Logo of aemPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalAEM ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
Appl Environ Microbiol. May 1997; 63(5): 1959–1964.
PMCID: PMC168488

Influence of cosubstrate concentration on xylose conversion by recombinant, XYL1-expressing Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a comparison of different sugars and ethanol as cosubstrates.


Conversion of xylose to xylitol by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the XYL1 gene, encoding xylose reductase, was investigated by using different cosubstrates as generators of reduced cofactors. The effect of a pulse addition of the cosubstrate on xylose conversion in cosubstrate-limited fed-batch cultivation was studied. Glucose, mannose, and fructose, which are transported with high affinity by the same transport system as is xylose, inhibited xylose conversion by 99, 77, and 78%, respectively, reflecting competitive inhibition of xylose transport. Pulse addition of maltose, which is transported by a specific transport system, did not inhibit xylose conversion. Pulse addition of galactose, which is also transported by a specific transporter, inhibited xylose conversion by 51%, in accordance with noncompetitive inhibition between the galactose and glucose/ xylose transport systems. Pulse addition of ethanol inhibited xylose conversion by 15%, explained by inhibition of xylose transport through interference with the hydrophobic regions of the cell membrane. The xylitol yields on the different cosubstrates varied widely. Galactose gave the highest xylitol yield, 5.6 times higher than that for glucose. The difference in redox metabolism of glucose and galactose was suggested to enhance the availability of reduced cofactors for xylose reduction with galactose. The differences in xylitol yield observed between some of the other sugars may also reflect differences in redox metabolism. With all cosubstrates, the xylitol yield was higher under cosubstrate limitation than with cosubstrate excess.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (301K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Bicho Paul A, Runnals P Lynn, Cunningham J Douglas, Lee Hung. Induction of Xylose Reductase and Xylitol Dehydrogenase Activities in Pachysolen tannophilus and Pichia stipitis on Mixed Sugars. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1988 Jan;54(1):50–54. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bisson LF, Fraenkel DG. Involvement of kinases in glucose and fructose uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983 Mar;80(6):1730–1734. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bradford MM. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem. 1976 May 7;72:248–254. [PubMed]
  • Busturia A, Lagunas R. Catabolite inactivation of the glucose transport system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Gen Microbiol. 1986 Feb;132(2):379–385. [PubMed]
  • Cartwright CP, Li Y, Zhu YS, Kang YS, Tipper DJ. Use of beta-lactamase as a secreted reporter of promoter function in yeast. Yeast. 1994 Apr;10(4):497–508. [PubMed]
  • Chambers A, Packham EA, Graham IR. Control of glycolytic gene expression in the budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Curr Genet. 1995 Dec;29(1):1–9. [PubMed]
  • Chambers A, Stanway C, Tsang JS, Henry Y, Kingsman AJ, Kingsman SM. ARS binding factor 1 binds adjacent to RAP1 at the UASs of the yeast glycolytic genes PGK and PYK1. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990 Sep 25;18(18):5393–5399. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Chambers A, Tsang JS, Stanway C, Kingsman AJ, Kingsman SM. Transcriptional control of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae PGK gene by RAP1. Mol Cell Biol. 1989 Dec;9(12):5516–5524. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cirillo VP. Galactose transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. I. Nonmetabolized sugars as substrates and inducers of the galactose transport system. J Bacteriol. 1968 May;95(5):1727–1731. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Does AL, Bisson LF. Comparison of glucose uptake kinetics in different yeasts. J Bacteriol. 1989 Mar;171(3):1303–1308. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hallborn J, Gorwa MF, Meinander N, Penttilä M, Keränen S, Hahn-Hägerdal B. The influence of cosubstrate and aeration on xylitol formation by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the XYL1 gene. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 1994 Nov;42(2-3):326–333. [PubMed]
  • Hallborn J, Walfridsson M, Airaksinen U, Ojamo H, Hahn-Hägerdal B, Penttilä M, Keräsnen S. Xylitol production by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biotechnology (N Y) 1991 Nov;9(11):1090–1095. [PubMed]
  • HARRIS G, THOMPSON CC. The uptake of nutrients by yeasts. III. The maltose permease of a brewing yeast. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1961 Sep 2;52:176–183. [PubMed]
  • Heredia CF, Sols A, DelaFuente G. Specificity of the constitutive hexose transport in yeast. Eur J Biochem. 1968 Aug;5(3):321–329. [PubMed]
  • Holland MJ, Holland JP. Isolation and identification of yeast messenger ribonucleic acids coding for enolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and phosphoglycerate kinase. Biochemistry. 1978 Nov 14;17(23):4900–4907. [PubMed]
  • Kötter P, Amore R, Hollenberg CP, Ciriacy M. Isolation and characterization of the Pichia stipitis xylitol dehydrogenase gene, XYL2, and construction of a xylose-utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae transformant. Curr Genet. 1990 Dec;18(6):493–500. [PubMed]
  • Kotyk A. Properties of the sugar carrier in baker's yeast. II. Specificity of transport. Folia Microbiol (Praha) 1967;12(2):121–131. [PubMed]
  • Kuhn A, van Zyl C, van Tonder A, Prior BA. Purification and partial characterization of an aldo-keto reductase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1995 Apr;61(4):1580–1585. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kuo SC, Cirillo VP. Galactose transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. 3. Characteristics of galactose uptake in transferaseless cells: evidence against transport-associated phosphorylation. J Bacteriol. 1970 Sep;103(3):679–685. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lagunas R. Energy metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae discrepancy between ATP balance and known metabolic functions. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1976 Sep 13;440(3):661–674. [PubMed]
  • Mäkinen KK. Xylitol and oral health. Adv Food Res. 1979;25:137–158. [PubMed]
  • Meinander N, Zacchi G, Hahn-Hägerdal B. A heterologous reductase affects the redox balance of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Microbiology. 1996 Jan;142(Pt 1):165–172. [PubMed]
  • Nevado J, Navarro MA, Heredia CF. Galactose inhibition of the constitutive transport of hexoses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast. 1993 Feb;9(2):111–119. [PubMed]
  • Nevado J, Navarro MA, Heredia CF. Transport of hexoses in yeast. Re-examination of the sugar phosphorylation hypothesis with a new experimental approach. Yeast. 1994 Jan;10(1):59–65. [PubMed]
  • Postma E, Verduyn C, Kuiper A, Scheffers WA, van Dijken JP. Substrate-accelerated death of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CBS 8066 under maltose stress. Yeast. 1990 Mar-Apr;6(2):149–158. [PubMed]
  • Schiestl RH, Gietz RD. High efficiency transformation of intact yeast cells using single stranded nucleic acids as a carrier. Curr Genet. 1989 Dec;16(5-6):339–346. [PubMed]
  • Seaston A, Inkson C, Eddy AA. The absorption of protons with specific amino acids and carbohydrates by yeast. Biochem J. 1973 Aug;134(4):1031–1043. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Serrano R. Energy requirements for maltose transport in yeast. Eur J Biochem. 1977 Oct 17;80(1):97–102. [PubMed]
  • Serrano R, Delafuente G. Regulatory properties of the constitutive hexose transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biochem. 1974 Dec 20;5(3):161–171. [PubMed]
  • Thestrup HN, Hahn-Hägerdal B. Xylitol formation and reduction equivalent generation during anaerobic xylose conversion with glucose as cosubstrate in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the xyl1 gene. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1995 May;61(5):2043–2045. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tuite MF, Dobson MJ, Roberts NA, King RM, Burke DC, Kingsman SM, Kingsman AJ. Regulated high efficiency expression of human interferon-alpha in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. EMBO J. 1982;1(5):603–608. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • van Zyl C, Prior BA, Kilian SG, Brandt EV. Role of D-ribose as a cometabolite in D-xylose metabolism by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1993 May;59(5):1487–1494. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • van Zyl C, Prior BA, Kilian SG, Kock JL. D-xylose utilization by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Gen Microbiol. 1989 Nov;135(11):2791–2798. [PubMed]
  • Verduyn C, Postma E, Scheffers WA, Van Dijken JP. Effect of benzoic acid on metabolic fluxes in yeasts: a continuous-culture study on the regulation of respiration and alcoholic fermentation. Yeast. 1992 Jul;8(7):501–517. [PubMed]
  • Walfridsson M, Hallborn J, Penttilä M, Keränen S, Hahn-Hägerdal B. Xylose-metabolizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains overexpressing the TKL1 and TAL1 genes encoding the pentose phosphate pathway enzymes transketolase and transaldolase. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1995 Dec;61(12):4184–4190. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Walsh MC, Smits HP, Scholte M, van Dam K. Affinity of glucose transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is modulated during growth on glucose. J Bacteriol. 1994 Feb;176(4):953–958. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Applied and Environmental Microbiology are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • Compound
    PubChem Compound links
  • MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...