net. Acad Emerg Med. 2001 Nov;8(11):1080–1087. [PubMed]
  • Lambe Susan, Washington Donna L, Fink Arlene, Herbst Katherine, Liu Honghu, Fosse Jessica Scura, Asch Steven M. Trends in the use and capacity of California's emergency departments, 1990-1999. Ann Emerg Med. 2002 Apr;39(4):389–396. [PubMed]
  • Andrulis DP, Kellermann A, Hintz EA, Hackman BB, Weslowski VB. Emergency departments and crowding in United States teaching hospitals. Ann Emerg Med. 1991 Sep;20(9):980–986. [PubMed]
  • Gordon JA. Emergency care as safety net. Health Aff (Millwood) 2000 Mar-Apr;19(2):277–277. [PubMed]
  • Gordon JA. The hospital emergency department as a social welfare institution. Ann Emerg Med. 1999 Mar;33(3):321–325. [PubMed]
  • Asplin BR. Tying a knot in the unraveling health care safety net. Acad Emerg Med. 2001 Nov;8(11):1075–1079. [PubMed]
  • Lowe RA, Bindman AB, Ulrich SK, Norman G, Scaletta TA, Keane D, Washington D, Grumbach K. Refusing care to emergency department of patients: evaluation of published triage guidelines. Ann Emerg Med. 1994 Feb;23(2):286–293. [PubMed]
  • Gordon JA, Billings J, Asplin BR, Rhodes KV. Safety net research in emergency medicine: proceedings of the Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference on "The Unraveling Safety Net". Acad Emerg Med. 2001 Nov;8(11):1024–1029. [PubMed]
  • Richards JR, Navarro ML, Derlet RW. Survey of directors of emergency departments in California on overcrowding. West J Med. 2000 Jun;172(6):385–388. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kellermann AL. Déjà vu. Ann Emerg Med. 2000 Jan;35(1):83–85. [PubMed]
  • Schneider S, Zwemer F, Doniger A, Dick R, Czapranski T, Davis E. Rochester, New York: a decade of emergency department overcrowding. Acad Emerg Med. 2001 Nov;8(11):1044–1050. [PubMed]
  • Lynn SG, Kellermann AL. Critical decision making: managing the emergency department in an overcrowded hospital. Ann Emerg Med. 1991 Mar;20(3):287–292. [PubMed]
  • Rivers E, Nguyen B, Havstad S, Ressler J, Muzzin A, Knoblich B, Peterson E, Tomlanovich M. Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock. N Engl J Med. 2001 Nov 8;345(19):1368–1377. [PubMed]
  • McNutt Robert A, Abrams Richard, Arons David C. Patient safety efforts should focus on medical errors. JAMA. 2002 Apr 17;287(15):1997–2001. [PubMed]
  • Litvak E, Long MC, Cooper AB, McManus ML. Emergency department diversion: causes and solutions. Acad Emerg Med. 2001 Nov;8(11):1108–1110. [PubMed]
  • Taylor TB. Emergency services crisis of 2000--the Arizona experience. Acad Emerg Med. 2001 Nov;8(11):1107–1108. [PubMed]
  • Redelmeier DA, Blair PJ, Collins WE. No place to unload: a preliminary analysis of the prevalence, risk factors, and consequences of ambulance diversion. Ann Emerg Med. 1994 Jan;23(1):43–47. [PubMed]
  • McCaig LF, Stussman BJ. National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 1996 emergency department summary. Adv Data. 1997 Dec 17;(293):1–20. [PubMed]
  • Burt CW, McCaig LF. Trends in hospital emergency department utilization: United States, 1992-99. Vital Health Stat 13. 2001 Sep;(150):1–34. [PubMed]
  • Schull MJ, Szalai JP, Schwartz B, Redelmeier DA. Emergency department overcrowding following systematic hospital restructuring: trends at twenty hospitals over ten years. Acad Emerg Med. 2001 Nov;8(11):1037–1043. [PubMed]
  • Edwards N, Harrison A. Planning hospitals with limited evidence: a research and policy problem. BMJ. 1999 Nov 20;319(7221):1361–1363. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bagust A, Place M, Posnett JW. Dynamics of bed use in accommodating emergency admissions: stochastic simulation model. BMJ. 1999 Jul 17;319(7203):155–158. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fatovich Daniel M. Emergency medicine. BMJ. 2002 Apr 20;324(7343):958–962. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Graff L. Overcrowding in the ED: an international symptom of health care system failure. Am J Emerg Med. 1999 Mar;17(2):208–209. [PubMed]
  • Kelen GD, Scheulen JJ, Hill PM. Effect of an emergency department (ED) managed acute care unit on ED overcrowding and emergency medical services diversion. Acad Emerg Med. 2001 Nov;8(11):1095–1100. [PubMed]

Articles from Emergency Medicine Journal : EMJ are provided here courtesy of BMJ Group


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • Cited in Books
    Cited in Books
    PubMed Central articles cited in books
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...