Logo of brjsmedBritish Journal of Sports MedicineVisit this articleSubmit a manuscriptReceive email alertsContact usBMJ
Br J Sports Med. Jun 2005; 39(6): 319–323.
PMCID: PMC1725237

Evidence based prevention of hamstring injuries in sport

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (67K).

Supplementary Material

[Dutch translation]

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Ekstrand J, Gillquist J. Soccer injuries and their mechanisms: a prospective study. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1983;15(3):267–270. [PubMed]
  • Garrett WE., Jr Muscle strain injuries. Am J Sports Med. 1996;24(6 Suppl):S2–S8. [PubMed]
  • Askling C, Lund H, Saartok T, Thorstensson A. Self-reported hamstring injuries in student-dancers. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2002 Aug;12(4):230–235. [PubMed]
  • Sallay PI, Friedman RL, Coogan PG, Garrett WE. Hamstring muscle injuries among water skiers. Functional outcome and prevention. Am J Sports Med. 1996 Mar-Apr;24(2):130–136. [PubMed]
  • Hawkins RD, Hulse MA, Wilkinson C, Hodson A, Gibson M. The association football medical research programme: an audit of injuries in professional football. Br J Sports Med. 2001 Feb;35(1):43–47. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Woods C, Hawkins RD, Maltby S, Hulse M, Thomas A, Hodson A. The Football Association Medical Research Programme: an audit of injuries in professional football--analysis of hamstring injuries. Br J Sports Med. 2004 Feb;38(1):36–41. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Arnason A, Gudmundsson A, Dahl HA, Jóhannsson E. Soccer injuries in Iceland. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 1996 Feb;6(1):40–45. [PubMed]
  • Orchard J, Seward H. Epidemiology of injuries in the Australian Football League, seasons 1997-2000. Br J Sports Med. 2002 Feb;36(1):39–44. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Verrall GM, Slavotinek JP, Barnes PG, Fon GT, Spriggins AJ. Clinical risk factors for hamstring muscle strain injury: a prospective study with correlation of injury by magnetic resonance imaging. Br J Sports Med. 2001 Dec;35(6):435–440. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Connell David A, Schneider-Kolsky Michal E, Hoving Jan Lucas, Malara Frank, Buchbinder Rachelle, Koulouris George, Burke Frank, Bass Cheryl. Longitudinal study comparing sonographic and MRI assessments of acute and healing hamstring injuries. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2004 Oct;183(4):975–984. [PubMed]
  • Sherry Marc A, Best Thomas M. A comparison of 2 rehabilitation programs in the treatment of acute hamstring strains. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2004 Mar;34(3):116–125. [PubMed]
  • Heiser TM, Weber J, Sullivan G, Clare P, Jacobs RR. Prophylaxis and management of hamstring muscle injuries in intercollegiate football players. Am J Sports Med. 1984 Sep-Oct;12(5):368–370. [PubMed]
  • Clanton TO, Coupe KJ. Hamstring strains in athletes: diagnosis and treatment. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 1998 Jul-Aug;6(4):237–248. [PubMed]
  • Kujala UM, Orava S, Järvinen M. Hamstring injuries. Current trends in treatment and prevention. Sports Med. 1997 Jun;23(6):397–404. [PubMed]
  • Drezner Jonathan A. Practical management: hamstring muscle injuries. Clin J Sport Med. 2003 Jan;13(1):48–52. [PubMed]
  • Safran MR, Garrett WE, Jr, Seaber AV, Glisson RR, Ribbeck BM. The role of warmup in muscular injury prevention. Am J Sports Med. 1988 Mar-Apr;16(2):123–129. [PubMed]
  • Askling C, Tengvar M, Saartok T, Thorstensson A. Sports related hamstring strains--two cases with different etiologies and injury sites. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2000 Oct;10(5):304–307. [PubMed]
  • Bahr R, Holme I. Risk factors for sports injuries--a methodological approach. Br J Sports Med. 2003;37(5):384–392. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hohmann Erik, Wörtler Klaus, Imhoff Andreas B. MR imaging of the hip and knee before and after marathon running. Am J Sports Med. 2004 Jan-Feb;32(1):55–59. [PubMed]
  • Agre JC. Hamstring injuries. Proposed aetiological factors, prevention, and treatment. Sports Med. 1985 Jan-Feb;2(1):21–33. [PubMed]
  • Worrell TW. Factors associated with hamstring injuries. An approach to treatment and preventative measures. Sports Med. 1994 May;17(5):338–345. [PubMed]
  • Croisier Jean-Louis, Forthomme Bénédicte, Namurois Marie-Hélène, Vanderthommen Marc, Crielaard Jean-Michel. Hamstring muscle strain recurrence and strength performance disorders. Am J Sports Med. 2002 Mar-Apr;30(2):199–203. [PubMed]
  • Croisier Jean-Louis. Factors associated with recurrent hamstring injuries. Sports Med. 2004;34(10):681–695. [PubMed]
  • Mair SD, Seaber AV, Glisson RR, Garrett WE., Jr The role of fatigue in susceptibility to acute muscle strain injury. Am J Sports Med. 1996 Mar-Apr;24(2):137–143. [PubMed]
  • Hartig DE, Henderson JM. Increasing hamstring flexibility decreases lower extremity overuse injuries in military basic trainees. Am J Sports Med. 1999 Mar-Apr;27(2):173–176. [PubMed]
  • Witvrouw Erik, Danneels Lieven, Asselman Peter, D'Have Thomas, Cambier Dirk. Muscle flexibility as a risk factor for developing muscle injuries in male professional soccer players. A prospective study. Am J Sports Med. 2003 Jan-Feb;31(1):41–46. [PubMed]
  • Devlin L. Recurrent posterior thigh symptoms detrimental to performance in rugby union: predisposing factors. Sports Med. 2000 Apr;29(4):273–287. [PubMed]
  • Garrett WE, Jr, Rich FR, Nikolaou PK, Vogler JB., 3rd Computed tomography of hamstring muscle strains. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1989 Oct;21(5):506–514. [PubMed]
  • Malliaropoulos Nikos, Papalexandris Stelios, Papalada Agape, Papacostas Emanuel. The role of stretching in rehabilitation of hamstring injuries: 80 athletes follow-up. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004 May;36(5):756–759. [PubMed]
  • Speer KP, Lohnes J, Garrett WE., Jr Radiographic imaging of muscle strain injury. Am J Sports Med. 1993 Jan-Feb;21(1):89–96. [PubMed]
  • Askling C, Karlsson J, Thorstensson A. Hamstring injury occurrence in elite soccer players after preseason strength training with eccentric overload. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2003 Aug;13(4):244–250. [PubMed]
  • Taylor DC, Dalton JD, Jr, Seaber AV, Garrett WE., Jr Viscoelastic properties of muscle-tendon units. The biomechanical effects of stretching. Am J Sports Med. 1990 May-Jun;18(3):300–309. [PubMed]
  • Magnusson SP, Simonsen EB, Aagaard P, Gleim GW, McHugh MP, Kjaer M. Viscoelastic response to repeated static stretching in the human hamstring muscle. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 1995 Dec;5(6):342–347. [PubMed]
  • Mjølsnes Roald, Arnason Arni, Østhagen Tor, Raastad Truls, Bahr Roald. A 10-week randomized trial comparing eccentric vs. concentric hamstring strength training in well-trained soccer players. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2004 Oct;14(5):311–317. [PubMed]

Articles from British Journal of Sports Medicine are provided here courtesy of BMJ Group


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...