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Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. Jan 1997; 4(1): 33–42.
PMCID: PMC170472

Parameters of disease progression in long-term experimental feline retrovirus (feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus) infections: hematology, clinical chemistry, and lymphocyte subsets.

Abstract

After several years of latency, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) cause fatal disease in the cat. The aim of this study was to determine laboratory parameters characteristic of disease progression which would allow a better description of the asymptomatic phase and a better understanding of the pathogenesis of the two infections. Therefore, experimentally infected cats (FIV and/or FeLV positive) and control animals were observed over a period of 6.5 years under identical conditions. Blood samples were analyzed for the following: complete hematology, clinical chemistry, serum protein electrophoresis, and determination of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte subsets. The following hematological and clinical chemistry parameters were markedly changed in the FIV-infected animals from month 9 onwards: glucose, serum protein, gamma globulins, sodium, urea, phosphorus, lipase, cholesterol, and triglyceride. In FeLV infection, the markedly changed parameters were mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, aspartate aminotransferase, and urea. In contrast to reports of field studies, neither FIV-positive nor FeLV-positive animals developed persistent leukopenia, lymphopenia, or neutropenia. A significant decrease was found in the CD4+/CD8+ ratio in FIV-positive and FIV-FeLV-positive animals mainly due to loss of CD4+ lymphocytes. In FeLV-positive cats, both CD4+ and, to a lesser degree, CD8+ lymphocytes were decreased in long-term infection. The changes in FIV infection may reflect subclinical kidney dysfunction, changes in energy and lipid metabolism, and transient activation of the humoral immune response as described for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. The changes in FeLV infection may also reflect subclinical kidney dysfunction and, in addition, changes in erythrocyte and immune function of the animals. No severe clinical signs were observed in the FIV-positive cats, while FeLV had a severe influence on the life expectancy of persistently positive cats. In conclusion, several parameters of clinical chemistry and hematology were changed in FIV and FeLV infection. Monitoring of these parameters may prove useful for the evaluation of candidate FIV vaccines and antiretroviral drugs in cats. The many parallels between laboratory parameters in FIV and HIV infection further support the importance of FIV as a model for HIV.

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