Logo of plntcellLink to Publisher's site
Plant Cell. Mar 1990; 2(3): 215–224.
PMCID: PMC159878

A DNA-binding protein factor recognizes two binding domains within the octopine synthase enhancer element.


A protein that binds to the enhancing element of the octopine synthase gene has been identified in nuclear extracts from maize cell suspension cultures. Two protein-DNA complexes are distinguishable by electrophoretic mobility in gel retardation assays. Footprint analyses of these low and high molecular weight complexes show, respectively, half and complete protection of the ocs-element DNA from cleavage by methidiumpropyl-EDTA.FE(II). Two lines of evidence indicate that the element has two recognition sites, each of which can bind identical protein units. Elements that are mutated in one or the other half and form only the low molecular weight complex interfere with the formation of both the low and high molecular weight complexes by the wild-type element. Protein isolated from a complex with only one binding site occupied can bind to the wild-type ocs-element and generate complexes with protein occupying one or both binding sites. Occupation of both sites of the ocs-element is a prerequisite for transcriptional enhancement.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (2.5M).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Luthe DS, Quatrano RS. Transcription in Isolated Wheat Nuclei: I. ISOLATION OF NUCLEI AND ELIMINATION OF ENDOGENOUS RIBONUCLEASE ACTIVITY. Plant Physiol. 1980 Feb;65(2):305–308. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ondek B, Gloss L, Herr W. The SV40 enhancer contains two distinct levels of organization. Nature. 1988 May 5;333(6168):40–45. [PubMed]
  • Otten L, De Greve H, Hernalsteens JP, Van Montagu M, Schieder O, Straub J, Schell J. Mendelian transmission of genes introduced into plants by the Ti plasmids of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Mol Gen Genet. 1981;183(2):209–213. [PubMed]
  • Parker CS, Topol J. A Drosophila RNA polymerase II transcription factor contains a promoter-region-specific DNA-binding activity. Cell. 1984 Feb;36(2):357–369. [PubMed]
  • Singh K, Tokuhisa JG, Dennis ES, Peacock WJ. Saturation mutagenesis of the octopine synthase enhancer: correlation of mutant phenotypes with binding of a nuclear protein factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 May;86(10):3733–3737. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tora L, Gaub MP, Mader S, Dierich A, Bellard M, Chambon P. Cell-specific activity of a GGTCA half-palindromic oestrogen-responsive element in the chicken ovalbumin gene promoter. EMBO J. 1988 Dec 1;7(12):3771–3778. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bradford MM. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem. 1976 May 7;72:248–254. [PubMed]
  • Fried M, Crothers DM. Equilibria and kinetics of lac repressor-operator interactions by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Nucleic Acids Res. 1981 Dec 11;9(23):6505–6525. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fromental C, Kanno M, Nomiyama H, Chambon P. Cooperativity and hierarchical levels of functional organization in the SV40 enhancer. Cell. 1988 Sep 23;54(7):943–953. [PubMed]

Articles from The Plant Cell are provided here courtesy of American Society of Plant Biologists


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...