Logo of clinexpimmunolLink to Publisher's site
Clin Exp Immunol. Nov 1993; 94(2): 236–240.
PMCID: PMC1534225

Rheumatoid factor production by mononuclear cells derived from different sites of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.


To investigate the origin of circulating rheumatoid factor (RF) and the relation between RF production at different sites in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), mononuclear cells derived from bone marrow, synovium and peripheral blood of patients with RA were examined for the presence of plasma cells and for their capacity to produce RF and other immunoglobulins in vitro. Analysis of culture supernatants for the presence of immunoglobulins demonstrated that cells derived from bone marrow, synovium and peripheral blood were all found to be capable of producing every immunoglobulin and RF isotype investigated. No significant correlations were found between concentrations of immunoglobulin isotypes produced by cells derived from different sites of one individual. Significant correlations were found, however, between concentrations of RF isotypes produced by cells derived from the three sites. These results indicate that the production of RF in the different compartments is not an autonomously regulated process. Mononuclear cells derived from bone marrow were found to be able to produce RF in similar quantities to cells dissociated from synovial tissue. In combination with the fact that circulating immunoglobulins are produced mainly in the bone marrow, this observation suggests that bone marrow is also a major source of circulating RF.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (808K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Johnson PM, Faulk WP. Rheumatoid factor: its nature, specificity, and production in rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1976 Nov;6(3):414–430. [PubMed]
  • Winchester RJ, Agnello V, Kunkel HG. Gamma globulin complexes in synovial fluids of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Partial characterization and relationship to lowered complement levels. Clin Exp Immunol. 1970 May;6(5):689–706. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nardella FA, Dayer JM, Roelke M, Krane SM, Mannik M. Self-associating IgG rheumatoid factors stimulate monocytes to release prostaglandins and mononuclear cell factor that stimulates collagenase and prostaglandin production by synovial cells. Rheumatol Int. 1983;3(4):183–186. [PubMed]
  • Cecere F, Lessard J, McDuffy S, Pope RM. Evidence for the local production and utilization of immune reactants in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 1982 Nov;25(11):1307–1313. [PubMed]
  • Arnason JA, Jónsson T, Brekkan A, Sigurjónsson K, Valdimarsson H. Relation between bone erosions and rheumatoid factor isotypes. Ann Rheum Dis. 1987 May;46(5):380–384. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cats A, Hazevoet HM. Significance of positive tests for rheumatoid factor in the prognosis of rheumatoid arthritis. A follow-up study. Ann Rheum Dis. 1970 May;29(3):254–260. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Halla JT, Koopman WJ, Fallahi S, Oh SJ, Gay RE, Schrohenloher RE. Rheumatoid myositis. Clinical and histologic features and possible pathogenesis. Arthritis Rheum. 1984 Jul;27(7):737–743. [PubMed]
  • Halla JT, Koopman WJ, Schrohenloher RE, Darby WL, Heck LW. Local synthesis of IgM and IgM rheumatoid factor in rheumatoid pleuritis. J Rheumatol. 1983 Apr;10(2):204–209. [PubMed]
  • Munthe E, Natvig JB. Complement-fixing intracellular complexes of IgG rheumatoid factor in rheumatoid plasma cells. Scand J Immunol. 1972;1(3):217–229. [PubMed]
  • Vaughan JH, Chihara T, Moore TL, Robbins DL, Tanimoto K, Johnson JS, McMillan R. Rheumatoid factor-producing cells detected by direct hemolytic plaque assay. J Clin Invest. 1976 Oct;58(4):933–941. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Arnett FC, Edworthy SM, Bloch DA, McShane DJ, Fries JF, Cooper NS, Healey LA, Kaplan SR, Liang MH, Luthra HS, et al. The American Rheumatism Association 1987 revised criteria for the classification of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 1988 Mar;31(3):315–324. [PubMed]
  • Peeters AJ, Daha MR, Smeets TJ, Breedveld FC. Bone marrow IgA and IgA subclass synthesis in ankylosing spondylitis. J Rheumatol. 1992 May;19(5):751–753. [PubMed]
  • Otten HG, Daha MR, de Rooij HH, Breedveld FC. Quantitative detection of class-specific rheumatoid factors using mouse monoclonal antibodies and the biotin/streptavidin enhancement system. Br J Rheumatol. 1989 Aug;28(4):310–316. [PubMed]
  • Vossen JM. Membrane-associated immunoglobulin determinants on bone marrow and blood lymphocytes in the pediatric age group and on fetal tissues. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1975 Jun 30;254:262–279. [PubMed]
  • Koopman WJ, Schrohenloher RE, Crago SS, Spalding DM, Mestecky J. IgA rheumatoid factor synthesis by dissociated synovial cells. Characterization and relationship to IgM rheumatoid factor synthesis. Arthritis Rheum. 1985 Nov;28(11):1219–1227. [PubMed]
  • van den Wall Bake AW, Daha MR, Radl J, Haaijman JJ, Van der Ark A, Valentijn RM, Van Es LA. The bone marrow as production site of the IgA deposited in the kidneys of patients with IgA nephropathy. Clin Exp Immunol. 1988 May;72(2):321–325. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wernick RM, Lipsky PE, Marban-Arcos E, Maliakkal JJ, Edelbaum D, Ziff M. IgG and IgM rheumatoid factor synthesis in rheumatoid synovial membrane cell cultures. Arthritis Rheum. 1985 Jul;28(7):742–752. [PubMed]
  • Coulie PG, Van Snick J. Rheumatoid factor (RF) production during anamnestic immune responses in the mouse. III. Activation of RF precursor cells is induced by their interaction with immune complexes and carrier-specific helper T cells. J Exp Med. 1985 Jan 1;161(1):88–97. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nemazee DA. Immune complexes can trigger specific, T cell-dependent, autoanti-IgG antibody production in mice. J Exp Med. 1985 Jan 1;161(1):242–256. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nemazee DA, Sato VL. Induction of rheumatoid antibodies in the mouse. Regulated production of autoantibody in the secondary humoral response. J Exp Med. 1983 Aug 1;158(2):529–545. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tarkowski A, Czerkinsky C, Nilsson LA. Simultaneous induction of rheumatoid factor- and antigen-specific antibody-secreting cells during the secondary immune response in man. Clin Exp Immunol. 1985 Aug;61(2):379–387. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • WILLIAMS RC, Jr, KUNKEL HG. Rheumatoid factor, complement, and conglutinin aberrations in patients with subacute bacterial endocarditis. J Clin Invest. 1962 Mar;41:666–675. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Roosnek E, Lanzavecchia A. Efficient and selective presentation of antigen-antibody complexes by rheumatoid factor B cells. J Exp Med. 1991 Feb 1;173(2):487–489. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lanzavecchia A. Antigen-specific interaction between T and B cells. Nature. 1985 Apr 11;314(6011):537–539. [PubMed]

Articles from Clinical and Experimental Immunology are provided here courtesy of British Society for Immunology


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...