Logo of envhperEnvironmental Health PerspectivesBrowse ArticlesAbout EHPGeneral InformationAuthorsMediaProgramsPartnerships
Environ Health Perspect. 2000 Jul; 108(7): 579–588.
PMCID: PMC1638183
Research Article

Vinyl chloride: still a cause for concern.


Vinyl chloride (VC) is both a known carcinogen and a regulated chemical, and its production capacity has almost doubled over the last 20 years, currently 27 million tons/year worldwide. According to recent reports it is still a cause for concern. VC has been found as a degradation product of chloroethylene solvents (perchloroethylene and trichloroethylene) and in landfill gas and groundwater at concentrations up to 200 mg/m(3) and 10 mg/L, respectively. Worldwide occupational exposure to VC still seems to be high in some countries (e.g., averages of approximately 1,300 mg/m(3) until 1987 in one factory), and exposure may also be high in others where VC is not regulated. By combining the most relevant epidemiologic studies from several countries, we observed a 5-fold excess of liver cancer, primarily because of a 45-fold excess risk from angiosarcoma of the liver (ASL). The number of ASL cases reported up to the end of 1998 was 197 worldwide. The average latency for ASL is 22 years. Some studies show a small excess risk for hepatocellular carcinoma, and others suggest a possible risk of brain tumors among highly exposed workers. Lung cancer, lymphomas, or leukemia do not seem to be related to VC exposure according to recent results. The mutation spectra observed in rat and human liver tumors (ASL and/or hepatocellular carcinoma) that are associated with exposure to VC are clearly distinct from those observed in sporadic liver tumors or hepatic tumors that are associated with other exposures. In rats, the substitution mutations found at A:T base pairs in the ras and p53 genes are consistent with the promutagenic properties of the DNA adduct 1,N(6)-ethenoadenine formed from VC metabolites. Risk assessments derived from animal studies seem to overestimate the actual risk of cancer when comparing estimated and reported cases of ASL.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (3.5M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Lange CE, Jühe S, Stein G, Veltman G. Die sogenannte Vinylchlorid-Krankheiteine berufsbedingte Systemsklerose. Int Arch Arbeitsmed. 1974;32(1):1–32. [PubMed]
  • Suciu I, Prodan L, Ilea E, Păduraru A, Pascu L. Clinical manifestations in vinyl chloride poisoning. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1975 Jan 31;246:53–69. [PubMed]
  • Veltman G, Lange CE, Jühe S, Stein G, Bachner U. Clinical manifestations and course of vinyl chloride disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1975 Jan 31;246:6–17. [PubMed]
  • Lelbach WK, Marsteller HJ. Vinyl chloride-associated disease. Ergeb Inn Med Kinderheilkd. 1981;47:1–110. [PubMed]
  • Creech JL, Jr, Johnson MN. Angiosarcoma of liver in the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride. J Occup Med. 1974 Mar;16(3):150–151. [PubMed]
  • Tabershaw IR, Gaffey WR. Mortality study of workers in the manufacture of vinyl chloride and its polymers. J Occup Med. 1974 Aug;16(8):509–518. [PubMed]
  • Cooper WC. Epidemiologic study of vinyl chloride workers: mortality through December 31, 1972. Environ Health Perspect. 1981 Oct;41:101–106. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Monson RR, Peters JM, Johnson MN. Proportional mortality among vinyl chloride workers. Environ Health Perspect. 1975 Jun;11:75–77. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nicholson WJ, Hammond EC, Seidman H, Selikoff IJ. Mortality experience of a cohort of vinyl chloride-polyvinyl chloride workers. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1975 Jan 31;246:225–230. [PubMed]
  • Ott MG, Langer RR, Holder BB. Vinyl chloride exposure in a controlled industrial environment. A long-term mortality experience in 594 employees. Arch Environ Health. 1975 Jul;30(7):333–339. [PubMed]
  • Duck BW, Carter JT, Coombes EJ. Mortality study of workers in a polyvinyl-chloride production plant. Lancet. 1975 Dec 13;2(7946):1197–1199. [PubMed]
  • Buffler PA, Wood S, Eifler C, Suarez L, Kilian DJ. Mortality experience of workers in a vinyl chloride monomer production plant. J Occup Med. 1979 Mar;21(3):195–203. [PubMed]
  • Byrén D, Engholm G, Englund A, Westerholm P. Mortality and cancer morbidity in a group of Swedish VCM and PCV production workers. Environ Health Perspect. 1976 Oct;17:167–170. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fox AJ, Collier PF. Mortality experience of workers exposed to vinyl chloride monomer in the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride in Great Britain. Br J Ind Med. 1977 Feb;34(1):1–10. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Molina G, Holmberg B, Elofsson S, Holmlund L, Moosing R, Westerholm P. Mortality and cancer rates among workers in the Swedish PVC processing industry. Environ Health Perspect. 1981 Oct;41:145–151. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Storetvedt Heldaas S, Andersen AA, Langård S. Incidence of cancer among vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride workers: further evidence for an association with malignant melanoma. Br J Ind Med. 1987 Apr;44(4):278–280. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Jones JH. Worker exposure to vinyl chloride and poly(vinyl chloride). Environ Health Perspect. 1981 Oct;41:129–136. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Belli S, Bertazzi PA, Comba P, Foà V, Maltoni C, Masina A, Pirastu R, Reggiani A, Vigotti MA. A cohort study on vinyl chloride manufacturers in Italy: study design and preliminary results. Cancer Lett. 1987 Jun;35(3):253–261. [PubMed]
  • Pirastu R, Comba P, Reggiani A, Foa V, Masina A, Maltoni C. Mortality from liver disease among Italian vinyl chloride monomer/polyvinyl chloride manufacturers. Am J Ind Med. 1990;17(2):155–161. [PubMed]
  • Thériault G, Allard P. Cancer mortality of a group of Canadian workers exposed to vinyl chloride monomer. J Occup Med. 1981 Oct;23(10):671–676. [PubMed]
  • Weber H, Reinl W, Greiser E. German investigations on morbidity and mortality of workers exposed to vinyl chloride. Environ Health Perspect. 1981 Oct;41:95–99. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Greiser E, Reinl W, Weber H. Vinylchlorid-Exposition und Mortalität deutscher Chermiearbeiter im Vergleich zur Mortalität nichtexponierter Chemiearbeiter und PVC-Verarbeiter. Zentralbl Arbeitsmed Arbeitsschutz Prophyl Ergonomie. 1982 Feb;32(2):44–62. [PubMed]
  • Laplanche A, Clavel F, Contassot JC, Lanouziere C. Exposure to vinyl chloride monomer: report on a cohort study. Br J Ind Med. 1987 Oct;44(10):711–715. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Laplanche A, Clavel-Chapelon F, Contassot JC, Lanouzière C. Exposure to vinyl chloride monomer: results of a cohort study after a seven year follow up. The French VCM Group. Br J Ind Med. 1992 Feb;49(2):134–137. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Smulevich VB, Fedotova IV, Filatova VS. Increasing evidence of the rise of cancer in workers exposed to vinylchloride. Br J Ind Med. 1988 Feb;45(2):93–97. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Viola PL. Pathology of vinyl chloride. Med Lav. 1970 Mar;61(3):147–180. [PubMed]
  • Viola PL, Bigotti A, Caputo A. Oncogenic response of rat skin, lungs, and bones to vinyl chloride. Cancer Res. 1971 May;31(5):516–522. [PubMed]
  • Feron VJ, Hendriksen CF, Speek AJ, Til HP, Spit BJ. Lifespan oral toxicity study of vinyl chloride in rats. Food Cosmet Toxicol. 1981 Jun;19(3):317–333. [PubMed]
  • Til HP, Feron VJ, Immel HR. Lifetime (149-week) oral carcinogenicity study of vinyl chloride in rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 1991 Oct;29(10):713–718. [PubMed]
  • Maltoni C, Lefemine G, Ciliberti A, Cotti G, Carretti D. Carcinogenicity bioassays of vinyl chloride monomer: a model of risk assessment on an experimental basis. Environ Health Perspect. 1981 Oct;41:3–29. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Drew RT, Boorman GA, Haseman JK, McConnell EE, Busey WM, Moore JA. The effect of age and exposure duration on cancer induction by a known carcinogen in rats, mice, and hamsters. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1983 Mar 30;68(1):120–130. [PubMed]
  • Lee CC, Bhandari JC, Winston JM, House WB, Dixon RL, Woods JS. Carcinogenicity of vinyl chloride and vinylidene chloride. J Toxicol Environ Health. 1978 Jan;4(1):15–30. [PubMed]
  • Sokal JA, Barański B, Majka J, Rolecki R, Stetkiewicz J, Ivanova-Chemishanska L, Vergieva T, Antonov G, Mirkova E, Kolakowski J, et al. Experimental studies on the chronic toxic effects of vinyl chloride in rats. J Hyg Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol. 1980;24(3):285–294. [PubMed]
  • Wiśniewska-Knypl JM, Klimczak J, Kołakowski J. Monooxygenase activity and ultrastructural changes of liver in the course of chronic exposure of rats to vinyl chloride. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1980;46(3):241–249. [PubMed]
  • Dieter HH, Kerndorff H. Presence and importance of organochlorine solvents and other compounds in Germany's groundwater and drinking water. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 1993;29(2):263–277. [PubMed]
  • Yao LJ, Richardson C, Ford C, Mathialagan N, Mackie G, Hammond GL, Harding PG, Possmayer F. Expression of mature pulmonary surfactant-associated protein B (SP-B) in Escherichia coli using truncated human SP-B cDNAs. Biochem Cell Biol. 1990 Feb;68(2):559–566. [PubMed]
  • Vogel TM, McCarty PL. Biotransformation of tetrachloroethylene to trichloroethylene, dichloroethylene, vinyl chloride, and carbon dioxide under methanogenic conditions. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1985 May;49(5):1080–1083. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • McCarty PL. Breathing with chlorinated solvents. Science. 1997 Jun 6;276(5318):1521–1522. [PubMed]
  • Freedman DL, Gossett JM. Biological reductive dechlorination of tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene to ethylene under methanogenic conditions. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1989 Sep;55(9):2144–2151. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • DiStefano TD, Gossett JM, Zinder SH. Reductive dechlorination of high concentrations of tetrachloroethene to ethene by an anaerobic enrichment culture in the absence of methanogenesis. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1991 Aug;57(8):2287–2292. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • de Bruin WP, Kotterman MJ, Posthumus MA, Schraa G, Zehnder AJ. Complete biological reductive transformation of tetrachloroethene to ethane. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1992 Jun;58(6):1996–2000. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Semprini L. In situ bioremediation of chlorinated solvents. Environ Health Perspect. 1995 Jun;103 (Suppl 5):101–105. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Holliger C, Schraa G, Stams AJ, Zehnder AJ. A highly purified enrichment culture couples the reductive dechlorination of tetrachloroethene to growth. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1993 Sep;59(9):2991–2997. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sharma PK, McCarty PL. Isolation and Characterization of a Facultatively Aerobic Bacterium That Reductively Dehalogenates Tetrachloroethene to cis-1,2-Dichloroethene. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1996 Mar;62(3):761–765. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Maymó-Gatell X, Chien Y, Gossett JM, Zinder SH. Isolation of a bacterium that reductively dechlorinates tetrachloroethene to ethene. Science. 1997 Jun 6;276(5318):1568–1571. [PubMed]
  • Hüttner E, Nikolova T. Cytogenetic analysis of peripheral lymphocytes in a population exposed to vinyl chloride through an accidental release into the environment. Toxicol Lett. 1998 Aug;96-97:143–148. [PubMed]
  • Zhao MY, Ying CJ, Shao N, Yang Y, Yang CF, Shi L, Liu WQ. The study of health effects of vinyl chloride air pollution on population. Biomed Environ Sci. 1994 Jun;7(2):136–143. [PubMed]
  • Barnes AW. Vinyl chloride and the production of PVC. Proc R Soc Med. 1976 Apr;69(4):277–281. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Purchase IF, Stafford J, Paddle GM. Vinyl chloride: an assessment of the risk of occupational exposure. Food Chem Toxicol. 1987 Feb;25(2):187–202. [PubMed]
  • Anderson D, Richardson CR, Weight TM, Purchase IF, Adams WG. Chromosomal analyses in vinyl chloride exposed workers. Results from analysis 18 and 42 months after an initial sampling. Mutat Res. 1980 Oct;79(2):151–162. [PubMed]
  • Wu W, Steenland K, Brown D, Wells V, Jones J, Schulte P, Halperin W. Cohort and case-control analyses of workers exposed to vinyl chloride: an update. J Occup Med. 1989 Jun;31(6):518–523. [PubMed]
  • Hozo I, Andelinović S, Ljutić D, Mirić D, Bojić L, Gaspercić I. Vinylchloride monomer exposure by the plastic industry workers basic condition for liver angiosarcoma appearance. Med Arh. 1996;50(1-2):9–14. [PubMed]
  • Wang YL, Zhao XH. Occupational health of working women in China. Asia Pac J Public Health. 1987;1(4):66–71. [PubMed]
  • Fucic A, Horvat D, Dimitrovic B. Localization of breaks induced by vinyl chloride in the human chromosomes of lymphocytes. Mutat Res. 1990 Feb;243(2):95–99. [PubMed]
  • Pirastu R, Belli S, Bruno C, Comba P, De Santis M, Foà V, Maltoni C, Masina A, Reggiani A. La mortalità dei produttori di cloruro di vinile in Italia. Med Lav. 1991 Sep-Oct;82(5):388–423. [PubMed]
  • Studniarek M, Durski K, Liniecki J, Brykalski D, Poznańska A, Głuszcz M. Effects of vinyl chloride on liver function of exposed workers, evaluated by measurements of plasma clearance of the 99mTc-N-2,4-dimethylacetanilido-iminodiacetate complex. J Appl Toxicol. 1989 Aug;9(4):213–218. [PubMed]
  • Dobecki M, Romanowicz B. Narazenie zawodowe na substancje toksyczne podczas produkcji chlorku winylu i rozpuszczalników chloroorganicznych. Med Pr. 1993;44(2):99–102. [PubMed]
  • Du CL, Chan CC, Wang JD. Comparison of personal and area sampling strategies in assessing workers' exposure to vinyl chloride monomer. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 1996 Apr;56(4):534–542. [PubMed]
  • Elliott P, Kleinschmidt I. Angiosarcoma of the liver in Great Britain in proximity to vinyl chloride sites. Occup Environ Med. 1997 Jan;54(1):14–18. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Falk H, Creech JL, Jr, Heath CW, Jr, Johnson MN, Key MM. Hepatic disease among workers at a vinyl chloride polymerization plant. JAMA. 1974 Oct 7;230(1):59–63. [PubMed]
  • Forman D, Bennett B, Stafford J, Doll R. Exposure to vinyl chloride and angiosarcoma of the liver: a report of the register of cases. Br J Ind Med. 1985 Nov;42(11):750–753. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lelbach WK. A 25-year follow-up study of heavily exposed vinyl chloride workers in Germany. Am J Ind Med. 1996 May;29(5):446–458. [PubMed]
  • Riordan SM, Loo CK, Haber RW, Thomas MC. Vinyl chloride related hepatic angiosarcoma in a polyvinyl chloride autoclave cleaner in Australia. Med J Aust. 1991 Jul 15;155(2):125–128. [PubMed]
  • Hayashi H, Sakamoto N, Aoi T, Fukumura A, Mano H, Inagaki T. Invasive character of malignant endothelial cells in vinyl-chloride-induced liver angiosarcoma. Nagoya J Med Sci. 1990 Mar;52(1-4):13–17. [PubMed]
  • Paliard P, Valette PJ, Berger F, Contassot JC, Partensky C. Péliose hépatique tardive après traitement d'un angiosarcome hépatique chez un sujet exposé au chlorure de vinyl monomère. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 1991;15(5):445–448. [PubMed]
  • Neshiwat LF, Friedland ML, Schorr-Lesnick B, Feldman S, Glucksman WJ, Russo RD., Jr Hepatic angiosarcoma. Am J Med. 1992 Aug;93(2):219–222. [PubMed]
  • Hozo I, Andelinović S, Ljutić D, Bojić L, Mirić D, Giunio L. Two new cases of liver angiosarcoma: history and perspectives of liver angiosarcoma among plastic industry workers. Toxicol Ind Health. 1997 Sep-Oct;13(5):639–647. [PubMed]
  • Wong O, Whorton MD, Foliart DE, Ragland D. An industry-wide epidemiologic study of vinyl chloride workers, 1942-1982. Am J Ind Med. 1991;20(3):317–334. [PubMed]
  • Simonato L, L'Abbé KA, Andersen A, Belli S, Comba P, Engholm G, Ferro G, Hagmar L, Langård S, Lundberg I, et al. A collaborative study of cancer incidence and mortality among vinyl chloride workers. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1991 Jun;17(3):159–169. [PubMed]
  • Pirastu R, Bruno C, De Santis M, Comba P. Indagine epidemiologica sui lavoratori esposti a cloruro di vinile negli stabilimenti di Ferrara, Rosignano e Ravenna. Epidemiol Prev. 1998 Oct-Dec;22(4):226–236. [PubMed]
  • Bartsch H, Barbin A, Marion MJ, Nair J, Guichard Y. Formation, detection, and role in carcinogenesis of ethenobases in DNA. Drug Metab Rev. 1994;26(1-2):349–371. [PubMed]
  • Barbin A. Formation of DNA etheno adducts in rodents and humans and their role in carcinogenesis. Acta Biochim Pol. 1998;45(1):145–161. [PubMed]
  • Barbin A. Role of etheno DNA adducts in carcinogenesis induced by vinyl chloride in rats. IARC Sci Publ. 1999;(150):303–313. [PubMed]
  • Giri AK. Genetic toxicology of vinyl chloride--a review. Mutat Res. 1995 Feb;339(1):1–14. [PubMed]
  • Ciroussel F, Barbin A, Eberle G, Bartsch H. Investigations on the relationship between DNA ethenobase adduct levels in several organs of vinyl chloride-exposed rats and cancer susceptibility. Biochem Pharmacol. 1990 Mar 15;39(6):1109–1113. [PubMed]
  • Grollman AP, Shibutani S. Mutagenic specificity of chemical carcinogens as determined by studies of single DNA adducts. IARC Sci Publ. 1994;(125):385–397. [PubMed]
  • Cheng KC, Preston BD, Cahill DS, Dosanjh MK, Singer B, Loeb LA. The vinyl chloride DNA derivative N2,3-ethenoguanine produces G----A transitions in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Nov 15;88(22):9974–9978. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Moriya M, Zhang W, Johnson F, Grollman AP. Mutagenic potency of exocyclic DNA adducts: marked differences between Escherichia coli and simian kidney cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Dec 6;91(25):11899–11903. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Basu AK, Wood ML, Niedernhofer LJ, Ramos LA, Essigmann JM. Mutagenic and genotoxic effects of three vinyl chloride-induced DNA lesions: 1,N6-ethenoadenine, 3,N4-ethenocytosine, and 4-amino-5-(imidazol-2-yl)imidazole. Biochemistry. 1993 Nov 30;32(47):12793–12801. [PubMed]
  • Pandya GA, Moriya M. 1,N6-ethenodeoxyadenosine, a DNA adduct highly mutagenic in mammalian cells. Biochemistry. 1996 Sep 3;35(35):11487–11492. [PubMed]
  • Eberle G, Barbin A, Laib RJ, Ciroussel F, Thomale J, Bartsch H, Rajewsky MF. 1,N6-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine and 3,N4-etheno-2'-deoxycytidine detected by monoclonal antibodies in lung and liver DNA of rats exposed to vinyl chloride. Carcinogenesis. 1989 Jan;10(1):209–212. [PubMed]
  • Fedtke N, Boucheron JA, Walker VE, Swenberg JA. Vinyl chloride-induced DNA adducts. II: Formation and persistence of 7-(2'-oxoethyl)guanine and N2,3-ethenoguanine in rat tissue DNA. Carcinogenesis. 1990 Aug;11(8):1287–1292. [PubMed]
  • Swenberg JA, Fedtke N, Ciroussel F, Barbin A, Bartsch H. Etheno adducts formed in DNA of vinyl chloride-exposed rats are highly persistent in liver. Carcinogenesis. 1992 Apr;13(4):727–729. [PubMed]
  • el Ghissassi F, Barbin A, Nair J, Bartsch H. Formation of 1,N6-ethenoadenine and 3,N4-ethenocytosine by lipid peroxidation products and nucleic acid bases. Chem Res Toxicol. 1995 Mar;8(2):278–283. [PubMed]
  • Chung FL, Chen HJ, Nath RG. Lipid peroxidation as a potential endogenous source for the formation of exocyclic DNA adducts. Carcinogenesis. 1996 Oct;17(10):2105–2111. [PubMed]
  • Guichard Y, el Ghissassi F, Nair J, Bartsch H, Barbin A. Formation and accumulation of DNA ethenobases in adult Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to vinyl chloride. Carcinogenesis. 1996 Aug;17(8):1553–1559. [PubMed]
  • Barbin A, Froment O, Boivin S, Marion MJ, Belpoggi F, Maltoni C, Montesano R. p53 gene mutation pattern in rat liver tumors induced by vinyl chloride. Cancer Res. 1997 May 1;57(9):1695–1698. [PubMed]
  • Marion MJ, Froment O, Trépo C. Activation of Ki-ras gene by point mutation in human liver angiosarcoma associated with vinyl chloride exposure. Mol Carcinog. 1991;4(6):450–454. [PubMed]
  • Marion MJ, De Vivo I, Smith S, Luo JC, Brandt-Rauf PW. The molecular epidemiology of occupational carcinogenesis in vinyl chloride exposed workers. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1996;68(6):394–398. [PubMed]
  • De Vivo I, Marion MJ, Smith SJ, Carney WP, Brandt-Rauf PW. Mutant c-Ki-ras p21 protein in chemical carcinogenesis in humans exposed to vinyl chloride. Cancer Causes Control. 1994 May;5(3):273–278. [PubMed]
  • Froment O, Boivin S, Barbin A, Bancel B, Trepo C, Marion MJ. Mutagenesis of ras proto-oncogenes in rat liver tumors induced by vinyl chloride. Cancer Res. 1994 Oct 15;54(20):5340–5345. [PubMed]
  • Boivin-Angèle S, Lefrançois L, Froment O, Spiethoff A, Bogdanffy MS, Wegener K, Wesch H, Barbin A, Bancel B, Trépo C, et al. Ras gene mutations in vinyl chloride-induced liver tumours are carcinogen-specific but vary with cell type and species. Int J Cancer. 2000 Jan 15;85(2):223–227. [PubMed]
  • Chen CW, Blancato JN. Incorporation of biological information in cancer risk assessment: example--vinyl chloride. Cell Biol Toxicol. 1989 Dec;5(4):417–444. [PubMed]
  • Gargas ML, Burgess RJ, Voisard DE, Cason GH, Andersen ME. Partition coefficients of low-molecular-weight volatile chemicals in various liquids and tissues. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1989 Mar 15;98(1):87–99. [PubMed]
  • D'Souza RW, Andersen ME. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for vinylidene chloride. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1988 Sep 15;95(2):230–240. [PubMed]
  • Crump KS. An improved procedure for low-dose carcinogenic risk assessment from animal data. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 1984 Jul;5(4-5):339–348. [PubMed]
  • Reitz RH, Gargas ML, Andersen ME, Provan WM, Green TL. Predicting cancer risk from vinyl chloride exposure with a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1996 Apr;137(2):253–267. [PubMed]

Articles from Environmental Health Perspectives are provided here courtesy of National Institute of Environmental Health Science


Save items

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • Compound
    PubChem Compound links
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...