Logo of brjsmedBritish Journal of Sports MedicineVisit this articleSubmit a manuscriptReceive email alertsContact usBMJ
Br J Sports Med. 2003 Dec; 37(6): 529–534.
PMCID: PMC1724704

Short term effect of feedback on fitness and health measurements on self reported appraisal of the stage of change


Background: An individual's current status of physical activity and nutrition and readiness to change can be determined using PACE assessment forms. Practitioners have suggested that feedback on the fitness and health components can produce a change in a subject's awareness of their behaviour and thereby lead to a beneficial change in stage of behaviour change.

Objective: To evaluate the short term effect of personalised feedback on fitness and health status on self reported appraisal of the stage of change.

Methods: A total of 299 civil servants were randomised to an intervention or a reference group. After having been tested for fitness and health, the intervention group received immediate feedback on their test results, whereas the reference group did not. PACE assessment forms were completed twice: before testing and after testing (reference group), or after testing and feedback (intervention group). The time interval between was one hour. The influence of feedback was determined using a x2 test and analysis of variance.

Results: On the basis of the x2 test, no significant effect of feedback was found on the stage of change of physical activity, nor on the stage of change with regard to nutrition. Analysis of variance results showed no significant effect on the raw PACE score as to physical activity, intake of fruit and vegetables and dietary fat. However, a significant effect was observed on the PACE score of "calorie intake and weight management". Subjects in the intervention group significantly more often regressed on their PACE score on this topic than the reference subjects.

Conclusions: Feedback at baseline on measurements of an intervention study can influence PACE scores and can be considered as a small but relevant start of the intervention itself.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (197K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Lee IM, Sesso HD, Paffenbarger RS., Jr Physical activity and coronary heart disease risk in men: does the duration of exercise episodes predict risk? Circulation. 2000 Aug 29;102(9):981–986. [PubMed]
  • Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Ascherio A, Rexrode KM, Willett WC, Manson JE. Physical activity and risk of stroke in women. JAMA. 2000 Jun 14;283(22):2961–2967. [PubMed]
  • Rainwater DL, Mitchell BD, Comuzzie AG, VandeBerg JL, Stern MP, MacCluer JW. Association among 5-year changes in weight, physical activity, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in Mexican Americans. Am J Epidemiol. 2000 Nov 15;152(10):974–982. [PubMed]
  • Kampert JB, Blair SN, Barlow CE, Kohl HW., 3rd Physical activity, physical fitness, and all-cause and cancer mortality: a prospective study of men and women. Ann Epidemiol. 1996 Sep;6(5):452–457. [PubMed]
  • Vuori I. Does physical activity enhance health? Patient Educ Couns. 1998 Apr;33(1 Suppl):S95–103. [PubMed]
  • Jeffery RW, Wing RR. Long-term effects of interventions for weight loss using food provision and monetary incentives. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1995 Oct;63(5):793–796. [PubMed]
  • Kristal AR, Shattuck AL, Henry HJ. Patterns of dietary behavior associated with selecting diets low in fat: reliability and validity of a behavioral approach to dietary assessment. J Am Diet Assoc. 1990 Feb;90(2):214–220. [PubMed]
  • Lissner L, Levitsky DA, Strupp BJ, Kalkwarf HJ, Roe DA. Dietary fat and the regulation of energy intake in human subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 1987 Dec;46(6):886–892. [PubMed]
  • Martínez JA, Kearney JM, Kafatos A, Paquet S, Martínez-González MA. Variables independently associated with self-reported obesity in the European Union. Public Health Nutr. 1999 Mar;2(1A):125–133. [PubMed]
  • Vaz de Almeida MD, Graça P, Afonso C, D'Amicis A, Lappalainen R, Damkjaer S. Physical activity levels and body weight in a nationally representative sample in the European Union. Public Health Nutr. 1999 Mar;2(1A):105–113. [PubMed]
  • Troiano RP, Flegal KM. Overweight children and adolescents: description, epidemiology, and demographics. Pediatrics. 1998 Mar;101(3 Pt 2):497–504. [PubMed]
  • Mokdad AH, Serdula MK, Dietz WH, Bowman BA, Marks JS, Koplan JP. The spread of the obesity epidemic in the United States, 1991-1998. JAMA. 1999 Oct 27;282(16):1519–1522. [PubMed]
  • French SA, Story M, Jeffery RW. Environmental influences on eating and physical activity. Annu Rev Public Health. 2001;22:309–335. [PubMed]
  • Marcus BH, Selby VC, Niaura RS, Rossi JS. Self-efficacy and the stages of exercise behavior change. Res Q Exerc Sport. 1992 Mar;63(1):60–66. [PubMed]
  • Durnin JV, Womersley J. Body fat assessed from total body density and its estimation from skinfold thickness: measurements on 481 men and women aged from 16 to 72 years. Br J Nutr. 1974 Jul;32(1):77–97. [PubMed]
  • Marcus BH, Simkin LR, Rossi JS, Pinto BM. Longitudinal shifts in employees' stages and processes of exercise behavior change. Am J Health Promot. 1996 Jan-Feb;10(3):195–200. [PubMed]
  • Bowen DJ, Fries E, Hopp HP. Effects of dietary fat feedback on behavioral and psychological variables. J Behav Med. 1994 Dec;17(6):589–604. [PubMed]
  • Lovato CY, Green LW. Maintaining employee participation in workplace health promotion programs. Health Educ Q. 1990 Spring;17(1):73–88. [PubMed]
  • Pate RR, Pratt M, Blair SN, Haskell WL, Macera CA, Bouchard C, Buchner D, Ettinger W, Heath GW, King AC, et al. Physical activity and public health. A recommendation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine. JAMA. 1995 Feb 1;273(5):402–407. [PubMed]

Articles from British Journal of Sports Medicine are provided here courtesy of BMJ Group


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...