• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of brjsmedBritish Journal of Sports MedicineVisit this articleSubmit a manuscriptReceive email alertsContact usBMJ
Br J Sports Med. Apr 2002; 36(2): 95–101.
PMCID: PMC1724490

A retrospective case-control analysis of 2002 running injuries

Abstract

Objective: To provide an extensive and up to date database for specific running related injuries, across the sexes, as seen at a primary care sports medicine facility, and to assess the relative risk for individual injuries based on investigation of selected risk factors.

Methods: Patient data were recorded by doctors at the Allan McGavin Sports Medicine Centre over a two year period. They included assessment of anthropometric, training, and biomechanical information. A model was constructed (with odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals) of possible contributing factors using a dependent variable of runners with a specific injury and comparing them with a control group of runners who experienced a different injury. Variables included in the model were: height, weight, body mass index, age, activity history, weekly activity, history of injury, and calibre of runner.

Results: Most of the study group were women (54%). Some injuries occurred with a significantly higher frequency in one sex. Being less than 34 years old was reported as a risk factor across the sexes for patellofemoral pain syndrome, and in men for iliotibial band friction syndrome, patellar tendinopathy, and tibial stress syndrome. Being active for less than 8.5 years was positively associated with injury in both sexes for tibial stress syndrome; and women with a body mass index less than 21 kg/m2 were at a significantly higher risk for tibial stress fractures and spinal injuries. Patellofemoral pain syndrome was the most common injury, followed by iliotibial band friction syndrome, plantar fasciitis, meniscal injuries of the knee, and tibial stress syndrome.

Conclusions: Although various risk factors were shown to be positively associated with a risk for, or protection from, specific injuries, future research should include a non-injured control group and a more precise measure of weekly running distance and running experience to validate these results.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (107K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Macera CA, Pate RR, Powell KE, Jackson KL, Kendrick JS, Craven TE. Predicting lower-extremity injuries among habitual runners. Arch Intern Med. 1989 Nov;149(11):2565–2568. [PubMed]
  • Marti B, Vader JP, Minder CE, Abelin T. On the epidemiology of running injuries. The 1984 Bern Grand-Prix study. Am J Sports Med. 1988 May-Jun;16(3):285–294. [PubMed]
  • Messier SP, Pittala KA. Etiologic factors associated with selected running injuries. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1988 Oct;20(5):501–505. [PubMed]
  • Lysholm J, Wiklander J. Injuries in runners. Am J Sports Med. 1987 Mar-Apr;15(2):168–171. [PubMed]
  • Jacobs SJ, Berson BL. Injuries to runners: a study of entrants to a 10,000 meter race. Am J Sports Med. 1986 Mar-Apr;14(2):151–155. [PubMed]
  • Pinshaw R, Atlas V, Noakes TD. The nature and response to therapy of 196 consecutive injuries seen at a runners' clinic. S Afr Med J. 1984 Feb 25;65(8):291–298. [PubMed]
  • Ballas MT, Tytko J, Cookson D. Common overuse running injuries: diagnosis and management. Am Fam Physician. 1997 May 15;55(7):2473–2484. [PubMed]
  • Nigg BM. The role of impact forces and foot pronation: a new paradigm. Clin J Sport Med. 2001 Jan;11(1):2–9. [PubMed]
  • Nigg BM, Nurse MA, Stefanyshyn DJ. Shoe inserts and orthotics for sport and physical activities. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999 Jul;31(7 Suppl):S421–S428. [PubMed]
  • Neely FG. Intrinsic risk factors for exercise-related lower limb injuries. Sports Med. 1998 Oct;26(4):253–263. [PubMed]
  • Walter SD, Hart LE, McIntosh JM, Sutton JR. The Ontario cohort study of running-related injuries. Arch Intern Med. 1989 Nov;149(11):2561–2564. [PubMed]
  • van Mechelen W. Running injuries. A review of the epidemiological literature. Sports Med. 1992 Nov;14(5):320–335. [PubMed]
  • Brill PA, Macera CA. The influence of running patterns on running injuries. Sports Med. 1995 Dec;20(6):365–368. [PubMed]
  • Krivickas LS. Anatomical factors associated with overuse sports injuries. Sports Med. 1997 Aug;24(2):132–146. [PubMed]
  • Warren BL, Jones CJ. Predicting plantar fasciitis in runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1987 Feb;19(1):71–73. [PubMed]
  • Wen DY, Puffer JC, Schmalzried TP. Injuries in runners: a prospective study of alignment. Clin J Sport Med. 1998 Jul;8(3):187–194. [PubMed]

Articles from British Journal of Sports Medicine are provided here courtesy of BMJ Group

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • MedGen
    MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...