• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of plntcellLink to Publisher's site
Plant Cell. Feb 1989; 1(2): 201–208.
PMCID: PMC159752

Sequences downstream of translation start regulate quantitative expression of two petunia rbcS genes.


We investigated the basis for quantitative differences in leaf expression of the petunia genes (rbcS) encoding the small subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase. The most abundantly, SSU301, and the most weakly, SSU911, expressed petunia rbcS genes maintained their differential expression when transferred to tobacco, indicating that the determinants of quantitative expression are intrinsic to these rbcS genes. Analysis of chimeric genes in which the sequences of SSU301 and SSU911 had been exchanged at the translation start showed that sequences both 5' and 3' to the start codon contribute to differences in steady-state mRNA levels. The sequences 3' to the translation initiation codon were investigated by preparing chimeric genes in which sequences of the SSU301 and SSU911 were exchanged between each intron and at the translation termination codon. The results showed that sequences downstream of the coding region contribute to quantitative differences in expression of SSU301 and SSU911, and nuclear run-on transcription experiments indicated that the 3' sequences affect transcription rates of the rbcS genes.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (3.1M).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Bodine DM, Ley TJ. An enhancer element lies 3' to the human A gamma globin gene. EMBO J. 1987 Oct;6(10):2997–3004. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Brinster RL, Allen JM, Behringer RR, Gelinas RE, Palmiter RD. Introns increase transcriptional efficiency in transgenic mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Feb;85(3):836–840. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Callis J, Fromm M, Walbot V. Introns increase gene expression in cultured maize cells. Genes Dev. 1987 Dec;1(10):1183–1200. [PubMed]
  • Choi OR, Engel JD. A 3' enhancer is required for temporal and tissue-specific transcriptional activation of the chicken adult beta-globin gene. Nature. 1986 Oct 23;323(6090):731–734. [PubMed]
  • Chua NH, Schmidt GW. Post-translational transport into intact chloroplasts of a precursor to the small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1978 Dec;75(12):6110–6114. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Coen DM, Bedbrook JR, Bogorad L, Rich A. Maize chloroplast DNA fragment encoding the large subunit of ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977 Dec;74(12):5487–5491. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dean C, van den Elzen P, Tamaki S, Dunsmuir P, Bedbrook J. Linkage and homology analysis divides the eight genes for the small subunit of petunia ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase into three gene families. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Aug;82(15):4964–4968. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dean C, Elzen P, Tamaki S, Dunsmuir P, Bedbrook J. Differential expression of the eight genes of the petunia ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit multi-gene family. EMBO J. 1985 Dec 1;4(12):3055–3061. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dean C, Favreau M, Dunsmuir P, Bedbrook J. Confirmation of the relative expression levels of the Petunia (Mitchell) rbcS genes. Nucleic Acids Res. 1987 Jun 11;15(11):4655–4668. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dean C, Favreau M, Tamaki S, Bond-Nutter D, Dunsmuir P, Bedbrook J. Expression of tandem gene fusions in transgenic tobacco plants. Nucleic Acids Res. 1988 Aug 11;16(15):7601–7617. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dean C, Jones J, Favreau M, Dunsmuir P, Bedbrook J. Influence of flanking sequences on variability in expression levels of an introduced gene in transgenic tobacco plants. Nucleic Acids Res. 1988 Oct 11;16(19):9267–9283. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dean C, Favreau M, Bedbrook J, Dunsmuir P. Sequences 5' to translation start regulate expression of petunia rbcS genes. Plant Cell. 1989 Feb;1(2):209–215. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dunsmuir P, Smith S, Bedbrook J. A number of different nuclear genes for the small subunit of RuBPCase are transcribed in petunia. Nucleic Acids Res. 1983 Jun 25;11(12):4177–4183. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Figurski DH, Helinski DR. Replication of an origin-containing derivative of plasmid RK2 dependent on a plasmid function provided in trans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979 Apr;76(4):1648–1652. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Firtel RA. Multigene families encoding actin and tubulin. Cell. 1981 Apr;24(1):6–7. [PubMed]
  • Fischer JA, Maniatis T. Regulatory elements involved in Drosophila Adh gene expression are conserved in divergent species and separate elements mediate expression in different tissues. EMBO J. 1986 Jun;5(6):1275–1289. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fyrberg EA, Mahaffey JW, Bond BJ, Davidson N. Transcripts of the six Drosophila actin genes accumulate in a stage- and tissue-specific manner. Cell. 1983 May;33(1):115–123. [PubMed]
  • Kim KH, Rheinwald JG, Fuchs EV. Tissue specificity of epithelial keratins: differential expression of mRNAs from two multigene families. Mol Cell Biol. 1983 Apr;3(4):495–502. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hightower RC, Meagher RB. Divergence and differential expression of soybean actin genes. EMBO J. 1985 Jan;4(1):1–8. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kawashima N, Wildman SG. Studies on fraction I protein. IV. Mode of inheritance of primary structure in relation to whether chloroplast or nuclear DNA contains the code for a chloroplast protein. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1972 Feb 23;262(1):42–49. [PubMed]
  • Kunkel TA. Rapid and efficient site-specific mutagenesis without phenotypic selection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Jan;82(2):488–492. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Leys EJ, Crouse GF, Kellems RE. Dihydrofolate reductase gene expression in cultured mouse cells is regulated by transcript stabilization in the nucleus. J Cell Biol. 1984 Jul;99(1 Pt 1):180–187. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Luthe DS, Quatrano RS. Transcription in Isolated Wheat Nuclei: I. ISOLATION OF NUCLEI AND ELIMINATION OF ENDOGENOUS RIBONUCLEASE ACTIVITY. Plant Physiol. 1980 Feb;65(2):305–308. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Owen D, Kühn LC. Noncoding 3' sequences of the transferrin receptor gene are required for mRNA regulation by iron. EMBO J. 1987 May;6(5):1287–1293. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sugita M, Gruissem W. Developmental, organ-specific, and light-dependent expression of the tomato ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit gene family. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Oct;84(20):7104–7108. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Thornburg RW, An G, Cleveland TE, Johnson R, Ryan CA. Wound-inducible expression of a potato inhibitor II-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene fusion in transgenic tobacco plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Feb;84(3):744–748. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Trainor CD, Stamler SJ, Engel JD. Erythroid-specific transcription of the chicken histone H5 gene is directed by a 3' enhancer. Nature. 328(6133):827–830. [PubMed]
  • Vieira J, Messing J. The pUC plasmids, an M13mp7-derived system for insertion mutagenesis and sequencing with synthetic universal primers. Gene. 1982 Oct;19(3):259–268. [PubMed]
  • Walling L, Drews GN, Goldberg RB. Transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of soybean seed protein mRNA levels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Apr;83(7):2123–2127. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from The Plant Cell are provided here courtesy of American Society of Plant Biologists


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • Compound
    PubChem Compound links
  • MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...