• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of plntcellLink to Publisher's site
Plant Cell. Jun 1996; 8(6): 971–983.
PMCID: PMC161152

The Miniature1 Seed Locus of Maize Encodes a Cell Wall Invertase Required for Normal Development of Endosperm and Maternal Cells in the Pedicel.

Abstract

Collective evidence demonstrates that the Miniature1 (Mn1) seed locus in maize encodes an endosperm-specific isozyme of cell wall Invertase, CWI-2. The evidence includes (1) isolation and characterization of ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mn1 mutants with altered enzyme activity and (2) a near-linear relationship between gene/dose and invertase activity and the CWI-2 protein. In addition, molecular analyses showed that the cDNA clone incw2 maps to the Mn1 locus and differentiates the six ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mn1 mutants of independent origin into two classes when RNA gel blot analyses were used. We also report two unexpected observations that provide significant new insight into the physiological role of invertase and its regulation in a developing seed. First, a large proportion of total enzyme activity (~90%) was dispensable (i.e., nonlimiting). However, below the threshold level of ~6% of wild-type activity, the endosperm enzyme controlled both the sink strength of the developing endosperm as well as the developmental stability of maternal cells in the pedicel in a rate-limiting manner. Our data also suggest an unusually tight coordinate control between the cell wall-bound and the soluble forms of invertase, which are most likely encoded by two separate genes, presumably through metabolic controls mediated by the sugars.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (3.2M).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Bartel B, Fink GR. ILR1, an amidohydrolase that releases active indole-3-acetic acid from conjugates. Science. 1995 Jun 23;268(5218):1745–1748. [PubMed]
  • Carlson M, Botstein D. Two differentially regulated mRNAs with different 5' ends encode secreted with intracellular forms of yeast invertase. Cell. 1982 Jan;28(1):145–154. [PubMed]
  • Chourey PS, Nelson OE. Interallelic Complementation at the sh Locus in Maize at the Enzyme Level. Genetics. 1979 Feb;91(2):317–325. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Doehlert DC, Kuo TM. Sugar metabolism in developing kernels of starch-deficient endosperm mutants of maize. Plant Physiol. 1990 Apr;92(4):990–994. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Elliott KJ, Butler WO, Dickinson CD, Konno Y, Vedvick TS, Fitzmaurice L, Mirkov TE. Isolation and characterization of fruit vacuolar invertase genes from two tomato species and temporal differences in mRNA levels during fruit ripening. Plant Mol Biol. 1993 Feb;21(3):515–524. [PubMed]
  • Gardiner JM, Coe EH, Melia-Hancock S, Hoisington DA, Chao S. Development of a core RFLP map in maize using an immortalized F2 population. Genetics. 1993 Jul;134(3):917–930. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Greiner S, Weil M, Krausgrill S, Rausch T. A tobacco cDNA coding for cell-wall invertase. Plant Physiol. 1995 Jun;108(2):825–826. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Laemmli UK. Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature. 1970 Aug 15;227(5259):680–685. [PubMed]
  • Miller ME, Chourey PS. The Maize Invertase-Deficient miniature-1 Seed Mutation Is Associated with Aberrant Pedicel and Endosperm Development. Plant Cell. 1992 Mar;4(3):297–305. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Roitsch T, Bittner M, Godt DE. Induction of apoplastic invertase of Chenopodium rubrum by D-glucose and a glucose analog and tissue-specific expression suggest a role in sink-source regulation. Plant Physiol. 1995 May;108(1):285–294. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Shanker S, Salazar RW, Taliercio EW, Chourey PS. Cloning and characterization of full-length cDNA encoding cell-wall invertase from maize. Plant Physiol. 1995 Jun;108(2):873–874. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sturm A, Chrispeels MJ. cDNA cloning of carrot extracellular beta-fructosidase and its expression in response to wounding and bacterial infection. Plant Cell. 1990 Nov;2(11):1107–1119. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Thomas BR, Rodriguez RL. Metabolite Signals Regulate Gene Expression and Source/Sink Relations in Cereal Seedlings. Plant Physiol. 1994 Dec;106(4):1235–1239. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tsai CY, Salamini F, Nelson OE. Enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in the developing endosperm of maize. Plant Physiol. 1970 Aug;46(2):299–306. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Unger C, Hofsteenge J, Sturm A. Purification and characterization of a soluble beta-fructofuranosidase from Daucus carota. Eur J Biochem. 1992 Mar 1;204(2):915–921. [PubMed]
  • Wadsworth GJ, Redinbaugh MG, Scandalios JG. A procedure for the small-scale isolation of plant RNA suitable for RNA blot analysis. Anal Biochem. 1988 Jul;172(1):279–283. [PubMed]
  • Zrenner R, Willmitzer L, Sonnewald U. Analysis of the expression of potato uridinediphosphate-glucose pyrophosphorylase and its inhibition by antisense RNA. Planta. 1993;190(2):247–252. [PubMed]
  • Weil M, Krausgrill S, Schuster A, Rausch T. A 17-kDa Nicotiana tabacum cell-wall peptide acts as an in-vitro inhibitor of the cell-wall isoform of acid invertase. Planta. 1994;193(3):438–445. [PubMed]

Articles from The Plant Cell are provided here courtesy of American Society of Plant Biologists

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...