Logo of plntphysLink to Publisher's site
Plant Physiol. Nov 1994; 106(3): 877–886.
PMCID: PMC159610

Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in tobacco. Molecular cloning and gene expression during the hypersensitive reaction to tobacco mosaic virus and the response to a fungal elicitor.


A tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Samsun NN) cDNA clone coding the enzyme phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) was isolated from a cDNA library made from polyadenylated RNA purified from tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-infected leaves. Southern analysis indicated that, in tobacco, PAL is encoded by a small family of two to four unclustered genes. Northern analysis showed that PAL genes are weakly expressed under normal physiological conditions, they are moderately and transiently expressed after wounding, but they are strongly induced during the hypersensitive reaction to TMV or to a fungal elicitor. Ribonuclease protection experiments confirmed this evidence and showed the occurrence of two highly homologous PAL messengers originating from a single gene or from two tightly co-regulated genes. By in situ RNA-RNA hybridization PAL transcripts were shown to accumulate in a narrow zone of leaf tissue surrounding necrotic lesions caused by TMV infection or treatment with the fungal elicitor. In this zone, no cell specificity was observed and there was a decreasing gradient of labeling from the edge of necrosis. Some labeling was also found in various cell types of young, healthy stems and was shown to accumulate in large amounts in the same cell types after the deposition of an elicitor solution at the top of the decapitated plant.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (2.5M).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Aviv H, Leder P. Purification of biologically active globin messenger RNA by chromatography on oligothymidylic acid-cellulose. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1972 Jun;69(6):1408–1412. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bradford MM. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem. 1976 May 7;72:248–254. [PubMed]
  • Brederode FT, Linthorst HJ, Bol JF. Differential induction of acquired resistance and PR gene expression in tobacco by virus infection, ethephon treatment, UV light and wounding. Plant Mol Biol. 1991 Dec;17(6):1117–1125. [PubMed]
  • Devergne JC, Bonnet P, Panabières F, Blein JP, Ricci P. Migration of the Fungal Protein Cryptogein within Tobacco Plants. Plant Physiol. 1992 Jul;99(3):843–847. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Elkind Y, Edwards R, Mavandad M, Hedrick SA, Ribak O, Dixon RA, Lamb CJ. Abnormal plant development and down-regulation of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in transgenic tobacco containing a heterologous phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Nov;87(22):9057–9061. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fritzemeier KH, Cretin C, Kombrink E, Rohwer F, Taylor J, Scheel D, Hahlbrock K. Transient Induction of Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase and 4-Coumarate: CoA Ligase mRNAs in Potato Leaves Infected with Virulent or Avirulent Races of Phytophthora infestans. Plant Physiol. 1987 Sep;85(1):34–41. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Jaeck E, Dumas B, Geoffroy P, Favet N, Inzé D, Van Montagu M, Fritig B, Legrand M. Regulation of enzymes involved in lignin biosynthesis: induction of O-methyltransferase mRNAs during the hypersensitive reaction of tobacco to tobacco mosaic virus. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 1992 Jul-Aug;5(4):294–300. [PubMed]
  • Joos HJ, Hahlbrock K. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Genomic complexity, structural comparison of two selected genes and modes of expression. Eur J Biochem. 1992 Mar 1;204(2):621–629. [PubMed]
  • Jorrin J, Dixon RA. Stress Responses in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.): II. Purification, Characterization, and Induction of Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase Isoforms from Elicitor-Treated Cell Suspension Cultures. Plant Physiol. 1990 Feb;92(2):447–455. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Knight ME, Halpin C, Schuch W. Identification and characterisation of cDNA clones encoding cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase from tobacco. Plant Mol Biol. 1992 Aug;19(5):793–801. [PubMed]
  • Lawton MA, Lamb CJ. Transcriptional activation of plant defense genes by fungal elicitor, wounding, and infection. Mol Cell Biol. 1987 Jan;7(1):335–341. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Leyva A, Liang X, Pintor-Toro JA, Dixon RA, Lamb CJ. cis-element combinations determine phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene tissue-specific expression patterns. Plant Cell. 1992 Mar;4(3):263–271. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ohl S, Hedrick SA, Chory J, Lamb CJ. Functional properties of a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase promoter from Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 1990 Sep;2(9):837–848. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Orr JD, Edwards R, Dixon RA. Stress Responses in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) (XIV. Changes in the Levels of Phenylpropanoid Pathway Intermediates in Relation to Regulation of L-Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase in Elicitor-Treated Cell-Suspension Cultures). Plant Physiol. 1993 Mar;101(3):847–856. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pellegrini L, Geoffroy P, Fritig B, Legrand M. Molecular cloning and expression of a new class of ortho-diphenol-O-methyltransferases induced in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaves by infection or elicitor treatment. Plant Physiol. 1993 Oct;103(2):509–517. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Saghai-Maroof MA, Soliman KM, Jorgensen RA, Allard RW. Ribosomal DNA spacer-length polymorphisms in barley: mendelian inheritance, chromosomal location, and population dynamics. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984 Dec;81(24):8014–8018. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Schmelzer E, Kruger-Lebus S, Hahlbrock K. Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Gene Expression around Sites of Attempted Fungal Infection in Parsley Leaves. Plant Cell. 1989 Oct;1(10):993–1001. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Shaw NM, Bolwell GP, Smith C. Wound-induced phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber discs. Significance of glycosylation and immunolocalization of enzyme subunits. Biochem J. 1990 Apr 1;267(1):163–170. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Shufflebottom D, Edwards K, Schuch W, Bevan M. Transcription of two members of a gene family encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase leads to remarkably different cell specificities and induction patterns. Plant J. 1993 Jun;3(6):835–845. [PubMed]
  • Subramaniam R, Reinold S, Molitor EK, Douglas CJ. Structure, inheritance, and expression of hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa x Populus deltoides) phenylalanine ammonia-lyase genes. Plant Physiol. 1993 May;102(1):71–83. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kirk BW. The Medical Management of the Critically Ill. Can Med Assoc J. 1980 Aug 23;123(4):b298–299. [PMC free article]
  • Whetten RW, Sederoff RR. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase from loblolly pine : purification of the enzyme and isolation of complementary DNA clones. Plant Physiol. 1992 Jan;98(1):380–386. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Yalpani N, Leon J, Lawton MA, Raskin I. Pathway of Salicylic Acid Biosynthesis in Healthy and Virus-Inoculated Tobacco. Plant Physiol. 1993 Oct;103(2):315–321. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Plant Physiology are provided here courtesy of American Society of Plant Biologists


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...