• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of plntcellLink to Publisher's site
Plant Cell. Dec 1993; 5(12): 1725–1738.
PMCID: PMC160399

Transductions for the Expression of Structural Pattern: Analysis in Sunflower.


The transductions to initiate and propagate pattern were investigated in the sunflower head. The spiral pattern emerges as new florets form in regular centripetal sequence on the flat disc. The spiral lines of florets arise as rows of simple bumps. Each bump splits to become a small bract and a circular disc flower. This topographical progression was described by a scanning electron microscopic technique applied to living tissue. The suitability of various theories to explain the progression was examined. Because no periodic cell specialization was seen by scanning electron microscopy prior to pattern emergence, a mechanism that produces pattern in uniform tissue by spontaneous physical buckling (folding) was examined further. Key configurational changes of development were reproduced in models using the buckling assumptions. In further testing, a young head was physically constrained to cause it to grow as an oval. Pattern was modified as predicted. Unexpectedly, organ character changed as well. In localized regions, the folding was abnormal; the typical dyad floret, bract and flower, was replaced by a single large bract. This anomaly is known in mutants of sunflower; hence, the physical treatment induced a phenocopy. We concluded that (1) buckling is a strong candidate to be the process producing organ pattern, and (2) the accompanying topographical changes can be prerequisite to organ differentiation.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (3.6M).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Liu Cm, Xu Zh, Chua NH. Auxin Polar Transport Is Essential for the Establishment of Bilateral Symmetry during Early Plant Embryogenesis. Plant Cell. 1993 Jun;5(6):621–630. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Selker JM, Steucek GL, Green PB. Biophysical mechanisms for morphogenetic progressions at the shoot apex. Dev Biol. 1992 Sep;153(1):29–43. [PubMed]
  • Smith LG, Hake S. The Initiation and Determination of Leaves. Plant Cell. 1992 Sep;4(9):1017–1027. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Spurr AR. A low-viscosity epoxy resin embedding medium for electron microscopy. J Ultrastruct Res. 1969 Jan;26(1):31–43. [PubMed]
  • St Johnston D, Nüsslein-Volhard C. The origin of pattern and polarity in the Drosophila embryo. Cell. 1992 Jan 24;68(2):201–219. [PubMed]
  • Szymkowiak EJ, Sussex IM. The internal meristem layer (L3) determines floral meristem size and carpel number in tomato periclinal chimeras. Plant Cell. 1992 Sep;4(9):1089–1100. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wolff T, Ready DF. The beginning of pattern formation in the Drosophila compound eye: the morphogenetic furrow and the second mitotic wave. Development. 1991 Nov;113(3):841–850. [PubMed]
  • Braam J, Davis RW. Rain-, wind-, and touch-induced expression of calmodulin and calmodulin-related genes in Arabidopsis. Cell. 1990 Feb 9;60(3):357–364. [PubMed]
  • Carter DR, Blenman PR, Beaupré GS. Correlations between mechanical stress history and tissue differentiation in initial fracture healing. J Orthop Res. 1988;6(5):736–748. [PubMed]
  • Coen ES, Meyerowitz EM. The war of the whorls: genetic interactions controlling flower development. Nature. 1991 Sep 5;353(6339):31–37. [PubMed]
  • Douady S, Couder Y. Phyllotaxis as a physical self-organized growth process. Phys Rev Lett. 1992 Mar 30;68(13):2098–2101. [PubMed]
  • DRONAMRAJU KR. Y-LINKAGE IN MAN. Nature. 1964 Jan 25;201:424–425. [PubMed]
  • Holder N. Positional information and pattern formation in plant morphogenesis and a mechanism for the involvement of plant hormones. J Theor Biol. 1979 Mar 21;77(2):195–212. [PubMed]
  • Hsieh HJ, Li NQ, Frangos JA. Shear-induced platelet-derived growth factor gene expression in human endothelial cells is mediated by protein kinase C. J Cell Physiol. 1992 Mar;150(3):552–558. [PubMed]

Articles from The Plant Cell are provided here courtesy of American Society of Plant Biologists


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...