• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of plntphysLink to Publisher's site
Plant Physiol. May 1995; 108(1): 39–46.
PMCID: PMC157303

Low Temperature Induces the Accumulation of Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase and Chalcone Synthase mRNAs of Arabidopsis thaliana in a Light-Dependent Manner.

Abstract

Anthocyanins, which accumulate in leaves and stems in response to low temperature and changes in light intensity, are synthesized through the phenylpropanoid pathway that is controlled by key enzymes that include phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and chalcone synthase (CHS). In this work we demonstrate that PAL and CHS mRNAs accumulate in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. upon exposure to low temperature in a light-dependent manner. The regulation of the PAL1 gene expression by low temperature and light was examined by analyzing the expression of the [beta]-glucuronidase (uidA) reporter gene in transgenic Arabidopsis plants containing the uidA gene of Escherichia coli under the control of the PAL1 promoter. The results indicate that the accumulation of PAL1 mRNA is transcriptionally regulated. Histochemical staining for [beta]-glucuronidase activity showed that the PAL1 promoter is preferentially activated in photosynthetically active cells, paralleling anthocyanin accumulation. Moreover, we show that light may also be implicated in the regulation of the CHS gene in response to bacterial infiltration. Finally, using two transparent testa Arabidopsis mutants that are unable to accumulate anthocyanins, we demonstrate that these pigments are not required for successful development of freezing tolerance in this species.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (2.3M).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Chauvin LP, Houde M, Sarhan F. A leaf-specific gene stimulated by light during wheat acclimation to low temperature. Plant Mol Biol. 1993 Oct;23(2):255–265. [PubMed]
  • Cone KC, Cocciolone SM, Moehlenkamp CA, Weber T, Drummond BJ, Tagliani LA, Bowen BA, Perrot GH. Role of the regulatory gene pl in the photocontrol of maize anthocyanin pigmentation. Plant Cell. 1993 Dec;5(12):1807–1816. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Feinberg AP, Vogelstein B. A technique for radiolabeling DNA restriction endonuclease fragments to high specific activity. Anal Biochem. 1983 Jul 1;132(1):6–13. [PubMed]
  • Gilmour SJ, Hajela RK, Thomashow MF. Cold Acclimation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Physiol. 1988 Jul;87(3):745–750. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Jarillo JA, Leyva A, Salinas J, Martinez-Zapater JM. Low Temperature Induces the Accumulation of Alcohol Dehydrogenase mRNA in Arabidopsis thaliana, a Chilling-Tolerant Plant. Plant Physiol. 1993 Mar;101(3):833–837. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Jefferson RA, Kavanagh TA, Bevan MW. GUS fusions: beta-glucuronidase as a sensitive and versatile gene fusion marker in higher plants. EMBO J. 1987 Dec 20;6(13):3901–3907. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kiedrowski S, Kawalleck P, Hahlbrock K, Somssich IE, Dangl JL. Rapid activation of a novel plant defense gene is strictly dependent on the Arabidopsis RPM1 disease resistance locus. EMBO J. 1992 Dec;11(13):4677–4684. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kimmerer TW, Kozlowski TT. Ethylene, Ethane, Acetaldehyde, and Ethanol Production By Plants under Stress. Plant Physiol. 1982 Apr;69(4):840–847. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kubasek WL, Shirley BW, McKillop A, Goodman HM, Briggs W, Ausubel FM. Regulation of Flavonoid Biosynthetic Genes in Germinating Arabidopsis Seedlings. Plant Cell. 1992 Oct;4(10):1229–1236. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Li J, Ou-Lee TM, Raba R, Amundson RG, Last RL. Arabidopsis Flavonoid Mutants Are Hypersensitive to UV-B Irradiation. Plant Cell. 1993 Feb;5(2):171–179. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Liang XW, Dron M, Schmid J, Dixon RA, Lamb CJ. Developmental and environmental regulation of a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase-beta-glucuronidase gene fusion in transgenic tobacco plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Dec;86(23):9284–9288. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lloyd AM, Walbot V, Davis RW. Arabidopsis and Nicotiana anthocyanin production activated by maize regulators R and C1. Science. 1992 Dec 11;258(5089):1773–1775. [PubMed]
  • Loake GJ, Choudhary AD, Harrison MJ, Mavandad M, Lamb CJ, Dixon RA. Phenylpropanoid pathway intermediates regulate transient expression of a chalcone synthase gene promoter. Plant Cell. 1991 Aug;3(8):829–840. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Middleton EM, Teramura AH. The Role of Flavonol Glycosides and Carotenoids in Protecting Soybean from Ultraviolet-B Damage. Plant Physiol. 1993 Nov;103(3):741–752. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ohl S, Hedrick SA, Chory J, Lamb CJ. Functional properties of a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase promoter from Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 1990 Sep;2(9):837–848. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Rabino I, Mancinelli AL. Light, temperature, and anthocyanin production. Plant Physiol. 1986 Jul;81(3):922–924. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Reimann-Philipp U, Behnke S, Batschauer A, Schäfer E, Apel K. The effect of light on the biosynthesis of leaf-specific thionins in barley, Hordeum vulgare. Eur J Biochem. 1989 Jun 15;182(2):283–289. [PubMed]
  • Wingender R, Röhrig H, Höricke C, Schell J. cis-regulatory elements involved in ultraviolet light regulation and plant defense. Plant Cell. 1990 Oct;2(10):1019–1026. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Plant Physiology are provided here courtesy of American Society of Plant Biologists

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • MedGen
    MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • Pathways + GO
    Pathways + GO
    Pathways, annotations and biological systems (BioSystems) that cite the current article.
  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Taxonomy
    Taxonomy
    Related taxonomy entry
  • Taxonomy Tree
    Taxonomy Tree

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...