• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of envhperEnvironmental Health PerspectivesBrowse ArticlesAbout EHPGeneral InformationAuthorsMediaProgramsPartnerships
Environ Health Perspect. Mar 1989; 80: 3–15.
PMCID: PMC1567609
Research Article

Human neuroblastoma cell lines as models for the in vitro study of neoplastic and neuronal cell differentiation.

Abstract

Neuroblastoma is a childhood solid tumor composed of primitive cells derived from precursors of the autonomic nervous system. This neoplasm has the highest rate of spontaneous regression of all cancer types and has been noted to undergo spontaneous and chemically induced differentiation into elements resembling mature nervous tissue. As such, neuroblastoma has been a prime model system for the study of neuronal differentiation and the process of cancer cell maturation. In this paper we review those agents that have been described to induce the differentiation of neuroblastoma, with an emphasis on the effects and possible mechanisms of action of a group of related compounds, the retinoids. With this model system and the availability of subclones that are both responsive and resistant to chemically induced differentiation, fundamental questions regarding the mechanisms and processes underlying cell maturation have become more amenable to in vitro study.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (4.2M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Woods WG, Tuchman M. Neuroblastoma: the case for screening infants in North America. Pediatrics. 1987 Jun;79(6):869–873. [PubMed]
  • Seeger RC, Siegel SE, Sidell N. Neuroblastoma: clinical perspectives, monoclonal antibodies, and retinoic acid. Ann Intern Med. 1982 Dec;97(6):873–884. [PubMed]
  • Beckwith JB, Martin RF. Observations on the histopathology of neuroblastomas. J Pediatr Surg. 1968 Feb;3(1):106–110. [PubMed]
  • Hughes M, Marsden HB, Palmer MK. Histologic patterns of neuroblastoma related to prognosis and clinical staging. Cancer. 1974 Nov;34(5):1706–1711. [PubMed]
  • Berthold F, Kaatsch P, Evers G, Harms D, Jürgens H, Niethammer D, Ritter J, Wahlen W, Treuner J, Lampert F. Intensive Kombinationschemotherapie und beta-Interferon zur Behandlung von Kindern mit metastasiertem Neuroblastom: Studie GPO-NB 79/82. Klin Padiatr. 1984 May-Jun;196(3):143–149. [PubMed]
  • Cushing H, Wolbach SB. The Transformation of a Malignant Paravertebral Sympathicoblastoma into a Benign Ganglioneuroma. Am J Pathol. 1927 May;3(3):203–216.7. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Evans AE, Gerson J, Schnaufer L. Spontaneous regression of neuroblastoma. Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 1976 Nov;44:49–54. [PubMed]
  • López-Ibor B, Schwartz AD. Neuroblastoma. Pediatr Clin North Am. 1985 Jun;32(3):755–778. [PubMed]
  • Seeger RC, Danon YL, Rayner SA, Hoover F. Definition of a Thy-1 determinant on human neuroblastoma, glioma, sarcoma, and teratoma cells with a monoclonal antibody. J Immunol. 1982 Feb;128(2):983–989. [PubMed]
  • Laug WE, Siegel SE, Shaw KN, Landing B, Baptista J, Gutenstein M. Initial urinary catecholamine metabolite concentrations and prognosis in neuroblastoma. Pediatrics. 1978 Jul;62(1):77–83. [PubMed]
  • Collins SJ, Ruscetti FW, Gallagher RE, Gallo RC. Normal functional characteristics of cultured human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) after induction of differentiation by dimethylsulfoxide. J Exp Med. 1979 Apr 1;149(4):969–974. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ross RA, Spengler BA, Biedler JL. Coordinate morphological and biochemical interconversion of human neuroblastoma cells. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1983 Oct;71(4):741–747. [PubMed]
  • Biedler JL, Helson L, Spengler BA. Morphology and growth, tumorigenicity, and cytogenetics of human neuroblastoma cells in continuous culture. Cancer Res. 1973 Nov;33(11):2643–2652. [PubMed]
  • Weston JA. The migration and differentiation of neural crest cells. Adv Morphog. 1970;8:41–114. [PubMed]
  • Tumilowicz JJ, Nichols WW, Cholon JJ, Greene AE. Definition of a continuous human cell line derived from neuroblastoma. Cancer Res. 1970 Aug;30(8):2110–2118. [PubMed]
  • Ross RA, Biedler JL. Presence and regulation of tyrosinase activity in human neuroblastoma cell variants in vitro. Cancer Res. 1985 Apr;45(4):1628–1632. [PubMed]
  • Tsokos M, Scarpa S, Ross RA, Triche TJ. Differentiation of human neuroblastoma recapitulates neural crest development. Study of morphology, neurotransmitter enzymes, and extracellular matrix proteins. Am J Pathol. 1987 Sep;128(3):484–496. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sidell N, Sarafian T, Kelly M, Tsuchida T, Haussler M. Retinoic acid-induced differentiation of human neuroblastoma: a cell variant system showing two distinct responses. Exp Cell Biol. 1986;54(5-6):287–300. [PubMed]
  • Bishop JM. Cellular oncogenes and retroviruses. Annu Rev Biochem. 1983;52:301–354. [PubMed]
  • Alitalo K, Koskinen P, Mäkelä TP, Saksela K, Sistonen L, Winqvist R. myc oncogenes: activation and amplification. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1987 Apr 20;907(1):1–32. [PubMed]
  • Cole MD. The myc oncogene: its role in transformation and differentiation. Annu Rev Genet. 1986;20:361–384. [PubMed]
  • Collins S, Groudine M. Amplification of endogenous myc-related DNA sequences in a human myeloid leukaemia cell line. Nature. 1982 Aug 12;298(5875):679–681. [PubMed]
  • Alitalo K, Schwab M, Lin CC, Varmus HE, Bishop JM. Homogeneously staining chromosomal regions contain amplified copies of an abundantly expressed cellular oncogene (c-myc) in malignant neuroendocrine cells from a human colon carcinoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983 Mar;80(6):1707–1711. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Brodeur GM, Green AA, Hayes FA, Williams KJ, Williams DL, Tsiatis AA. Cytogenetic features of human neuroblastomas and cell lines. Cancer Res. 1981 Nov;41(11 Pt 1):4678–4686. [PubMed]
  • Balaban G, Gilbert F. Homogeneously staining regions in direct preparations from human neuroblastomas. Cancer Res. 1982 May;42(5):1838–1842. [PubMed]
  • Lee WH, Murphree AL, Benedict WF. Expression and amplification of the N-myc gene in primary retinoblastoma. Nature. 309(5967):458–460. [PubMed]
  • Nau MM, Brooks BJ, Jr, Carney DN, Gazdar AF, Battey JF, Sausville EA, Minna JD. Human small-cell lung cancers show amplification and expression of the N-myc gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Feb;83(4):1092–1096. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sejersen T, Björklund H, Sümegi J, Ringertz NR. N-myc and c-src genes are differentially regulated in PCC7 embryonal carcinoma cells undergoing neuronal differentiation. J Cell Physiol. 1986 May;127(2):274–280. [PubMed]
  • Grady EF, Schwab M, Rosenau W. Expression of N-myc and c-src during the development of fetal human brain. Cancer Res. 1987 Jun 1;47(11):2931–2936. [PubMed]
  • Brodeur GM, Seeger RC, Schwab M, Varmus HE, Bishop JM. Amplification of N-myc in untreated human neuroblastomas correlates with advanced disease stage. Science. 1984 Jun 8;224(4653):1121–1124. [PubMed]
  • Seeger RC, Brodeur GM, Sather H, Dalton A, Siegel SE, Wong KY, Hammond D. Association of multiple copies of the N-myc oncogene with rapid progression of neuroblastomas. N Engl J Med. 1985 Oct 31;313(18):1111–1116. [PubMed]
  • Brodeur GM, Hayes FA, Green AA, Casper JT, Wasson J, Wallach S, Seeger RC. Consistent N-myc copy number in simultaneous or consecutive neuroblastoma samples from sixty individual patients. Cancer Res. 1987 Aug 15;47(16):4248–4253. [PubMed]
  • Shimizu K, Goldfarb M, Perucho M, Wigler M. Isolation and preliminary characterization of the transforming gene of a human neuroblastoma cell line. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983 Jan;80(2):383–387. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Taparowsky E, Shimizu K, Goldfarb M, Wigler M. Structure and activation of the human N-ras gene. Cell. 1983 Sep;34(2):581–586. [PubMed]
  • Small MB, Hay N, Schwab M, Bishop JM. Neoplastic transformation by the human gene N-myc. Mol Cell Biol. 1987 May;7(5):1638–1645. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Amatruda TT, 3rd, Sidell N, Ranyard J, Koeffler HP. Retinoic acid treatment of human neuroblastoma cells is associated with decreased N-myc expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1985 Feb 15;126(3):1189–1195. [PubMed]
  • Thiele CJ, Reynolds CP, Israel MA. Decreased expression of N-myc precedes retinoic acid-induced morphological differentiation of human neuroblastoma. Nature. 313(6001):404–406. [PubMed]
  • Griep AE, DeLuca HF. Decreased c-myc expression is an early event in retinoic acid-induced differentiation of F9 teratocarcinoma cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Aug;83(15):5539–5543. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dony C, Kessel M, Gruss P. Post-transcriptional control of myc and p53 expression during differentiation of the embryonal carcinoma cell line F9. Nature. 1985 Oct 17;317(6038):636–639. [PubMed]
  • Slamon DJ, Boone TC, Seeger RC, Keith DE, Chazin V, Lee HC, Souza LM. Identification and characterization of the protein encoded by the human N-myc oncogene. Science. 1986 May 9;232(4751):768–772. [PubMed]
  • Thiele CJ, Cohen PS, Israel MA. Regulation of c-myb expression in human neuroblastoma cells during retinoic acid-induced differentiation. Mol Cell Biol. 1988 Apr;8(4):1677–1683. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sidell N, Koeffler HP. Modulation of Mr 53,000 protein with induction of differentiation of human neuroblastoma cells. Cancer Res. 1988 Apr 15;48(8):2226–2230. [PubMed]
  • Macara IG. Oncogenes, ions, and phospholipids. Am J Physiol. 1985 Jan;248(1 Pt 1):C3–11. [PubMed]
  • Morgan JI, Curran T. Role of ion flux in the control of c-fos expression. Nature. 1986 Aug 7;322(6079):552–555. [PubMed]
  • Wieland SJ, Chou RH, Chen TA. Elevation of a potassium current in differentiating human leukemic (HL-60) cells. J Cell Physiol. 1987 Aug;132(2):371–375. [PubMed]
  • Costa-Casnellie MR, Segel GB, Cragoe EJ, Jr, Lichtman MA. Characterization of the Na+/H+ exchanger during maturation of HL-60 cells induced by dimethyl sulfoxide. J Biol Chem. 1987 Jul 5;262(19):9093–9097. [PubMed]
  • Okazaki T, Mochizuki T, Tashima M, Sawada H, Uchino H. Role of intracellular calcium ion in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cell differentiation. Cancer Res. 1986 Dec;46(12 Pt 1):6059–6063. [PubMed]
  • Koike T. Neurite formation and membrane changes of mouse neurobalstoma cells induced by valinomycin. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1978 Jun 2;509(3):429–439. [PubMed]
  • Reboulleau CP. Extracellular calcium-induced neuroblastoma cell differentiation: involvement of phosphatidylinositol turnover. J Neurochem. 1986 Mar;46(3):920–930. [PubMed]
  • Lotan R. Effects of vitamin A and its analogs (retinoids) on normal and neoplastic cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1980 Mar 12;605(1):33–91. [PubMed]
  • Sporn MB, Roberts AB. Role of retinoids in differentiation and carcinogenesis. Cancer Res. 1983 Jul;43(7):3034–3040. [PubMed]
  • Sidell N. Retinoic acid-induced growth inhibition and morphologic differentiation of human neuroblastoma cells in vitro. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1982 Apr;68(4):589–596. [PubMed]
  • Sidell N, Altman A, Haussler MR, Seeger RC. Effects of retinoic acid (RA) on the growth and phenotypic expression of several human neuroblastoma cell lines. Exp Cell Res. 1983 Oct;148(1):21–30. [PubMed]
  • Sadée W, Yu VC, Richards ML, Preis PN, Schwab MR, Brodsky FM, Biedler JL. Expression of neurotransmitter receptors and myc protooncogenes in subclones of a human neuroblastoma cell line. Cancer Res. 1987 Oct 1;47(19):5207–5212. [PubMed]
  • Kelly MA, Sidell N, Haussler MR. Saturation analysis of cellular retinoid binding proteins: application to retinoic acid resistant human neuroblastoma cells and to human tumors. Biochem Cell Biol. 1987 Feb;65(2):163–172. [PubMed]
  • Cope FO, Howard BD, Boutwell RK. The in vitro characterization of the inhibition of mouse brain protein kinase-C by retinoids and their receptors. Experientia. 1986 Sep 15;42(9):1023–1027. [PubMed]
  • Chytil F, Ong DE. Cellular retinol- and retinoic acid-binding proteins. Adv Nutr Res. 1983;5:13–29. [PubMed]
  • McCue PA, Matthaei KI, Taketo M, Sherman MI. Differentiation-defective mutants of mouse embryonal carcinoma cells: response to hexamethylenebisacetamide and retinoic acid. Dev Biol. 1983 Apr;96(2):416–426. [PubMed]
  • Wang SY, Gudas LJ. Selection and characterization of F9 teratocarcinoma stem cell mutants with altered responses to retinoic acid. J Biol Chem. 1984 May 10;259(9):5899–5906. [PubMed]
  • Matthaei KI, Andrews PW, Bronson DL. Retinoic acid fails to induce differentiation in human teratocarcinoma cell lines that express high levels of a cellular receptor protein. Exp Cell Res. 1983 Feb;143(2):471–474. [PubMed]
  • Libby PR, Bertram JS. Lack of intracellular retinoid-binding proteins in a retinol-sensitive cell line. Carcinogenesis. 1982;3(5):481–484. [PubMed]
  • Haussler MR, Donaldson CA, Kelly MA, Mangelsdorf DJ, Bowden GT, Meinke WJ, Meyskens FL, Sidell N. Identification and quantitation of intracellular retinol and retinoic acid binding proteins in cultured cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1984 Feb 17;803(1-2):54–62. [PubMed]
  • Jetten AM, Anderson K, Deas MA, Kagechika H, Lotan R, Rearick JI, Shudo K. New benzoic acid derivatives with retinoid activity: lack of direct correlation between biological activity and binding to cellular retinoic acid binding protein. Cancer Res. 1987 Jul 1;47(13):3523–3527. [PubMed]
  • Friedman DL. Role of cyclic nucleotides in cell growth and differentiation. Physiol Rev. 1976 Oct;56(4):652–708. [PubMed]
  • Gottesman MM, Fleischmann RD. The role of cAMP in regulating tumour cell growth. Cancer Surv. 1986;5(2):291–308. [PubMed]
  • Rasmussen H. The calcium messenger system (2). N Engl J Med. 1986 May 1;314(18):1164–1170. [PubMed]
  • Plet A, Evain D, Anderson WB. Effect of retinoic acid treatment of F9 embryonal carcinoma cells on the activity and distribution of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. J Biol Chem. 1982 Jan 25;257(2):889–893. [PubMed]
  • Olsson IL, Breitman TR, Gallo RC. Priming of human myeloid leukemic cell lines HL-60 and U-937 with retinoic acid for differentiation effects of cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate-inducing agents and a T-lymphocyte-derived differentiation factor. Cancer Res. 1982 Oct;42(10):3928–3933. [PubMed]
  • Ludwig KW, Lowey B, Niles RM. Retinoic acid increases cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity in murine melanoma cells. J Biol Chem. 1980 Jul 10;255(13):5999–6002. [PubMed]
  • Fontana JA, Reppucci A, Durham JP, Miranda D. Correlation between the induction of leukemic cell differentiation by various retinoids and modulation of protein kinases. Cancer Res. 1986 May;46(5):2468–2473. [PubMed]
  • Takai Y, Kishimoto A, Inoue M, Nishizuka Y. Studies on a cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase and its proenzyme in mammalian tissues. I. Purification and characterization of an active enzyme from bovine cerebellum. J Biol Chem. 1977 Nov 10;252(21):7603–7609. [PubMed]
  • Nishizuka Y. Studies and perspectives of protein kinase C. Science. 1986 Jul 18;233(4761):305–312. [PubMed]
  • Durham JP, Emler CA, Butcher FR, Fontana JA. Calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase activity and protein phosphorylation in HL60 cells induced to differentiate by retinoic acid. FEBS Lett. 1985 Jun 3;185(1):157–161. [PubMed]
  • Kraft AS, Anderson WB. Characterization of cytosolic calcium-activated phospholipid-dependent protein kinase activity in embryonal carcinoma cells. Effect of retinoc acid-induced differentiation of F9 cells to parietal endoderm. J Biol Chem. 1983 Aug 10;258(15):9178–9183. [PubMed]
  • Kumar R, Holian O. Retinoid effect on calcium, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase from mouse skin. J Invest Dermatol. 1986 Mar;86(3):316–320. [PubMed]
  • Cope FO. The in vivo inhibition of mouse brain protein kinase-C by retinoic acid. Cancer Lett. 1986 Mar;30(3):275–288. [PubMed]
  • Jetten AM, Shirley JE. Action of retinoic acid on the diacylglycerol-induced ornithine decarboxylase activity, reduction in EGF binding and protein kinase C activation in rat tracheal epithelial 2C5 cells. Exp Cell Res. 1986 Oct;166(2):519–525. [PubMed]
  • Sidell N, Schlichter L. Retinoic acid blocks potassium channels in human lymphocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1986 Jul 31;138(2):560–567. [PubMed]
  • Sidell N, Schlichter LC, Wright SC, Hagiwara S, Golub SH. Potassium channels in human NK cells are involved in discrete stages of the killing process. J Immunol. 1986 Sep 1;137(5):1650–1658. [PubMed]
  • Chandy KG, DeCoursey TE, Cahalan MD, McLaughlin C, Gupta S. Voltage-gated potassium channels are required for human T lymphocyte activation. J Exp Med. 1984 Aug 1;160(2):369–385. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bosma M, Sidell N. Retinoic acid inhibits Ca2+ currents and cell proliferation in a B-lymphocyte cell line. J Cell Physiol. 1988 May;135(2):317–323. [PubMed]
  • McCleskey EW, Fox AP, Feldman D, Tsien RW. Different types of calcium channels. J Exp Biol. 1986 Sep;124:177–190. [PubMed]
  • Matteson DR, Armstrong CM. Properties of two types of calcium channels in clonal pituitary cells. J Gen Physiol. 1986 Jan;87(1):161–182. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Coggeshall KM, Cambier JC. B cell activation. VI. Effects of exogenous diglyceride and modulators of phospholipid metabolism suggest a central role for diacylglycerol generation in transmembrane signaling by mIg. J Immunol. 1985 Jan;134(1):101–107. [PubMed]
  • Greene LA, Shooter EM. The nerve growth factor: biochemistry, synthesis, and mechanism of action. Annu Rev Neurosci. 1980;3:353–402. [PubMed]
  • Levi-Montalcini R. The nerve growth factor 35 years later. Science. 1987 Sep 4;237(4819):1154–1162. [PubMed]
  • Kumar S, Steward JK, Waghe M, Pearson D, Edwards DC, Fenton EL, Griffith AH. The administration of the nerve growth factor to children with widespread neuroblastoma. J Pediatr Surg. 1970 Feb;5(1):18–22. [PubMed]
  • Haskell BE, Stach RW, Werrbach-Perez K, Perez-Polo JR. Effect of retinoic acid on nerve growth factor receptors. Cell Tissue Res. 1987 Jan;247(1):67–73. [PubMed]
  • Sonnenfeld KH, Ishii DN. Nerve growth factor effects and receptors in cultured human neuroblastoma cell lines. J Neurosci Res. 1982;8(2-3):375–391. [PubMed]
  • Perez-Polo JR, Werbach-Perez K, Tiffany-Castiglioni E. A human clonal cell line model of differentiating neurons. Dev Biol. 1979 Aug;71(2):341–355. [PubMed]
  • Perez-Polo JR, Reynolds CP, Tiffany-Castiglioni E, Ziegler M, Schulze I, Werrback-Perez K. NGF effects on human neuroblastoma lines: a model system. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1982;79:285–299. [PubMed]
  • Kuramoto T, Werrbach-Perez K, Perez-Polo JR, Haber B. Membrane properties of a human neuroblastoma II: Effects of differentiation. J Neurosci Res. 1981;6(4):441–449. [PubMed]
  • West GJ, Uki J, Herschman HR, Seeger RC. Adrenergic, cholinergic, and inactive human neuroblastoma cell lines with the action-potential Na+ ionophore. Cancer Res. 1977 May;37(5):1372–1376. [PubMed]
  • Jensen LM. Phenotypic differentiation of aphidicolin-selected human neuroblastoma cultures after long-term exposure to nerve growth factor. Dev Biol. 1987 Mar;120(1):56–64. [PubMed]
  • Schulze I, Perez-Polo JR. Nerve growth factor and cyclic AMP: opposite effects on neuroblastoma-substrate adhesion. J Neurosci Res. 1982;8(2-3):393–411. [PubMed]
  • Burstein DE, Greene LA. Evidence for RNA synthesis-dependent and -independent pathways in stimulation of neurite outgrowth by nerve growth factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1978 Dec;75(12):6059–6063. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Richter-Landsberg C, Jastorff B. The role of cAMP in nerve growth factor-promoted neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. J Cell Biol. 1986 Mar;102(3):821–829. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Boonstra J, Moolenaar WH, Harrison PH, Moed P, van der Saag PT, de Laat SW. Ionic responses and growth stimulation induced by nerve growth factor and epidermal growth factor in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. J Cell Biol. 1983 Jul;97(1):92–98. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Reed JK, England D. The effect of nerve growth factor on the development of sodium channels in PC12 cells. Biochem Cell Biol. 1986 Nov;64(11):1153–1159. [PubMed]
  • Kim YS, Tsao D, Siddiqui B, Whitehead JS, Arnstein P, Bennett J, Hicks J. Effects of sodium butyrate and dimethylsulfoxide on biochemical properties of human colon cancer cells. Cancer. 1980 Mar 15;45(5 Suppl):1185–1192. [PubMed]
  • Leder A, Leder P. Butyric acid, a potent inducer of erythroid differentiation in cultured erythroleukemic cells. Cell. 1975 Jul;5(3):319–322. [PubMed]
  • Prasad KN. X-ray-induced morphological differentiation of mouse neuroblastoma cells in vitro. Nature. 1971 Dec 24;234(5330):471–473. [PubMed]
  • Kyritsis A, Joseph G, Chader GJ. Effects of butyrate, retinol, and retinoic acid on human Y-79 retinoblastoma cells growing in monolayer cultures. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1984 Sep;73(3):649–654. [PubMed]
  • Kruh J. Effects of sodium butyrate, a new pharmacological agent, on cells in culture. Mol Cell Biochem. 1982 Feb 5;42(2):65–82. [PubMed]
  • Hall JM, Cole RD. Modulation in proportions of H1 histone subfractions by differential changes in synthesis and turnover during butyrate treatment of neuroblastoma cells. Biochemistry. 1985 Dec 17;24(26):7765–7771. [PubMed]
  • Spremulli EN, Dexter DL. Polar solvents: a novel class of antineoplastic agents. J Clin Oncol. 1984 Mar;2(3):227–241. [PubMed]
  • Rowinsky EK, Ettinger DS, McGuire WP, Noe DA, Grochow LB, Donehower RC. Prolonged infusion of hexamethylene bisacetamide: a phase I and pharmacological study. Cancer Res. 1987 Nov 1;47(21):5788–5795. [PubMed]
  • Reuben RC, Rifkind RA, Marks PA. Chemically induced murine erythroleukemic differentiation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1980 Sep 22;605(3):325–346. [PubMed]
  • Collins SJ, Bodner A, Ting R, Gallo RC. Induction of morphological and functional differentiation of human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) by componuds which induce differentiation of murine leukemia cells. Int J Cancer. 1980 Feb 15;25(2):213–218. [PubMed]
  • Rabson AS, Stern R, Tralka TS, Costa J, Wilczek J. Hexamethylene bisacetamide induces morphologic changes and increased synthesis of procollagen in cell line from glioblastoma multiforme. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977 Nov;74(11):5060–5064. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Speers WC, Birdwell CR, Dixon FJ. Chemically induced bidirectional differentiation of embryonal carcinoma cells in vitro. Am J Pathol. 1979 Dec;97(3):563–584. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Danon YL, Kaminsky E. Dimethyl sulfoxide-induced differentiation does not alter tumorigenicity of neuroblastoma cells. J Neurooncol. 1985;3(1):43–51. [PubMed]
  • Faletto DL, Arrow AS, Macara IG. An early decrease in phosphatidylinositol turnover occurs on induction of Friend cell differentiation and precedes the decrease in c-myc expression. Cell. 1985 Nov;43(1):315–325. [PubMed]
  • Kishimoto A, Kajikawa N, Shiota M, Nishizuka Y. Proteolytic activation of calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase by calcium-dependent neutral protease. J Biol Chem. 1983 Jan 25;258(2):1156–1164. [PubMed]
  • Pincus SM, Beckman BS, George WJ. Inhibition of dimethylsulfoxide-induced differentiation in Friend erythroleukemic cells by diacylglycerols and phospholipase C. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1984 Dec 14;125(2):491–499. [PubMed]
  • Castagna M, Takai Y, Kaibuchi K, Sano K, Kikkawa U, Nishizuka Y. Direct activation of calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase by tumor-promoting phorbol esters. J Biol Chem. 1982 Jul 10;257(13):7847–7851. [PubMed]
  • Påhlman S, Odelstad L, Larsson E, Grotte G, Nilsson K. Phenotypic changes of human neuroblastoma cells in culture induced by 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate. Int J Cancer. 1981 Nov 15;28(5):583–589. [PubMed]
  • Påhlman S, Ruusala AI, Abrahamsson L, Mattsson ME, Esscher T. Retinoic acid-induced differentiation of cultured human neuroblastoma cells: a comparison with phorbolester-induced differentiation. Cell Differ. 1984 Jun;14(2):135–144. [PubMed]
  • Scott IG, Akerman KE, Heikkilä JE, Kaila K, Andersson LC. Development of a neural phenotype in differentiating ganglion cell-derived human neuroblastoma cells. J Cell Physiol. 1986 Aug;128(2):285–292. [PubMed]
  • Hsie AW, Puck TT. Morphological transformation of Chinese hamster cells by dibutyryl adenosine cyclic 3':5'-monophosphate and testosterone. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1971 Feb;68(2):358–361. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Johnson GS, Friedman RM, Pastan I. Restoration of several morphological characteristics of normal fibroblasts in sarcoma cells treated with adenosine-3':5'-cyclic monphosphate and its derivatives. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1971 Feb;68(2):425–429. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Prasad KN. Differentiation of neuroblastoma cells in culture. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 1975 May;50(2):129–165. [PubMed]
  • Rupniak HT, Rein G, Powell JF, Ryder TA, Carson S, Povey S, Hill BT. Characteristics of a new human neuroblastoma cell line which differentiates in response to cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate. Cancer Res. 1984 Jun;44(6):2600–2607. [PubMed]
  • Imashuku S, Sugano T, Fujiwara K, Todo S, Ogita S, Goto Y. Intra-aortic prostaglandin E1 infusion in maturation of neuroblastoma. Experientia. 1982 Aug 15;38(8):932–933. [PubMed]
  • Helson L. Investigational chemotherapy of neuroblastoma. J Fla Med Assoc. 1979 Mar;66(3):284–287. [PubMed]
  • Walsh DA, Ashby CD. Protein kinases: aspects of their regulation and diversity. Recent Prog Horm Res. 1973;29:329–359. [PubMed]
  • Beavo JA, Bechtel PJ, Krebs EG. Mechanisms of control for cAMP-dependent protein kinase from skeletal muscle. Adv Cyclic Nucleotide Res. 1975;5:241–251. [PubMed]
  • Slungaard A, Confer DL, Schubach WH. Rapid transcriptional down-regulation of c-myc expression during cyclic adenosine monophosphate-promoted differentiation of leukemic cells. J Clin Invest. 1987 May;79(5):1542–1547. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • McCachren SS, Jr, Nichols J, Kaufman RE, Niedel JE. Dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate reduces expression of c-myc during HL-60 differentiation. Blood. 1986 Aug;68(2):412–416. [PubMed]
  • Hamill OP, Marty A, Neher E, Sakmann B, Sigworth FJ. Improved patch-clamp techniques for high-resolution current recording from cells and cell-free membrane patches. Pflugers Arch. 1981 Aug;391(2):85–100. [PubMed]
  • Fukushima Y, Hagiwara S. Voltage-gated Ca2+ channel in mouse myeloma cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983 Apr;80(8):2240–2242. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Environmental Health Perspectives are provided here courtesy of National Institute of Environmental Health Science

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • Compound
    Compound
    PubChem Compound links
  • MedGen
    MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...