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Appl Environ Microbiol. Apr 2003; 69(4): 2389–2394.
PMCID: PMC154771

Molecular Characterization of Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal Isolated from Water and the Aquatic Plant Eichhornia crassipes in the River Ganga, Varanasi, India


A collection of ten strains of Vibrio cholerae O139, comprising six isolates from Eichhornia crassipes, two from water of the River Ganga, and one each from a well and a hand pump, were characterized. All the strains carried the CTX genetic element (ctxA, zot, and ace) except for the st gene and carried structural and regulatory genes for toxin-coregulated pilus (tcpA, tcpI, and toxR), adherence factor (ompU), and accessory colonization factor (acfB); all produced cholera toxin (CT). These strains were resistant to trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin, and to the vibriostatic agent pteridine. Results obtained by ribotyping and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence-PCR fingerprint analysis indicate that multiple clones of toxigenic-pathogenic V. cholerae O139 were present in the aquatic environment.

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