Logo of plntcellLink to Publisher's site
Plant Cell. Feb 1992; 4(2): 213–223.
PMCID: PMC160122

Coordinate regulation of replication and virion sense gene expression in wheat dwarf virus.


We have investigated the relationship between viral DNA replication and virion sense gene expression in wheat dwarf virus (WDV), a member of the geminivirus group, by testing a series of deletion mutants in transfected Triticum monococcum (einkorn) protoplasts. Mutants contained a transcription fusion of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase coding sequence to the virion sense promoter that replaced the viral coat protein coding sequence. The deletion analysis revealed that WDV replication and virion sense transcription can proceed independently and are controlled in part by nonoverlapping elements in the large intergenic region. These data and those from a C2 open reading frame (ORF) frameshift mutant also showed that the product of the C2 ORF (C1-C2 protein) is independently involved in both DNA replication and activation of the virion sense promoter. The amino acid sequences encoded by C2, which are highly conserved in the geminivirus group, show some homology to the DNA binding domain of the myb-related class of plant transcription factors. The possible involvement of the host in controlling the function of the C1-C2 protein and the implication of these data for the development of WDV-based gene vectors are discussed.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (1.9M).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Accotto GP, Donson J, Mullineaux PM. Mapping of Digitaria streak virus transcripts reveals different RNA species from the same transcription unit. EMBO J. 1989 Apr;8(4):1033–1039. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Alting-Mees MA, Short JM. pBluescript II: gene mapping vectors. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989 Nov 25;17(22):9494–9494. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Andersen MT, Richardson KA, Harbison SA, Morris BA. Nucleotide sequence of the geminivirus chloris striate mosaic virus. Virology. 1988 Jun;164(2):443–449. [PubMed]
  • Boulton MI, Steinkellner H, Donson J, Markham PG, King DI, Davies JW. Mutational analysis of the virion-sense genes of maize streak virus. J Gen Virol. 1989 Sep;70(Pt 9):2309–2323. [PubMed]
  • Challberg MD, Kelly TJ. Animal virus DNA replication. Annu Rev Biochem. 1989;58:671–717. [PubMed]
  • Cohen RB, Sheffery M, Kim CG. Partial purification of a nuclear protein that binds to the CCAAT box of the mouse alpha 1-globin gene. Mol Cell Biol. 1986 Mar;6(3):821–832. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Davies JW, Stanley J, Donson J, Mullineaux PM, Boulton MI. Structure and replication of geminivirus genomes. J Cell Sci Suppl. 1987;7:95–107. [PubMed]
  • Dekker EL, Woolston CJ, Xue YB, Cox B, Mullineaux PM. Transcript mapping reveals different expression strategies for the bicistronic RNAs of the geminivirus wheat dwarf virus. Nucleic Acids Res. 1991 Aug 11;19(15):4075–4081. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Depicker A, Stachel S, Dhaese P, Zambryski P, Goodman HM. Nopaline synthase: transcript mapping and DNA sequence. J Mol Appl Genet. 1982;1(6):561–573. [PubMed]
  • Donson J, Accotto GP, Boulton MI, Mullineaux PM, Davies JW. The nucleotide sequence of a geminivirus from Digitaria sanguinalis. Virology. 1987 Nov;161(1):160–169. [PubMed]
  • Etessami P, Saunders K, Watts J, Stanley J. Mutational analysis of complementary-sense genes of African cassava mosaic virus DNA A. J Gen Virol. 1991 May;72(Pt 5):1005–1012. [PubMed]
  • Fenoll C, Black DM, Howell SH. The intergenic region of maize streak virus contains promoter elements involved in rightward transcription of the viral genome. EMBO J. 1988 Jun;7(6):1589–1596. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fenoll C, Schwarz JJ, Black DM, Schneider M, Howell SH. The intergenic region of maize streak virus contains a GC-rich element that activates rightward transcription and binds maize nuclear factors. Plant Mol Biol. 1990 Dec;15(6):865–877. [PubMed]
  • Fromm M, Taylor LP, Walbot V. Expression of genes transferred into monocot and dicot plant cells by electroporation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Sep;82(17):5824–5828. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gorman CM, Moffat LF, Howard BH. Recombinant genomes which express chloramphenicol acetyltransferase in mammalian cells. Mol Cell Biol. 1982 Sep;2(9):1044–1051. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gribskov M, Burgess RR. Sigma factors from E. coli, B. subtilis, phage SP01, and phage T4 are homologous proteins. Nucleic Acids Res. 1986 Aug 26;14(16):6745–6763. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Grotewold E, Athma P, Peterson T. Alternatively spliced products of the maize P gene encode proteins with homology to the DNA-binding domain of myb-like transcription factors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Jun 1;88(11):4587–4591. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Guerineau F, Brooks L, Meadows J, Lucy A, Robinson C, Mullineaux P. Sulfonamide resistance gene for plant transformation. Plant Mol Biol. 1990 Jul;15(1):127–136. [PubMed]
  • Hamilton WD, Stein VE, Coutts RH, Buck KW. Complete nucleotide sequence of the infectious cloned DNA components of tomato golden mosaic virus: potential coding regions and regulatory sequences. EMBO J. 1984 Sep;3(9):2197–2205. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Howell SH. Physical structure and genetic organisation of the genome of maize streak virus (Kenyan isolate). Nucleic Acids Res. 1984 Oct 11;12(19):7359–7375. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Huberman JA. Eukaryotic DNA replication: a complex picture partially clarified. Cell. 1987 Jan 16;48(1):7–8. [PubMed]
  • Jones KA, Yamamoto KR, Tjian R. Two distinct transcription factors bind to the HSV thymidine kinase promoter in vitro. Cell. 1985 Sep;42(2):559–572. [PubMed]
  • Jones KA, Kadonaga JT, Rosenfeld PJ, Kelly TJ, Tjian R. A cellular DNA-binding protein that activates eukaryotic transcription and DNA replication. Cell. 1987 Jan 16;48(1):79–89. [PubMed]
  • Kouzarides T, Ziff E. Leucine zippers of fos, jun and GCN4 dictate dimerization specificity and thereby control DNA binding. Nature. 1989 Aug 17;340(6234):568–571. [PubMed]
  • Laufs J, Wirtz U, Kammann M, Matzeit V, Schaefer S, Schell J, Czernilofsky AP, Baker B, Gronenborn B. Wheat dwarf virus Ac/Ds vectors: expression and excision of transposable elements introduced into various cereals by a viral replicon. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Oct;87(19):7752–7756. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lazarowitz SG, Pinder AJ, Damsteegt VD, Rogers SG. Maize streak virus genes essential for systemic spread and symptom development. EMBO J. 1989 Apr;8(4):1023–1032. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Maas C, Schaal S, Werr W. A feedback control element near the transcription start site of the maize Shrunken gene determines promoter activity. EMBO J. 1990 Nov;9(11):3447–3452. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • MacDowell SW, Macdonald H, Hamilton WD, Coutts RH, Buck KW. The nucleotide sequence of cloned wheat dwarf virus DNA. EMBO J. 1985 Sep;4(9):2173–2180. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Matzeit V, Schaefer S, Kammann M, Schalk HJ, Schell J, Gronenborn B. Wheat dwarf virus vectors replicate and express foreign genes in cells of monocotyledonous plants. Plant Cell. 1991 Mar;3(3):247–258. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • McVey D, Brizuela L, Mohr I, Marshak DR, Gluzman Y, Beach D. Phosphorylation of large tumour antigen by cdc2 stimulates SV40 DNA replication. Nature. 1989 Oct 12;341(6242):503–507. [PubMed]
  • Morris-Krsinich BA, Mullineaux PM, Donson J, Boulton MI, Markham PG, Short MN, Davies JW. Bidirectional transcription of maize streak virus DNA and identification of the coat protein gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 1985 Oct 25;13(20):7237–7256. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mullineaux PM, Donson J, Morris-Krsinich BA, Boulton MI, Davies JW. The nucleotide sequence of maize streak virus DNA. EMBO J. 1984 Dec 20;3(13):3063–3068. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mullineaux PM, Guerineau F, Accotto GP. Processing of complementary sense RNAs of Digitaria streak virus in its host and in transgenic tobacco. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990 Dec 25;18(24):7259–7265. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mumberg D, Lucibello FC, Schuermann M, Müller R. Alternative splicing of fosB transcripts results in differentially expressed mRNAs encoding functionally antagonistic proteins. Genes Dev. 1991 Jul;5(7):1212–1223. [PubMed]
  • Paz-Ares J, Ghosal D, Wienand U, Peterson PA, Saedler H. The regulatory c1 locus of Zea mays encodes a protein with homology to myb proto-oncogene products and with structural similarities to transcriptional activators. EMBO J. 1987 Dec 1;6(12):3553–3558. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Prives C. The replication functions of SV40 T antigen are regulated by phosphorylation. Cell. 1990 Jun 1;61(5):735–738. [PubMed]
  • Rawlins DR, Rosenfeld PJ, Wides RJ, Challberg MD, Kelly TJ., Jr Structure and function of the adenovirus origin of replication. Cell. 1984 May;37(1):309–319. [PubMed]
  • Revington GN, Sunter G, Bisaro DM. DNA sequences essential for replication of the B genome component of tomato golden mosaic virus. Plant Cell. 1989 Oct;1(10):985–992. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Rogers SG, Bisaro DM, Horsch RB, Fraley RT, Hoffmann NL, Brand L, Elmer JS, Lloyd AM. Tomato golden mosaic virus A component DNA replicates autonomously in transgenic plants. Cell. 1986 May 23;45(4):593–600. [PubMed]
  • Saikumar P, Murali R, Reddy EP. Role of tryptophan repeats and flanking amino acids in Myb-DNA interactions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Nov;87(21):8452–8456. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Saunders K, Lucy A, Stanley J. DNA forms of the geminivirus African cassava mosaic virus consistent with a rolling circle mechanism of replication. Nucleic Acids Res. 1991 May 11;19(9):2325–2330. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Schalk HJ, Matzeit V, Schiller B, Schell J, Gronenborn B. Wheat dwarf virus, a geminivirus of graminaceous plants needs splicing for replication. EMBO J. 1989 Feb;8(2):359–364. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Shlomai J, Kornberg A. An Escherichia coli replication protein that recognizes a unique sequence within a hairpin region in phi X174 DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980 Feb;77(2):799–803. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sibbald PR, Argos P. Scrutineer: a computer program that flexibly seeks and describes motifs and profiles in protein sequence databases. Comput Appl Biosci. 1990 Jul;6(3):279–288. [PubMed]
  • Sommer H, Beltrán JP, Huijser P, Pape H, Lönnig WE, Saedler H, Schwarz-Sommer Z. Deficiens, a homeotic gene involved in the control of flower morphogenesis in Antirrhinum majus: the protein shows homology to transcription factors. EMBO J. 1990 Mar;9(3):605–613. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Southern EM. Detection of specific sequences among DNA fragments separated by gel electrophoresis. J Mol Biol. 1975 Nov 5;98(3):503–517. [PubMed]
  • Stanley J, Markham PG, Callis RJ, Pinner MS. The nucleotide sequence of an infectious clone of the geminivirus beet curly top virus. EMBO J. 1986 Aug;5(8):1761–1767. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Suzuka I, Daidoji H, Matsuoka M, Kadowaki K, Takasaki Y, Nakane PK, Moriuchi T. Gene for proliferating-cell nuclear antigen (DNA polymerase delta auxiliary protein) is present in both mammalian and higher plant genomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 May;86(9):3189–3193. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Travers AA. DNA conformation and protein binding. Annu Rev Biochem. 1989;58:427–452. [PubMed]
  • Woolston CJ, Reynolds HV, Stacey NJ, Mullineaux PM. Replication of wheat dwarf virus DNA in protoplasts and analysis of coat protein mutants in protoplasts and plants. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989 Aug 11;17(15):6029–6041. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Yanisch-Perron C, Vieira J, Messing J. Improved M13 phage cloning vectors and host strains: nucleotide sequences of the M13mp18 and pUC19 vectors. Gene. 1985;33(1):103–119. [PubMed]

Articles from The Plant Cell are provided here courtesy of American Society of Plant Biologists


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...