• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of aacPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalAAC ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. Sep 1995; 39(9): 2112–2115.
PMCID: PMC162890

Characterization of antimicrobial resistance in enterococci of animal origin.


Among 97 enterococci cultured from animals, gentamicin MICs were > or = 2,000 micrograms/ml for 9 isolates and between 250 and 1,024 micrograms/ml for 6 isolates. For two isolates tested (gentamicin MICs, 256 and 512 micrograms/ml, respectively), there was no in vitro synergy with penicillin plus gentamicin, resistance was transferable, and there was no hybridization with a probe specific for 6'-aminoglycoside acetyltransferase-2"-aminoglycoside phosphotransferase. The results of the study indicate the presence of a unique gentamicin resistance genotype in enterococci of animal origin.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (176K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Bates J, Jordens JZ, Griffiths DT. Farm animals as a putative reservoir for vancomycin-resistant enterococcal infection in man. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1994 Oct;34(4):507–514. [PubMed]
  • Bates J, Jordens Z, Selkon JB. Evidence for an animal origin of vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Lancet. 1993 Aug 21;342(8869):490–491. [PubMed]
  • Boyce JM, Opal SM, Chow JW, Zervos MJ, Potter-Bynoe G, Sherman CB, Romulo RL, Fortna S, Medeiros AA. Outbreak of multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecium with transferable vanB class vancomycin resistance. J Clin Microbiol. 1994 May;32(5):1148–1153. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Chaslus-Dancla E, Pohl P, Meurisse M, Marin M, Lafont JP. High genetic homology between plasmids of human and animal origins conferring resistance to the aminoglycosides gentamicin and apramycin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1991 Mar;35(3):590–593. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Coque TM, Arduino RC, Murray BE. High-level resistance to aminoglycosides: comparison of community and nosocomial fecal isolates of enterococci. Clin Infect Dis. 1995 Apr;20(4):1048–1051. [PubMed]
  • Devriese LA, Hommez J, Wijfels R, Haesebrouck F. Composition of the enterococcal and streptococcal intestinal flora of poultry. J Appl Bacteriol. 1991 Jul;71(1):46–50. [PubMed]
  • Donabedian S, Chow JW, Shlaes DM, Green M, Zervos MJ. DNA hybridization and contour-clamped homogeneous electric field electrophoresis for identification of enterococci to the species level. J Clin Microbiol. 1995 Jan;33(1):141–145. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • DuPont HL, Steele JH. Use of antimicrobial agents in animal feeds: implications for human health. Rev Infect Dis. 1987 May-Jun;9(3):447–460. [PubMed]
  • Facklam RR, Collins MD. Identification of Enterococcus species isolated from human infections by a conventional test scheme. J Clin Microbiol. 1989 Apr;27(4):731–734. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ferretti JJ, Gilmore KS, Courvalin P. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the gene specifying the bifunctional 6'-aminoglycoside acetyltransferase 2"-aminoglycoside phosphotransferase enzyme in Streptococcus faecalis and identification and cloning of gene regions specifying the two activities. J Bacteriol. 1986 Aug;167(2):631–638. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Forbes BA, Schaberg DR. Transfer of resistance plasmids from Staphylococcus epidermidis to Staphylococcus aureus: evidence for conjugative exchange of resistance. J Bacteriol. 1983 Feb;153(2):627–634. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gawron-Burke C, Clewell DB. Regeneration of insertionally inactivated streptococcal DNA fragments after excision of transposon Tn916 in Escherichia coli: strategy for targeting and cloning of genes from gram-positive bacteria. J Bacteriol. 1984 Jul;159(1):214–221. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gellin G, Langlois BE, Dawson KA, Aaron DK. Antibiotic resistance of gram-negative enteric bacteria from pigs in three herds with different histories of antibiotic exposure. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1989 Sep;55(9):2287–2292. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Holmberg SD, Osterholm MT, Senger KA, Cohen ML. Drug-resistant Salmonella from animals fed antimicrobials. N Engl J Med. 1984 Sep 6;311(10):617–622. [PubMed]
  • Jayarao BM, Oliver SP. Aminoglycoside-resistant Streptococcus and Enterococcus species isolated from bovine mammary secretions. J Dairy Sci. 1992 Apr;75(4):991–997. [PubMed]
  • Jordens JZ, Bates J, Griffiths DT. Faecal carriage and nosocomial spread of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1994 Oct;34(4):515–528. [PubMed]
  • Kaye D. Enterococci. Biologic and epidemiologic characteristics and in vitro susceptibility. Arch Intern Med. 1982 Oct 25;142(11):2006–2009. [PubMed]
  • Klare I, Heier H, Claus H, Witte W. Environmental strains of Enterococcus faecium with inducible high-level resistance to glycopeptides. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1993 Jan 1;106(1):23–29. [PubMed]
  • Moellering RC, Jr, Wennersten C, Weinberg AN. Studies on antibiotic synergism against enterococci. I. Bacteriologic studies. J Lab Clin Med. 1971 May;77(5):821–828. [PubMed]
  • Murray BE. The life and times of the Enterococcus. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1990 Jan;3(1):46–65. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • O'Brien TF, Hopkins JD, Gilleece ES, Medeiros AA, Kent RL, Blackburn BO, Holmes MB, Reardon JP, Vergeront JM, Schell WL, et al. Molecular epidemiology of antibiotic resistance in salmonella from animals and human beings in the United States. N Engl J Med. 1982 Jul 1;307(1):1–6. [PubMed]
  • Patterson JE, Zervos MJ. High-level gentamicin resistance in Enterococcus: microbiology, genetic basis, and epidemiology. Rev Infect Dis. 1990 Jul-Aug;12(4):644–652. [PubMed]
  • Rice EW, Messer JW, Johnson CH, Reasoner DJ. Occurrence of high-level aminoglycoside resistance in environmental isolates of enterococci. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1995 Jan;61(1):374–376. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Rollins LD, Lee LN, LeBlanc DJ. Evidence for a disseminated erythromycin resistance determinant mediated by Tn917-like sequences among group D streptococci isolated from pigs, chickens, and humans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1985 Apr;27(4):439–444. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Salauze D, Otal I, Gomez-Lus R, Davies J. Aminoglycoside acetyltransferase 3-IV (aacC4) and hygromycin B 4-I phosphotransferase (hphB) in bacteria isolated from human and animal sources. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1990 Oct;34(10):1915–1920. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Thal LA, Chow JW, Clewell DB, Zervos MJ. Tn924, a chromosome-borne transposon encoding high-level gentamicin resistance in Enterococcus faecalis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1994 May;38(5):1152–1156. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Threlfall EJ, Rowe B, Ward LR. A comparison of multiple drug resistance in salmonellas from humans and food animals in England and Wales, 1981 and 1990. Epidemiol Infect. 1993 Oct;111(2):189–197. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Torres C, Reguera JA, Sanmartin MJ, Pérez-Díaz JC, Baquero F. vanA-mediated vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp. in sewage. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1994 Mar;33(3):553–561. [PubMed]

Articles from Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • Cited in Books
    Cited in Books
    PubMed Central articles cited in books
  • Compound
    PubChem Compound links
  • MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    PubChem Substance links