Logo of bripharmchemLink to Publisher's site
Br J Pharmacol Chemother. 1964 Apr; 22(2): 246–253.
PMCID: PMC1703970

The use of changes in capillary permeability in mice to distinguish between narcotic and nonnarcotic analgesics


An extension of the “squirming test” is described which makes the method specific for nonnarcotic analgesics. The intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid causes squirming and an increase in capillary permeability that is measured by direct estimation of plasma-bound dye (Pontamine Sky Blue) which has leaked into the peritoneal cavity. Nonnarcotic analgesics inhibit squirming and leakage of dye. Values for the oral ED50s for both effects are given for a number of typical compounds. Narcotic analgesics, in doses that produce analgesia, inhibit squirming but do not significantly affect leakage of dye. Drugs that stimulate the central nervous system and also inhibit squirming have no significant effect on leakage of dye over the range of doses which inhibit squirming. Corticosteroids do not significantly inhibit either squirming or leakage of dye.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (719K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • BROWN DM, HUGHES BO. The influence of animal strain selection and conditioning on biological experiments and assays. Practical aspects of strain variation in relation to pharmacological testing. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1962 Jul;14:399–405. [PubMed]
  • ECKHARDT ET, CHEPLOVITZ F, LIPO M, GOVIER WM. Etiology of chemically induced writhing in mouse and rat. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1958 May;98(1):186–188. [PubMed]
  • HENDERSHOT LC, FORSAITH J. Antagonism of the frequency of phenylquinone-induced writhing in the mouse by weak analgesics and nonanalgesics. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1959 Mar;125(3):237–240. [PubMed]
  • MILES AA, MILES EM. Vascular reactions to histamine, histamine-liberator and leukotaxine in the skin of guinea-pigs. J Physiol. 1952 Oct;118(2):228–257. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • MURRAY WJ, MILLER JW. Oxytocin-induced "cramping" in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1960 Apr;128:372–379. [PubMed]
  • OKUN R, LIDDON SC, LASAGNA L. The effects of aggregation, electric shock, and adrenergic blocking drugs on inhibition of the "writhing syndrome". J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1963 Jan;139:107–109. [PubMed]
  • SIEGMUND E, CADMUS R, LU G. A method for evaluating both non-narcotic and narcotic analgesics. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1957 Aug-Sep;95(4):729–731. [PubMed]

Articles from British Journal of Pharmacology and Chemotherapy are provided here courtesy of The British Pharmacological Society


Save items

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • Compound
    PubChem Compound links
  • MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...