• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of archdischArchives of Disease in ChildhoodVisit this articleSubmit a manuscriptReceive email alertsContact usBMJ
Arch Dis Child. Dec 2003; 88(12): 1086–1090.
PMCID: PMC1719394

Adverse health effects of prenatal and postnatal tobacco smoke exposure on children

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (207K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Andres RL, Day MC. Perinatal complications associated with maternal tobacco use. Semin Neonatol. 2000 Aug;5(3):231–241. [PubMed]
  • Badlissi D, Guillemette A, Fadin A. Prématurité et petit poids àla naissance: les effets du tabagisme actif et passif durant la grossesse. Can J Public Health. 2001 Jul-Aug;92(4):272–275. [PubMed]
  • Nelson Roxanne. Smoking outside still causes second-hand smoke exposure to children. Lancet. 2002 May 11;359(9318):1675–1675. [PubMed]
  • Nash JE, Persaud TV. Embryopathic risks of cigarette smoking. Exp Pathol. 1988;33(2):65–73. [PubMed]
  • Barbieri RL. The initial fertility consultation: recommendations concerning cigarette smoking, body mass index, and alcohol and caffeine consumption. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001 Nov;185(5):1168–1173. [PubMed]
  • Coste J, Job-Spira N, Fernandez H. Increased risk of ectopic pregnancy with maternal cigarette smoking. Am J Public Health. 1991 Feb;81(2):199–201. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Windham GC, Hopkins B, Fenster L, Swan SH. Prenatal active or passive tobacco smoke exposure and the risk of preterm delivery or low birth weight. Epidemiology. 2000 Jul;11(4):427–433. [PubMed]
  • Jaakkola JJ, Jaakkola N, Zahlsen K. Fetal growth and length of gestation in relation to prenatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke assessed by hair nicotine concentration. Environ Health Perspect. 2001 Jun;109(6):557–561. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Saraiya M, Berg CJ, Kendrick JS, Strauss LT, Atrash HK, Ahn YW. Cigarette smoking as a risk factor for ectopic pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998 Mar;178(3):493–498. [PubMed]
  • Bassi JA, Rosso P, Moessinger AC, Blanc WA, James LS. Fetal growth retardation due to maternal tobacco smoke exposure in the rat. Pediatr Res. 1984 Feb;18(2):127–130. [PubMed]
  • Collins MH, Moessinger AC, Kleinerman J, Bassi J, Rosso P, Collins AM, James LS, Blanc WA. Fetal lung hypoplasia associated with maternal smoking: a morphometric analysis. Pediatr Res. 1985 Apr;19(4):408–412. [PubMed]
  • Elliot J, Carroll N, Bosco M, McCrohan M, Robinson P. Increased airway responsiveness and decreased alveolar attachment points following in utero smoke exposure in the guinea pig. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001 Jan;163(1):140–144. [PubMed]
  • Manning FA, Feyerabend C. Cigarette smoking and fetal breathing movements. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1976 Apr;83(4):262–270. [PubMed]
  • Hanrahan JP, Tager IB, Segal MR, Tosteson TD, Castile RG, Van Vunakis H, Weiss ST, Speizer FE. The effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on early infant lung function. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1992 May;145(5):1129–1135. [PubMed]
  • Hoo AF, Henschen M, Dezateux C, Costeloe K, Stocks J. Respiratory function among preterm infants whose mothers smoked during pregnancy. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1998 Sep;158(3):700–705. [PubMed]
  • Dezateux C, Stocks J, Dundas I, Fletcher ME. Impaired airway function and wheezing in infancy: the influence of maternal smoking and a genetic predisposition to asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999 Feb;159(2):403–410. [PubMed]
  • Tager IB, Ngo L, Hanrahan JP. Maternal smoking during pregnancy. Effects on lung function during the first 18 months of life. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995 Sep;152(3):977–983. [PubMed]
  • Le Souëf PN. Pediatric origins of adult lung diseases. 4. Tobacco related lung diseases begin in childhood. Thorax. 2000 Dec;55(12):1063–1067. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Stein CE, Kumaran K, Fall CH, Shaheen SO, Osmond C, Barker DJ. Relation of fetal growth to adult lung function in south India. Thorax. 1997 Oct;52(10):895–899. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Jauniaux E, Burton GJ. The effect of smoking in pregnancy on early placental morphology. Obstet Gynecol. 1992 May;79(5 ):645–648. [PubMed]
  • Bush PG, Mayhew TM, Abramovich DR, Aggett PJ, Burke MD, Page KR. A quantitative study on the effects of maternal smoking on placental morphology and cadmium concentration. Placenta. 2000 Mar-Apr;21(2-3):247–256. [PubMed]
  • Bush PG, Mayhew TM, Abramovich DR, Aggett PJ, Burke MD, Page KR. Maternal cigarette smoking and oxygen diffusion across the placenta. Placenta. 2000 Nov;21(8):824–833. [PubMed]
  • Davies DP, Abernethy M. Cigarette smoking in pregnancy: Associations with maternal weight gain and fetal growth. Lancet. 1976 Feb 21;1(7956):385–387. [PubMed]
  • Robinson JS, Moore VM, Owens JA, McMillen IC. Origins of fetal growth restriction. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2000 Sep;92(1):13–19. [PubMed]
  • Anderson GD, Blidner IN, McClemont S, Sinclair JC. Determinants of size at birth in a Canadian population. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1984 Oct 1;150(3):236–244. [PubMed]
  • England LJ, Kendrick JS, Gargiullo PM, Zahniser SC, Hannon WH. Measures of maternal tobacco exposure and infant birth weight at term. Am J Epidemiol. 2001 May 15;153(10):954–960. [PubMed]
  • Dejmek Jan, Solansk y Ivo, Podrazilová Katerina, Srám Radim J. The exposure of nonsmoking and smoking mothers to environmental tobacco smoke during different gestational phases and fetal growth. Environ Health Perspect. 2002 Jun;110(6):601–606. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wang Xiaobin, Zuckerman Barry, Pearson Colleen, Kaufman Gary, Chen Changzhong, Wang Guoying, Niu Tianhua, Wise Paul H, Bauchner Howard, Xu Xiping. Maternal cigarette smoking, metabolic gene polymorphism, and infant birth weight. JAMA. 2002 Jan 9;287(2):195–202. [PubMed]
  • Barker DJ. In utero programming of chronic disease. Clin Sci (Lond) 1998 Aug;95(2):115–128. [PubMed]
  • Terry RR, Kelly FW, Gauzer C, Jeitler M. Risk factors for maternal colonization with group B beta-hemolytic streptococci. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 1999 Nov;99(11):571–573. [PubMed]
  • McDonald HM, Chambers HM. Intrauterine infection and spontaneous midgestation abortion: is the spectrum of microorganisms similar to that in preterm labor? Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2000;8(5-6):220–227. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kramer MS, Usher RH, Pollack R, Boyd M, Usher S. Etiologic determinants of abruptio placentae. Obstet Gynecol. 1997 Feb;89(2):221–226. [PubMed]
  • Ustün C, Koçak I, Bariş S, Uzel A, Saltik F. Subclinical chorioamnionitis as an etiologic factor in preterm deliveries. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2001 Feb;72(2):109–115. [PubMed]
  • Newton ER. Chorioamnionitis and intraamniotic infection. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 1993 Dec;36(4):795–808. [PubMed]
  • de Araujo MC, Schultz R, Vaz FA, Massad E, Feferbaum R, Ramos JL. A case-control study of histological chorioamnionitis and neonatal infection. Early Hum Dev. 1994 Dec 16;40(1):51–58. [PubMed]
  • Itakura A, Kurauchi O, Morikawa S, Matsuzawa K, Mizutani S, Tomoda Y. A prospective study on the relationship between intrapartum maternal group-B streptococcal concentration and signs of infection in neonates. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 1996 Apr;22(2):101–105. [PubMed]
  • Anderson HR, Cook DG. Passive smoking and sudden infant death syndrome: review of the epidemiological evidence. Thorax. 1997 Nov;52(11):1003–1009. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • McMartin Kristen I, Platt Marvin S, Hackman Richard, Klein Julia, Smialek John E, Vigorito Robert, Koren Gideon. Lung tissue concentrations of nicotine in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). J Pediatr. 2002 Feb;140(2):205–209. [PubMed]
  • Milerad J, Sundell H. Nicotine exposure and the risk of SIDS. Acta Paediatr Suppl. 1993 Jun;82 (Suppl 389):70–72. [PubMed]
  • Hafström O, Milerad J, Asokan N, Poole SD, Sundell HW. Nicotine delays arousal during hypoxemia in lambs. Pediatr Res. 2000 May;47(5):646–652. [PubMed]
  • Strachan DP, Cook DG. Health effects of passive smoking. 1. Parental smoking and lower respiratory illness in infancy and early childhood. Thorax. 1997 Oct;52(10):905–914. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gürkan F, Kiral A, Dağli E, Karakoç F. The effect of passive smoking on the development of respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. Eur J Epidemiol. 2000 May;16(5):465–468. [PubMed]
  • Lanari M, Giovannini M, Giuffré L, Marini A, Rondini G, Rossi GA, Merolla R, Zuccotti GV, Salvioli GP. Prevalence of respiratory syncytial virus infection in Italian infants hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infections, and association between respiratory syncytial virus infection risk factors and disease severity. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2002 Jun;33(6):458–465. [PubMed]
  • Altet MN, Alcaide J, Plans P, Taberner JL, Saltó E, Folguera LI, Salleras L. Passive smoking and risk of pulmonary tuberculosis in children immediately following infection. A case-control study. Tuber Lung Dis. 1996 Dec;77(6):537–544. [PubMed]
  • Yusuf HR, Rochat RW, Baughman WS, Gargiullo PM, Perkins BA, Brantley MD, Stephens DS. Maternal cigarette smoking and invasive meningococcal disease: a cohort study among young children in metropolitan Atlanta, 1989-1996. Am J Public Health. 1999 May;89(5):712–717. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kriz P, Bobak M, Kriz B. Parental smoking, socioeconomic factors, and risk of invasive meningococcal disease in children: a population based case-control study. Arch Dis Child. 2000 Aug;83(2):117–121. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Green GM, Carolin D. The depressant effect of cigarette smoke on the in vitro antibacterial activity of alveolar macrophages. N Engl J Med. 1967 Feb 23;276(8):421–427. [PubMed]
  • Cope GF, Heatley RV. Cigarette smoking and intestinal defences. Gut. 1992 Jun;33(6):721–723. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Becker S, Soukup JM. Effect of nitrogen dioxide on respiratory viral infection in airway epithelial cells. Environ Res. 1999 Aug;81(2):159–166. [PubMed]
  • El Ahmer OR, Essery SD, Saadi AT, Raza MW, Ogilvie MM, Weir DM, Blackwell CC. The effect of cigarette smoke on adherence of respiratory pathogens to buccal epithelial cells. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 1999 Jan;23(1):27–36. [PubMed]
  • Strachan DP, Cook DG. Health effects of passive smoking. 4. Parental smoking, middle ear disease and adenotonsillectomy in children. Thorax. 1998 Jan;53(1):50–56. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Stick SM, Burton PR, Gurrin L, Sly PD, LeSouëf PN. Effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy and a family history of asthma on respiratory function in newborn infants. Lancet. 1996 Oct 19;348(9034):1060–1064. [PubMed]
  • Dezateux C, Stocks J. Lung development and early origins of childhood respiratory illness. Br Med Bull. 1997 Jan;53(1):40–57. [PubMed]
  • Cook DG, Strachan DP, Carey IM. Health effects of passive smoking. 9. Parental smoking and spirometric indices in children. Thorax. 1998 Oct;53(10):884–893. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cunningham J, Dockery DW, Speizer FE. Maternal smoking during pregnancy as a predictor of lung function in children. Am J Epidemiol. 1994 Jun 15;139(12):1139–1152. [PubMed]
  • von Mutius Erika. Environmental factors influencing the development and progression of pediatric asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2002 Jun;109(6 Suppl):S525–S532. [PubMed]
  • Strachan DP, Cook DG. Health effects of passive smoking. 6. Parental smoking and childhood asthma: longitudinal and case-control studies. Thorax. 1998 Mar;53(3):204–212. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mannino David M, Homa David M, Redd Stephen C. Involuntary smoking and asthma severity in children: data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Chest. 2002 Aug;122(2):409–415. [PubMed]
  • Cook DG, Strachan DP. Health effects of passive smoking. 3. Parental smoking and prevalence of respiratory symptoms and asthma in school age children. Thorax. 1997 Dec;52(12):1081–1094. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Coultas DB. Health effects of passive smoking. 8. Passive smoking and risk of adult asthma and COPD: an update. Thorax. 1998 May;53(5):381–387. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Samet JM, Lange P. Longitudinal studies of active and passive smoking. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1996 Dec;154(6 Pt 2):S257–S265. [PubMed]
  • Kerstjens HA, Rijcken B, Schouten JP, Postma DS. Decline of FEV1 by age and smoking status: facts, figures, and fallacies. Thorax. 1997 Sep;52(9):820–827. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Strachan DP, Cook DG. Health effects of passive smoking .5. Parental smoking and allergic sensitisation in children. Thorax. 1998 Feb;53(2):117–123. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Eskenazi B, Castorina R. Association of prenatal maternal or postnatal child environmental tobacco smoke exposure and neurodevelopmental and behavioral problems in children. Environ Health Perspect. 1999 Dec;107(12):991–1000. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wakschlag Lauren S, Pickett Kate E, Cook Edwin, Jr, Benowitz Neal L, Leventhal Bennett L. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and severe antisocial behavior in offspring: a review. Am J Public Health. 2002 Jun;92(6):966–974. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Brennan Patricia A, Grekin Emily R, Mortensen Erik Lykke, Mednick Sarnoff A. Relationship of maternal smoking during pregnancy with criminal arrest and hospitalization for substance abuse in male and female adult offspring. Am J Psychiatry. 2002 Jan;159(1):48–54. [PubMed]
  • Thomas JD, Garrison ME, Slawecki CJ, Ehlers CL, Riley EP. Nicotine exposure during the neonatal brain growth spurt produces hyperactivity in preweanling rats. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2000 Sep-Oct;22(5):695–701. [PubMed]
  • Slotkin TA. Fetal nicotine or cocaine exposure: which one is worse? J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Jun;285(3):931–945. [PubMed]
  • Norman MA, Holly EA, Preston-Martin S. Childhood brain tumors and exposure to tobacco smoke. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1996 Feb;5(2):85–91. [PubMed]
  • Norman MA, Holly EA, Ahn DK, Preston-Martin S, Mueller BA, Bracci PM. Prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke and childhood brain tumors: results from the United States West Coast childhood brain tumor study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1996 Feb;5(2):127–133. [PubMed]
  • Schüz J, Kaletsch U, Kaatsch P, Meinert R, Michaelis J. Risk factors for pediatric tumors of the central nervous system: results from a German population-based case-control study. Med Pediatr Oncol. 2001 Feb;36(2):274–282. [PubMed]
  • Filippini Graziella, Maisonneuve Patrick, McCredie Margaret, Peris-Bonet Raphael, Modan Baruch, Preston-Martin Susan, Mueller Beth A, Holly Elizabeth A, Cordier Sylvaine, Choi NW, et al. Relation of childhood brain tumors to exposure of parents and children to tobacco smoke: the SEARCH international case-control study. Surveillance of Environmental Aspects Related to Cancer in Humans. Int J Cancer. 2002 Jul 10;100(2):206–213. [PubMed]
  • Brondum J, Shu XO, Steinbuch M, Severson RK, Potter JD, Robison LL. Parental cigarette smoking and the risk of acute leukemia in children. Cancer. 1999 Mar 15;85(6):1380–1388. [PubMed]
  • Sasco AJ, Vainio H. From in utero and childhood exposure to parental smoking to childhood cancer: a possible link and the need for action. Hum Exp Toxicol. 1999 Apr;18(4):192–201. [PubMed]
  • Boffetta P, Trédaniel J, Greco A. Risk of childhood cancer and adult lung cancer after childhood exposure to passive smoke: A meta-analysis. Environ Health Perspect. 2000 Jan;108(1):73–82. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Schüz J, Kaatsch P, Kaletsch U, Meinert R, Michaelis J. Association of childhood cancer with factors related to pregnancy and birth. Int J Epidemiol. 1999 Aug;28(4):631–639. [PubMed]

Articles from Archives of Disease in Childhood are provided here courtesy of BMJ Group


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...