Logo of plntphysLink to Publisher's site
Plant Physiol. 1997 Oct; 115(2): 419–426.
PMCID: PMC158499

The massugu1 mutation of Arabidopsis identified with failure of auxin-induced growth curvature of hypocotyl confers auxin insensitivity to hypocotyl and leaf.


Unilateral application of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in a lanolin base to hypocotyls of partially etiolated seedlings of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana induced growth curvature in a dose-dependent manner. The effects of IAA in concentrations from 1 to 1000 microM were studied, with maximum IAA-induced curvature at 100 microM. Three IAA-insensitive mutants were isolated and are all in the same locus, massugu1 (msg1). They did not undergo hypocotyl growth curvature at any of the IAA concentrations tested. msg1 is recessive and is located on chromosome 5. msg 1 hypocotyl growth is resistant to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), but the roots are as sensitive to 2,4-D as the wild type. Growth of the hypocotyl was inhibited to essentially the same extent as the wild type by 6-benzylaminopurine, abscisic acid, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate, an ethylene precursor. The msg1 leaves were also resistant to 2,4-D-induced chlorosis. The gravitropic response of the msg1 hypocotyl takes much more time to initiate and achieve the wild-type degree of curvature, whereas the msg1 roots responded normally to gravity. The mature plants and the etiolated seedlings of msg1 were generally wild type in appearance, except that their rosette leaves were either epinastic or hyponastic. msg1 is the first auxin-insensitive mutant in which it effects are mostly restricted to the hypocotyl and leaf, and msg1 also appears to be auxin specific.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (2.1M).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Bell CJ, Ecker JR. Assignment of 30 microsatellite loci to the linkage map of Arabidopsis. Genomics. 1994 Jan 1;19(1):137–144. [PubMed]
  • Bennett MJ, Marchant A, Green HG, May ST, Ward SP, Millner PA, Walker AR, Schulz B, Feldmann KA. Arabidopsis AUX1 gene: a permease-like regulator of root gravitropism. Science. 1996 Aug 16;273(5277):948–950. [PubMed]
  • Boerjan W, Cervera MT, Delarue M, Beeckman T, Dewitte W, Bellini C, Caboche M, Van Onckelen H, Van Montagu M, Inzé D. Superroot, a recessive mutation in Arabidopsis, confers auxin overproduction. Plant Cell. 1995 Sep;7(9):1405–1419. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bullen BL, Best TR, Gregg MM, Barsel S-E, Poff KL. A direct screening procedure for gravitropism mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Plant Physiol. 1990;93:525–531. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Celenza JL, Jr, Grisafi PL, Fink GR. A pathway for lateral root formation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genes Dev. 1995 Sep 1;9(17):2131–2142. [PubMed]
  • Fukaki H, Fujisawa H, Tasaka M. SGR1, SGR2, SGR3: novel genetic loci involved in shoot gravitropism in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Physiol. 1996 Mar;110(3):945–955. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hobbie L, Estelle M. The axr4 auxin-resistant mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana define a gene important for root gravitropism and lateral root initiation. Plant J. 1995 Feb;7(2):211–220. [PubMed]
  • King JJ, Stimart DP, Fisher RH, Bleecker AB. A Mutation Altering Auxin Homeostasis and Plant Morphology in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 1995 Dec;7(12):2023–2037. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lehman A, Black R, Ecker JR. HOOKLESS1, an ethylene response gene, is required for differential cell elongation in the Arabidopsis hypocotyl. Cell. 1996 Apr 19;85(2):183–194. [PubMed]
  • Leyser HM, Pickett FB, Dharmasiri S, Estelle M. Mutations in the AXR3 gene of Arabidopsis result in altered auxin response including ectopic expression from the SAUR-AC1 promoter. Plant J. 1996 Sep;10(3):403–413. [PubMed]
  • Lincoln C, Britton JH, Estelle M. Growth and development of the axr1 mutants of Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 1990 Nov;2(11):1071–1080. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Moran R, Porath D. Chlorophyll determination in intact tissues using n,n-dimethylformamide. Plant Physiol. 1980 Mar;65(3):478–479. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Okada K, Ueda J, Komaki MK, Bell CJ, Shimura Y. Requirement of the Auxin Polar Transport System in Early Stages of Arabidopsis Floral Bud Formation. Plant Cell. 1991 Jul;3(7):677–684. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pickett FB, Wilson AK, Estelle M. The aux1 Mutation of Arabidopsis Confers Both Auxin and Ethylene Resistance. Plant Physiol. 1990 Nov;94(3):1462–1466. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Romano CP, Cooper ML, Klee HJ. Uncoupling Auxin and Ethylene Effects in Transgenic Tobacco and Arabidopsis Plants. Plant Cell. 1993 Feb;5(2):181–189. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Simmons C, Migliaccio F, Masson P, Caspar T, Soll D. A novel root gravitropism mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana exhibiting altered auxin physiology. Physiol Plant. 1995;93:790–798. [PubMed]
  • Wilson AK, Pickett FB, Turner JC, Estelle M. A dominant mutation in Arabidopsis confers resistance to auxin, ethylene and abscisic acid. Mol Gen Genet. 1990 Jul;222(2-3):377–383. [PubMed]

Articles from Plant Physiology are provided here courtesy of American Society of Plant Biologists


Save items

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • Compound
    PubChem chemical compound records that cite the current articles. These references are taken from those provided on submitted PubChem chemical substance records. Multiple substance records may contribute to the PubChem compound record.
  • MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    PubChem chemical substance records that cite the current articles. These references are taken from those provided on submitted PubChem chemical substance records.

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...