• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of plntphysLink to Publisher's site
Plant Physiol. Jul 1995; 108(3): 1109–1117.
PMCID: PMC157463

Cis elements and trans-acting factors affecting regulation of a nonphotosynthetic light-regulated gene for chloroplast glutamine synthetase.

Abstract

The glutamine synthetase (GS) gene family in pea (Pisum sativum) consists of four nuclear genes encoding distinct isoenzymes. Molecular studies have show that the GS2 gene encoding chloroplast-localized GS is expected in specific cell types and is regulated by diverse factors such as light and photorespiration. Here, we present the nucleotide sequence of the pea GS2 gene promoter. To identify the elements involved in regulation of GS2 expression, GS2 promoter-deletion analyses were performed using GS2-GUS fusions in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). This analysis revealed that the GS2 transit peptide is not required for mesophyll cell-specific expression of beta-glucuronidase (GUS). GUS activity was induced 2- to 4-fold in light-grown versus etiolated T1 seedlings. However, high levels of GUS activity were observed in etiolated seedlings. This observation demonstrated that regulation of expression of GS2, a nonphotosynthetic light-regulated gene, involves additional factors. A 323-bp GS2 promoter sequence is sufficient to confer light regulation to the GUS reporter gene in leaves of mature transgenic tobacco. Light-regulated expression of this pea gene promoter is observed in both tobacco and Arabidopsis, suggesting that the regulatory elements are conserved. Gel-shift analysis detected DNA-protein complexes formed with potential transcription elements within this short, light-responsive GS2 promoter fragment.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (2.4M).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Bustos MM, Guiltinan MJ, Jordano J, Begum D, Kalkan FA, Hall TC. Regulation of beta-glucuronidase expression in transgenic tobacco plants by an A/T-rich, cis-acting sequence found upstream of a French bean beta-phaseolin gene. Plant Cell. 1989 Sep;1(9):839–853. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Carvalho H, Pereira S, Sunkel C, Salema R. Detection of a Cytosolic Glutamine Synthetase in Leaves of Nicotiana tabacum L. by Immunocytochemical Methods. Plant Physiol. 1992 Nov;100(3):1591–1594. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cock JM, Hémon P, Cullimore JV. Characterization of the gene encoding the plastid-located glutamine synthetase of Phaseolus vulgaris: regulation of beta-glucuronidase gene fusions in transgenic tobacco. Plant Mol Biol. 1992 Apr;18(6):1141–1149. [PubMed]
  • Edwards JW, Coruzzi GM. Photorespiration and light act in concert to regulate the expression of the nuclear gene for chloroplast glutamine synthetase. Plant Cell. 1989 Feb;1(2):241–248. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Giuliano G, Pichersky E, Malik VS, Timko MP, Scolnik PA, Cashmore AR. An evolutionarily conserved protein binding sequence upstream of a plant light-regulated gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Oct;85(19):7089–7093. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Green PJ, Kay SA, Chua NH. Sequence-specific interactions of a pea nuclear factor with light-responsive elements upstream of the rbcS-3A gene. EMBO J. 1987 Sep;6(9):2543–2549. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Green PJ, Yong MH, Cuozzo M, Kano-Murakami Y, Silverstein P, Chua NH. Binding site requirements for pea nuclear protein factor GT-1 correlate with sequences required for light-dependent transcriptional activation of the rbcS-3A gene. EMBO J. 1988 Dec 20;7(13):4035–4044. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • A simple and general method for transferring genes into plants. Science. 1985 Mar 8;227(4691):1229–1231. [PubMed]
  • Jackson AO, Larkins BA. Influence of Ionic Strength, pH, and Chelation of Divalent Metals on Isolation of Polyribosomes from Tobacco Leaves. Plant Physiol. 1976 Jan;57(1):5–10. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Jefferson RA, Kavanagh TA, Bevan MW. GUS fusions: beta-glucuronidase as a sensitive and versatile gene fusion marker in higher plants. EMBO J. 1987 Dec 20;6(13):3901–3907. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kuhlemeier C, Cuozzo M, Green PJ, Goyvaerts E, Ward K, Chua NH. Localization and conditional redundancy of regulatory elements in rbcS-3A, a pea gene encoding the small subunit of ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Jul;85(13):4662–4666. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lam E, Chua NH. GT-1 binding site confers light responsive expression in transgenic tobacco. Science. 1990 Apr 27;248(4954):471–474. [PubMed]
  • Pedersen TJ, Arwood LJ, Spiker S, Guiltinan MJ, Thompson WF. High mobility group chromosomal proteins bind to AT-rich tracts flanking plant genes. Plant Mol Biol. 1991 Jan;16(1):95–104. [PubMed]
  • Tingey SV, Tsai FY, Edwards JW, Walker EL, Coruzzi GM. Chloroplast and cytosolic glutamine synthetase are encoded by homologous nuclear genes which are differentially expressed in vivo. J Biol Chem. 1988 Jul 15;263(20):9651–9657. [PubMed]
  • Wallsgrove RM, Turner JC, Hall NP, Kendall AC, Bright SW. Barley mutants lacking chloroplast glutamine synthetase-biochemical and genetic analysis. Plant Physiol. 1987 Jan;83(1):155–158. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Plant Physiology are provided here courtesy of American Society of Plant Biologists

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...