• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of plntphysLink to Publisher's site
Plant Physiol. Nov 1997; 115(3): 1029–1038.
PMCID: PMC158566

Differential expression of chitinases in Vitis vinifera L. responding to systemic acquired resistance activators or fungal challenge.

Abstract

The concept of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) enables a novel approach to crop protection, and particular pathogenesis-related proteins, i.e. an acidic chitinase, have been classified as markers of the SAR response. Basic class I (VCHIT1b) and a class III (VCH3) chitinase cDNAs were cloned from cultured Vitis vinifera L. cv Pinot Noir cells and used to probe the induction response of grapevine cells to salicylic acid or yeast elicitor. Furthermore, the cells were treated with the commercial SAR activators 2,6-dichloroiso-nicotinic acid or benzo(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester. Elicitor or salicylic acid induced both VCHIT1b and VCH3 transcript abundances, whereas 2,6-dichloroiso-nicotinic acid or benzo(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester enhanced exclusively the expression of VCH3. To assess the systemic sensation of chitinase expression, single leaves of Vitis vinifera L. cv Pinot Noir or Vitis rupestris plants were inoculated with Plasmopara viticola spore suspensions, and the VCH3 and VCHIT1b mRNA amounts in the infected versus the adjacent, healthy leaf were monitored. Two VCH3 mRNA maxima were observed 2 and 6 d postinoculation in the infected, susceptible V. vinifera tissue, whereas in the healthy leaf the transcript increased from low levels d 2 postinoculation to prominent levels d 6 to 8 postinoculation. The level of VCH3 mRNA increased also over 4 d in the inoculated, resistant V. rupestris tissue. However, necrotic spots rapidly limited the infection, and the VCH3 transcript was undetectable in the upper-stage, healthy leaf. The expression of VCHIT1b remained negligible under either experimental condition. Overall, the results suggest that the selective expression of VCH3 might be a reliable indicator of the SAR response in V. vinifera L.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (2.1M).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Busam G, Junghanns KT, Kneusel RE, Kassemeyer HH, Matern U. Characterization and expression of caffeoyl-coenzyme A 3-O-methyltransferase proposed for the induced resistance response of Vitis vinifera L. Plant Physiol. 1997 Nov;115(3):1039–1048. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gaffney T, Friedrich L, Vernooij B, Negrotto D, Nye G, Uknes S, Ward E, Kessmann H, Ryals J. Requirement of salicylic Acid for the induction of systemic acquired resistance. Science. 1993 Aug 6;261(5122):754–756. [PubMed]
  • Gaynor JJ. Primary structure of an endochitinase mRNA from Solanum tuberosum. Nucleic Acids Res. 1988 Jun 10;16(11):5210–5210. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Goldsbrough AP, Albrecht H, Stratford R. Salicylic acid-inducible binding of a tobacco nuclear protein to a 10 bp sequence which is highly conserved amongst stress-inducible genes. Plant J. 1993 Apr;3(4):563–571. [PubMed]
  • Haukanes BI, Kvam C. Application of magnetic beads in bioassays. Biotechnology (N Y) 1993 Jan;11(1):60–63. [PubMed]
  • Jekel PA, Hartmann BH, Beintema JJ. The primary structure of hevamine, an enzyme with lysozyme/chitinase activity from Hevea brasiliensis latex. Eur J Biochem. 1991 Aug 15;200(1):123–130. [PubMed]
  • Joosten MH, De Wit PJ. Identification of Several Pathogenesis-Related Proteins in Tomato Leaves Inoculated with Cladosporium fulvum (syn. Fulvia fulva) as 1,3-beta-Glucanases and Chitinases. Plant Physiol. 1989 Mar;89(3):945–951. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kombrink E, Schröder M, Hahlbrock K. Several "pathogenesis-related" proteins in potato are 1,3-beta-glucanases and chitinases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Feb;85(3):782–786. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lawton K, Ward E, Payne G, Moyer M, Ryals J. Acidic and basic class III chitinase mRNA accumulation in response to TMV infection of tobacco. Plant Mol Biol. 1992 Aug;19(5):735–743. [PubMed]
  • Lawton KA, Beck J, Potter S, Ward E, Ryals J. Regulation of cucumber class III chitinase gene expression. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 1994 Jan-Feb;7(1):48–57. [PubMed]
  • Lawton KA, Friedrich L, Hunt M, Weymann K, Delaney T, Kessmann H, Staub T, Ryals J. Benzothiadiazole induces disease resistance in Arabidopsis by activation of the systemic acquired resistance signal transduction pathway. Plant J. 1996 Jul;10(1):71–82. [PubMed]
  • Lee HI, León J, Raskin I. Biosynthesis and metabolism of salicylic acid. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 May 9;92(10):4076–4079. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Malamy J, Carr JP, Klessig DF, Raskin I. Salicylic Acid: a likely endogenous signal in the resistance response of tobacco to viral infection. Science. 1990 Nov 16;250(4983):1002–1004. [PubMed]
  • Mauch F, Mauch-Mani B, Boller T. Antifungal Hydrolases in Pea Tissue : II. Inhibition of Fungal Growth by Combinations of Chitinase and beta-1,3-Glucanase. Plant Physiol. 1988 Nov;88(3):936–942. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Melchers LS, Apotheker-de Groot M, van der Knaap JA, Ponstein AS, Sela-Buurlage MB, Bol JF, Cornelissen BJ, van den Elzen PJ, Linthorst HJ. A new class of tobacco chitinases homologous to bacterial exo-chitinases displays antifungal activity. Plant J. 1994 Apr;5(4):469–480. [PubMed]
  • Melchior F, Kindl H. Grapevine stilbene synthase cDNA only slightly differing from chalcone synthase cDNA is expressed in Escherichia coli into a catalytically active enzyme. FEBS Lett. 1990 Jul 30;268(1):17–20. [PubMed]
  • Parsons TJ, Bradshaw HD, Jr, Gordon MP. Systemic accumulation of specific mRNAs in response to wounding in poplar trees. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Oct;86(20):7895–7899. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Raikhel NV, Wilkins TA. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone encoding wheat germ agglutinin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Oct;84(19):6745–6749. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ryals JA, Neuenschwander UH, Willits MG, Molina A, Steiner HY, Hunt MD. Systemic Acquired Resistance. Plant Cell. 1996 Oct;8(10):1809–1819. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Samac DA, Hironaka CM, Yallaly PE, Shah DM. Isolation and Characterization of the Genes Encoding Basic and Acidic Chitinase in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Physiol. 1990 Jul;93(3):907–914. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sanger F, Nicklen S, Coulson AR. DNA sequencing with chain-terminating inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977 Dec;74(12):5463–5467. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sela-Buurlage MB, Ponstein AS, Bres-Vloemans SA, Melchers LS, Van Den Elzen PJM, Cornelissen BJC. Only Specific Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Chitinases and [beta]-1,3-Glucanases Exhibit Antifungal Activity. Plant Physiol. 1993 Mar;101(3):857–863. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Shinshi H, Mohnen D, Meins F. Regulation of a plant pathogenesis-related enzyme: Inhibition of chitinase and chitinase mRNA accumulation in cultured tobacco tissues by auxin and cytokinin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Jan;84(1):89–93. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Shinshi H, Neuhas JM, Ryals J, Meins F., Jr Structure of a tobacco endochitinase gene: evidence that different chitinase genes can arise by transposition of sequences encoding a cysteine-rich domain. Plant Mol Biol. 1990 Mar;14(3):357–368. [PubMed]
  • Uknes S, Mauch-Mani B, Moyer M, Potter S, Williams S, Dincher S, Chandler D, Slusarenko A, Ward E, Ryals J. Acquired resistance in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 1992 Jun;4(6):645–656. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ward ER, Uknes SJ, Williams SC, Dincher SS, Wiederhold DL, Alexander DC, Ahl-Goy P, Metraux JP, Ryals JA. Coordinate Gene Activity in Response to Agents That Induce Systemic Acquired Resistance. Plant Cell. 1991 Oct;3(10):1085–1094. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ming YZ, Di X, Gomez-Sanchez EP, Gomez-Sanchez CE. Improved downward capillary transfer for blotting of DNA and RNA. Biotechniques. 1994 Jan;16(1):58–59. [PubMed]

Articles from Plant Physiology are provided here courtesy of American Society of Plant Biologists

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...