• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of amjphAmerican Journal of Public Health Web SiteAmerican Public Health Association Web SiteSubmissionsSubscriptionsAbout Us
Am J Public Health. 1994 March; 84(3): 382–387.
PMCID: PMC1614821

The trading of sex for drugs or money and HIV seropositivity among female intravenous drug users.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES. Data from 538 women in a cohort study recruited in 1988-1989 were analyzed to determined whether trading sex for drugs or money was independently associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence in a population of female intravenous drug users. METHODS. The women were grouped according to the number of partners with whom they reported trading sex for drugs or money during the previous 10 years: none, 1 through 49 (low), or 50 or more (high); the prevalence of HIV seropositivity in the three groups was 23.2%, 23.7%, and 47.6%, respectively. Logistic regression was used to compare the low- and high-trade groups separately with the group that reported no trading. RESULTS. Low trading was not associated with seroprevalent HIV infection. In a multivariate model, high trading (compared with no trading) was significantly associated with HIV seropositivity after adjustment for cocaine use, history of sexually transmitted diseases, and duration of intravenous drug use. CONCLUSIONS. These data indicate that, among intravenous drug-using women, high levels of trading sex for drugs or money were independently associated with HIV infection. This group needs to be targeted for further intensive intervention.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.2M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Friedland GH, Klein RS. Transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus. N Engl J Med. 1987 Oct 29;317(18):1125–1135. [PubMed]
  • Vlahov D, Muñoz A, Anthony JC, Cohn S, Celentano DD, Nelson KE. Association of drug injection patterns with antibody to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 among intravenous drug users in Baltimore, Maryland. Am J Epidemiol. 1990 Nov;132(5):847–856. [PubMed]
  • Anthony JC, Vlahov D, Nelson KE, Cohn S, Astemborski J, Solomon L. New evidence on intravenous cocaine use and the risk of infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Am J Epidemiol. 1991 Nov 15;134(10):1175–1189. [PubMed]
  • Nicolosi A, Leite ML, Musicco M, Molinari S, Lazzarin A. Parenteral and sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus in intravenous drug users: a study of seroconversion. The Northern Italian Seronegative Drug Addicts (NISDA) Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1992 Feb 1;135(3):225–233. [PubMed]
  • Battjes RJ, Pickens RW, Amsel Z, Brown LS., Jr Heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus among intravenous drug users. J Infect Dis. 1990 Nov;162(5):1007–1011. [PubMed]
  • Tirelli U, Vaccher E, Carbone A, De Paoli P, Santini G, Monfardini S. Heterosexual contact is not the predominant mode of HTLV-III transmission among intravenous drug abusers. JAMA. 1986 May 2;255(17):2289–2289. [PubMed]
  • Schoenbaum EE, Hartel D, Selwyn PA, Klein RS, Davenny K, Rogers M, Feiner C, Friedland G. Risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus infection in intravenous drug users. N Engl J Med. 1989 Sep 28;321(13):874–879. [PubMed]
  • Salmaso S, Conti S, Sasse H. Drug use and HIV-1 infection: report from the Second Italian Multicenter Study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1991;4(6):607–613. [PubMed]
  • Nelson KE, Vlahov D, Cohn S, Odunmbaku M, Lindsay A, Antohony JC, Hook EW., 3rd Sexually transmitted diseases in a population of intravenous drug users: association with seropositivity to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). J Infect Dis. 1991 Sep;164(3):457–463. [PubMed]
  • Franceschi S, Tirelli U, Vaccher E, Serraino D, Crovatto M, De Paoli P, Diodato S, La Vecchia C, Decarli A, Monfardini S. Risk factors for HIV infection in drug addicts from the northeast of Italy. Int J Epidemiol. 1988 Mar;17(1):162–167. [PubMed]
  • Lewis DK, Watters JK. Sexual risk behavior among heterosexual intravenous drug users: ethnic and gender variations. AIDS. 1991 Jan;5(1):77–83. [PubMed]
  • Saxon AJ, Calsyn DA, Whittaker S, Freeman G., Jr Sexual behaviors of intravenous drug users in treatment. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1991;4(10):938–944. [PubMed]
  • Booth R, Koester S, Brewster JT, Weibel WW, Fritz RB. Intravenous drug users and AIDS: risk behaviors. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 1991 Sep;17(3):337–353. [PubMed]
  • Williams ML. A model of the sexual relations of young i.v. drug users. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1990;3(2):192–193. [PubMed]
  • Chaisson RE, Moss AR, Onishi R, Osmond D, Carlson JR. Human immunodeficiency virus infection in heterosexual intravenous drug users in San Francisco. Am J Public Health. 1987 Feb;77(2):169–172. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • van den Hoek JA, Coutinho RA, van Haastrecht HJ, van Zadelhoff AW, Goudsmit J. Prevalence and risk factors of HIV infections among drug users and drug-using prostitutes in Amsterdam. AIDS. 1988 Feb;2(1):55–60. [PubMed]
  • van den Hoek JA, van Haastrecht HJ, Scheeringa-Troost B, Goudsmit J, Coutinho RA. HIV infection and STD in drug addicted prostitutes in Amsterdam: potential for heterosexual HIV transmission. Genitourin Med. 1989 Jun;65(3):146–150. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Chaisson RE, Bacchetti P, Osmond D, Brodie B, Sande MA, Moss AR. Cocaine use and HIV infection in intravenous drug users in San Francisco. JAMA. 1989 Jan 27;261(4):561–565. [PubMed]
  • Samuels JF, Vlahov D, Anthony JC, Chaisson RE. Measurement of HIV risk behaviors among intravenous drug users. Br J Addict. 1992 Mar;87(3):417–428. [PubMed]
  • Marmor M, Des Jarlais DC, Cohen H, Friedman SR, Beatrice ST, Dubin N, el-Sadr W, Mildvan D, Yancovitz S, Mathur U, et al. Risk factors for infection with human immunodeficiency virus among intravenous drug abusers in New York City. AIDS. 1987 May;1(1):39–44. [PubMed]
  • Chiasson MA, Stoneburner RL, Hildebrandt DS, Ewing WE, Telzak EE, Jaffe HW. Heterosexual transmission of HIV-1 associated with the use of smokable freebase cocaine (crack). AIDS. 1991 Sep;5(9):1121–1126. [PubMed]
  • Chirgwin K, DeHovitz JA, Dillon S, McCormack WM. HIV infection, genital ulcer disease, and crack cocaine use among patients attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases. Am J Public Health. 1991 Dec;81(12):1576–1579. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from American Journal of Public Health are provided here courtesy of American Public Health Association

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • Cited in Books
    Cited in Books
    PubMed Central articles cited in books
  • MedGen
    MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...