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J Med Libr Assoc. Apr 2003; 91(2): 251–257.
PMCID: PMC153168

The Leadership Reconsidered symposium: report

Elaine R. Martin, M.S.L.S., Director,1 helen-ann brown, M.L.S., M.S., Librarian, Information Services Team,2 Barbara A. Epstein, M.S.L.S., AHIP, Associate Director,3 Carolyn E. Lipscomb, M.S.L.S., AHIP, Consultant,4 Ruth A. Riley, M.S., Director,5 and Jean P. Shipman, M.S.L.S., AHIP, Director6

INTRODUCTION

On May 22, 2002, a symposium was conducted at MLA '02, the 102d Annual Meeting of the Medical Library Association (MLA), to explore the concepts of leadership and management. The symposium was cosponsored by the MLA Leadership and Management Section and the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries (AAHSL), with support from Majors Scientific Books and Aries Systems Corporation. The overall symposium goal was to develop a strategic agenda for leadership in health sciences libraries through defining the issues and recommending actions.

Symposium objectives were to:

  • obtain an overview of library leadership issues from national experts in the field;
  • hear the latest research on the attributes that present and future library leaders need to possess;
  • learn about existing library leadership development programs;
  • brainstorm in facilitated discussions about the leadership challenges facing health sciences libraries; and
  • engage in dialogue with leaders from MLA, AAHSL, the National Library of Medicine (NLM), and other MLA members about how the profession must respond to these challenges and provide recommendations for a strategic agenda for future action.

Registrants included 100 health sciences librarians, representing both academic and hospital library environments, including eighteen colleagues acting as group facilitators and recorders. Seven speakers covered various aspects of leadership as well as examples of library leadership development programs in existence throughout the country. Participants also took part in group brainstorming sessions with the results reported to the symposium. A list of attendees can be found on the symposium Website.

STATEMENT OF NEED

The symposium was held against the backdrop of perceived needs for leadership development in health sciences librarianship. The demographics of the library profession as a whole have created a sense of urgency about recruiting and educating librarians. Librarians are part of a trend of aging U.S. workers, reflecting the impact of the large baby boom generation on the size and age composition of the labor force. However, the library profession is aging even faster than the overall workforce.

Librarianship is one of the occupations with a greater than average proportion of workers over forty-five years of age. With a median age of forty-seven for librarians in 1998, it has been estimated that 50,000 librarians would be needed to replace those retiring between 1998 and 2008 [1]. Among librarians with a master's degree, 17% will reach the age of sixty-five during the years 2005 to 2009 and another 21% in 2010 to 2014 [2]. Data for health sciences libraries show a similar situation. The percentage of MLA members under age forty dropped from 51% in 1983 to less than 21% in 2001 [3]. In AAHSL institutions, 44% of all professionals in 2001 were fifty years and older [4].

Librarians in leadership positions are no different. Ninety-one percent of Association of Research Libraries (ARL) directors were fifty and older in 1998, a dramatic increase over the 63% in 1990 [5]. A survey of current AAHSL directors indicated that 16% plan to retire by 2005 and an additional 49% by 2010 [6]. Seventy-six percent of AAHSL directors were fifty and older, as were 61% of deputy and associate directors [7].

While more positions become vacant, the number of new graduates available to fill them is not increasing. Twenty years ago, the American Library Association (ALA) accredited eighty-three library and information science programs; today, there are fifty-eight. The number of master's graduates from ALA-accredited schools remains relatively flat, about 5,000 annually [8]. MLA reports that there are three health sciences librarian jobs for every applicant [9].

Changes in women's labor force participation are of great importance to professions in which women are a majority, such as librarianship, with 79% of ALA-accredited master's degrees in 1999/2000 awarded to females [10]. The movement of young women into a wider range of professions since 1970 may account for part of the aging trend for librarians relative to other professions [11].

While health sciences librarianship faces an imbalance in the supply and demand of librarians, it also operates in an environment of increasing scope. The library is at the intersection of major challenges in the health care delivery system, higher education, biomedical research, computer and communications technology, and scholarly communication [12]. Leadership demands a combination of skills and experience to cope with technical, financial, and political issues. Leaders must communicate effectively with a wide range of constituencies and collaborate as partners with others in information management. Their ability to advance the goals of their institutions through anticipating and responding to information needs is critical, as is their facility for envisioning the future of the library [13].

Within libraries, new organizational models require new management styles. Functional teams replace or augment hierarchical organizational structures. Professionals in addition to librarians are part of many library staffs carrying out responsibilities in areas such as information systems and technology, education, and fundraising, introducing new backgrounds and professional values. Leading library staff members also requires recognition of characteristics of different generations and a diverse workforce, taking account of values and work styles.

The goal of the symposium was to examine a range of aspects of leadership, to develop a strategic agenda for how the profession can respond to the challenges of providing leadership for health sciences libraries. The factors discussed above strengthen the importance of the issue of leadership development and influence the recommendations emerging from the symposium.

PLANNING

In July of 2001, the MLA Leadership and Management Section's proposal for a leadership symposium was accepted by the MLA Continuing Education Committee. The symposium intended to formally discuss how librarians can develop the skills and confidence they need to step into leadership positions and roles.

The planning committee, consisting of the authors of this report, invited speakers and determined the format of the symposium. It attempted to include participants from various health sciences library environments through publicity and selection of facilitators. Interest in the symposium was so strong that the registration limit and the number of breakout groups were increased. MLA headquarters staff assisted in planning the symposium.

Following presentations on library leadership issues and attributes of library leaders, a panel of speakers would summarize current leadership development programs and initiatives. Interspersed in the symposium would be two sessions for breakout groups to react to presentations and to discuss themes, the first defining issues in health sciences libraries leadership and the second addressing challenges through strategies and recommendations for action. The individual topics for the breakout groups were identified as:

  • qualities, skills, and competencies for leadership;
  • unique aspects of health sciences libraries leaders;
  • challenges and obstacles to leadership; and
  • leadership roles and career paths.

Registrants were asked to indicate preferences for breakout groups. Composition of the groups would remain the same for both sessions to build on earlier discussion. Nine groups were formed, with three groups focusing on one topic and two each discussing the other three.

INVITED SPEAKERS AND SYMPOSIUM AGENDA

The structure of the symposium was to use speaker presentations as the foundation for discussion about leadership challenges and the development of a strategic agenda. The full symposium agenda is posted on the symposium Website.

The symposium began with welcoming remarks from Elaine R. Martin, director, NN/LM, New England Region and The Lamar Soutter Library, University of Massachusetts Medical School, and chair of the MLA Leadership and Management Section and the program committee, and Rick Forsman, director, Denison Memorial Library, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, and president of AAHSL. Jean P. Shipman, director, Tompkins-McCaw Library for the Health Sciences, VCU Libraries, Virginia Commonwealth University, introduced the first key speaker, Maureen Sullivan, faculty, Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL)/Harvard Leadership Institute. The second key speaker, Peter Hernon, Ph.D., professor, Graduate School of Library and Information Science, Simmons College, was introduced by Martin.

Key presentations.

Sullivan provided an overview of library leadership issues and highlighted the differences between leadership and management. She defined leadership as a process of influencing or inspiring others to achieve results, either enabling others to act or modeling the way. Studying leadership requires examination of the leader, the follower, and the context in which they function.

Personal leadership growth requires understanding one's “ideal” self (who do I want to be?) versus one's “true” self (who am I really?) and bridging the gap that may exist between the two. A learning agenda can help eliminate any gaps. Time is required to experiment with a new behavior and to practice this learned behavior in real settings. It is also important to unlearn what does not work and to understand what motivates. According to Sullivan, not enough people accept this responsibility to develop their own leadership skills. She encouraged all to be more creative and step outside of their comfort zones. Leaders should build opportunities for relationships, especially learning and mentoring ones. They should view life as a learning laboratory, share stories (good and bad), and remember to laugh.

Dr. Hernon reported on his research regarding attributes needed by ARL directors today and in the near future [14, 15]. He reviewed the aging demographics of the library profession and the reasons it is important to prepare leaders for the near future. According to Matarazzo, every twenty years, one-half of the library profession retires. In Dr. Hernon's study, the consensus of directors and assistant directors produced a combined list of managerial attributes, personal characteristics, and general areas of knowledge. The director was viewed as a visionary and campus leader with an extensive role external to the library. The director served as a change agent where needed and was both manager and leader of an internal team, engaged in planning and setting of priorities. By expanding his research to include ACRL and public library directors, Dr. Hernon plans to examine what attributes are common among directors across different library types. The attributes list can enable the profession, both practicing librarians and educators, to determine where to direct attention, marshal resources, and develop feasible outcomes.

Panel on leadership development programs and initiatives.

Barbara Epstein, associate director, Health Sciences Library System, University of Pittsburgh, introduced the panel of six speakers who described various leadership development programs available to library professionals. These are listed below.

Patricia Battin, faculty, Frye Institute, presented information about the Frye Leadership Institute.* The institute is an intensive two-week residential program held annually at Emory University, supported by a grant from the Robert W. Woodruff Foundation and sponsored by the Council of Library and Information Resources, EDUCAUSE, and Emory University. The program includes presentations by recognized leaders in higher education, seminars, group projects, and readings, with special emphasis on the ways information technology can transform research, teaching, and scholarly communication. At the conclusion of the residential program, attendees participate in a yearlong practicum to explore issues and questions addressed at the institute in their home environment. Attendees reconvene at a brief seminar the following year to report on their experiences.

Sullivan described the Leadership Institute for Academic Librarians, a collaboration between ACRL and the Harvard Institutes for Higher Education. This five-day residential experience on the Harvard campus is designed for library directors and those who report directly to them in management positions. It focuses on key skills required of library leaders, including leadership characteristics, organizational strategy, transformational learning, and effective planning. Learning techniques include lectures, case studies, small group discussion, daily reading assignments, and informal social activities.

Melanie Hawks, program officer for training, ARL Office of Leadership and Management Services, described leadership development programs and initiatives of ARL. These include public and onsite learning institutes, distance-learning courses, and facilitation and consultation. The objectives of the programs are to identify and develop skilled library staff and leadership and to empower library professionals to change behaviors, practices, and organizational cultures. Learning opportunities are based on adult learning principles and draw on expert faculty from library and academic settings. Students are exposed to “tried and true” principles, as well as leading edge theories and practices, and are encouraged to apply new concepts to real problems encountered in the workplace.

Patricia Mickelson, director, Health Sciences Library System, University of Pittsburgh, and chair, AAHSL Future Leadership Task Force, presented information about AAHSL's Future Leadership Initiative. The overarching goal of this effort is to promote recruitment and development of outstanding leaders in academic health sciences libraries. The task force has developed eight goals addressing the areas of recruitment, education, training, mentoring, and research:

  • developing a recruitment kit and resources to assist institutions with recruitment of library directors;
  • identifying potential directors through introducing them to the work of a director;
  • providing leadership training to cultivate future directors by supporting training opportunities, jointly sponsoring programs with MLA, and investigating partnerships with other organizations and institutions;
  • developing a mentoring program for health sciences library director aspirants and new directors;
  • investigating the benefit of an internship program targeted at associate directors and senior and middle managers in academic libraries;
  • developing a research program to provide AAHSL with reliable data on the future need for academic library directors, the availability of job candidates, the skills and knowledge required for emerging leaders, and the recruitment challenges facing employers;
  • developing a marketing plan for AAHSL leadership initiatives; and
  • evaluating the impact of products and services created through the Future Leadership Initiative.

Betsy L. Humphreys, associate director for library operations, NLM, discussed current NLM training programs. In particular, she focused on the Associate Fellowship Program and the Woods Hole Medical Informatics Course. The fellowship program is aimed at preparing new librarians for future leadership roles. Fellows are exposed to a national, multidisciplinary perspective on health sciences librarianship through work at NLM in the areas of advanced technology, research, and policy issues, as well as attendance at professional meetings and visits to health sciences libraries in other parts of the country. There have been 190 graduates of this program since its initiation in 1957, and follow-up studies generally reveal that graduates like the program, stay in the field, and use and value what they learn. Approximately half have subsequently taken leadership positions in large organizations (defined as director, assistant/associate director, or department/section head). Fellows remain at NLM for one year, with an optional second-year experience added in 1998.

NLM's Woods Hole Medical Informatics Course is designed to prepare working professionals to be actively involved in making informed decisions about computer-based tools in their organizations. This one-week intensive course is held once or twice annually for about thirty participants, who are selected through a competitive process. Key elements of the program involve networking with leaders in the field and students from other disciplines, theory, hands-on exercises, workshops, and advice on organizational issues.

The last speaker was Linda Watson, director, Claude Moore Health Sciences Library, University of Virginia, and MLA president, who summarized leadership development activities of MLA. She cited MLA's long legacy of valuing and supporting the professional development of its members through educational programs, mentoring, leadership opportunities, and recognition and awards. She stressed MLA support for members as they prepare for leadership roles at their institutions, in the association, and in the profession.

Breakout sessions and reports.

The breakout sessions were introduced by helen-ann brown, librarian, Information Services Team, Weill Cornell Medical Library, Weill Medical College of Cornell University. Symposium attendees divided into nine small groups to do targeted brainstorming on four different topics. Each group was given a subject to discuss that centered on a particular aspect of leadership. Each group included a facilitator, a recorder, and about nine group members. The groups met in private sessions for ninety minutes following the key presentations. After the panel on leadership development programs and initiatives, the attendees reconvened after a dinner break and had forty-five minutes to develop strategies and recommendations for action for their topics. A wrap-up session to share results of the breakout session discussions closed the symposium. A summary of the discussions follows.

Qualities, skills, and competencies for leadership.The facilitator for Group A was Faith A. Meakin, library director, Health Science Center Library, University of Florida, and brown was the recorder. Group B's facilitator was Patricia Thibodeau, director, Medical Center Library, Duke University, and Shipman was the recorder. For Group C, Anna Habetler, library manager, Health Sciences Library, Children's Hospital and Health Center, San Diego, was facilitator and Martin, recorder.

The breakout groups assigned to discuss leadership qualities, skills, and competencies generated a list of attributes and, then, an action plan. In all three groups, the list of attributes focused more on the emotional or “soft skills” as opposed to those related to training, knowledge, education, and experience or “hard skills” needed for future leaders [16]. Only one group raised the requirement of a doctoral degree for library directors in the future. Ways to nurture these qualities, skills, and competencies included recommendations for MLA, NLM, AAHSL, and schools of library and information science.

Recommendations for action included a call for mentoring programs, shadowing opportunities, internships, and institutes. Others were specific to the special interest groups represented in the symposium. The recommendations spanned a variety of opportunities to maximize choices available to participants. Taken as a whole, the recommendations seemed to foster a culture that supports learning through a variety of learner styles. The list of recommendations divided by organization follows.

Recommendations for MLA:

  • offer continuing-education course on being a director
  • offer scholarships for educational opportunities
  • host leadership institute
  • provide a chatroom on MLANET for discussion of leadership issues
  • offer a series of classes, or a continuing-education track, on political skills needed for leadership, presented in a classroom format, as distance education, or a combination of the two
  • encourage chapter and section leadership opportunities
  • offer a journal club on leadership
  • provide pathfinders of resources available on leadership

Recommendations for AAHSL:

  • open AAHSL email discussion list to others
  • start “emerging leaders” (associate/deputy directors) email discussion list
  • expand AAHSL Annual Statistics to include other types of libraries (particularly hospital) to develop a comprehensive plan
  • start a mentoring program
  • draw on expertise of retirees as mentors and teachers

Recommendations for NLM:

  • support mentoring programs
  • provide scholarships or funding opportunities
  • cosponsor leadership institutes

Recommendations for schools of library and information science:

  • offer post-graduate programs
  • collaborate with MLA, AAHSL, NLM, and others on educational programs
  • advertise available programs
  • offer more courses in “soft skills”

Unique aspects of health sciences library leaders. .

For Group A, Sherrilynne Fuller, director, Health Sciences Libraries, University of Washington, was the facilitator, and Ruth Riley, director, School of Medicine Library, University of South Carolina, the recorder. Group B's facilitator was Ruth Holst, manager of library services, Medical Library, Columbia Hospital, Milwaukee, and the recorder was Carolyn Lipscomb, consultant, Chevy Chase, Maryland.

Several themes emerged from the groups assigned to discuss the unique aspects of health sciences library leaders. Although health sciences library leaders are similar to general academic library leaders in that they support the education and research missions of their institutions, the additional patient care mission of health sciences institutions distinguishes them from their general academic counterparts. The clinical services environment demands information delivery that is rapid, accurate, and high quality, because the information services provided by health sciences libraries affect the lives of patients.

The education and research missions of health sciences institutions are also heavily influenced by this patient care component. The education mission is characterized by the use of problem-based learning techniques, the requirements of continuing medical education and life-long learning, and the integration of informatics into the curriculum. Health sciences library leaders must work to ensure that information management skills are incorporated throughout the medical education continuum—undergraduate, graduate, and continuing education. The research environment is highly competitive and often includes clinical trials. Because the medical knowledgebase expands rapidly, the education, research, and care environment is fast paced and constantly evolving. This multifaceted environment mandates that health sciences library leaders be nimble administrators who understand the complexities of academic medicine and develop services that deliver information rapidly and accurately to multiple stakeholders.

Health sciences library leaders operate in unique organizational structures and frequently report to physician administrators. The politics of managed care and the highly competitive nature of the health care marketplace and medical research also contribute to the unique organizational culture in which they operate. They must have a solid understanding of the health sciences environment and culture. Strong negotiation and political skills are required to ensure that the library is integrated into the education, research, and clinical operations of the institution.

Outreach to health care practitioners in the community is also a unique aspect of health sciences libraries. The National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NN/LM) program, led by NLM, has the mission of providing all U.S. health professionals with equal access to biomedical information and of improving the public's access to information to enable them to make informed decisions about their health. Health sciences library leaders must examine how their libraries can serve this broader mission in addition to their individual institutional missions.

Health sciences library leaders are unique in that they have historically been early adopters of information technology. Many health sciences library administrators are called upon to work with unique partners in leading information technology initiatives in their institutions. These partners may include chief information officers, clinical information systems designers, medical informaticians, educational technologists, and continuing medical education administrators.

In response to these observations about the unique aspects of health sciences library leaders, the discussion groups identified the following action plans:

  • examine the knowledge and skills of the incoming generation to determine target areas for skill development;
  • ensure that upcoming leaders have opportunities to learn about the health care environment;
  • send librarians to academic medical and scientific meetings to learn more about our stakeholders and constituencies;
  • develop structured leadership programs that include topics about the health care environment;
  • design a “Frye Institute” that focuses on the unique elements of the health sciences milieu;
  • collaborate with the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) on the development of leadership development programs and examine existing AAMC leadership programs for models;
  • initiate a dialogue among the leadership of MLA, NLM, AAHSL, and AAMC about potential actions to develop new leaders; keep in mind that existing library administrators also need ongoing educational opportunities to stay abreast of the constantly changing health care environment.

Challenges and obstacles to leadership. .

The facilitator for Group A was Lucretia W. McClure, medical librarian, Rochester, New York, and the recorder was Jean Williams Sayre, director, Hardin Library, University of Iowa. For Group B, J. Michael Homan, director, Mayo Medical Library, Mayo Clinic, was the facilitator and Epstein, the recorder.

The task of these discussion groups was, first, to identify the challenges and obstacles in leadership development and then to formulate strategies to overcome these barriers. The groups noted the importance of leadership at all levels of the organization, not just in directorship positions. The development of a competent cadre of middle managers is essential. Just as a large number of library directors will retire in the next ten years, an equally large number of middle managers will also retire. Future directors are drawn from the ranks of middle managers and gain experience in these positions.

It is incumbent on institutions to identify librarians with the potential to move into management positions and to foster professional development opportunities and rapid career advancement. The traditional hierarchical organization and salary structure of libraries may need to be modified to focus on rewarding achievement rather than years of experience. Flexible organizational and personnel structures will encourage the development of new leaders.

Presently, few opportunities exist for middle managers in comparable positions in different institutions to share experiences and concerns. Professional associations can help bridge this gap by forming roundtables or discussion groups. Examples of such groups might be associate/deputy directors, assistant directors, or electronic resources librarians.

Many librarians have developed expertise in a particular subject or area and do not wish to move into direct management or supervisory positions. It is a challenge for libraries to develop alternate career paths and financial rewards for these librarians, who often serve as expert subject mentors for managers in training.

Recruitment of talented newcomers into the profession is also a challenge. One suggestion is to broaden recruitment efforts to draw new leaders from other types of libraries, possibly even from related professions, and develop acculturation programs to orient them to the environment of health sciences libraries. Likewise, the development of meaningful internships for students is important. Recruitment of student workers and paraprofessionals into librarianship might be encouraged by exposing promising candidates to professional-level work experiences and providing educational support and release time.

A perplexing research question is the intangible nature of many aspects of leadership and the interplay between institutional culture and library directors. Why are some leaders successful in a particular institution and less successful in another? It is important to identify and codify best leadership practices.

Leadership roles and career paths. .

Group A's facilitator was Diane Schwartz, director of libraries and archives, Kaleida Health Libraries, Kaleida Health, and Lynn Fortney, director, Biomedical Division, EBSCO Information Services, was the recorder. The facilitator for Group B was Rochelle Minchow, coordinator, Health Science Education and Research Services, Science Library Reference Department, University of California, Irvine, and the recorder, Dorothy A. Spencer, Ph.D., library director, Health Sciences Library, East Carolina University.

The groups discussing leadership roles and career paths considered both individual responsibility and program strategies in pursuing leadership roles. Underlying the acquisition of skill sets are knowledge of oneself and one's strengths and limitations, leadership style, and toleration of risk. Individuals must be self-directed and invest resources of time and finances in their own development as leaders to overcome limitations from lack of specific experience and lack of support. Career paths may be enhanced through networking and affiliating with others, identifying role models and mentors, building on strengths, practicing leadership through association activities, providing support to colleagues, and anticipating future career moves.

Program strategies should involve partnerships among libraries, professional organizations, and other professions. Consideration should be given to recruiting experienced persons from other disciplines and looking for creative ideas from schools of library and information science. Specific training needs discussed included programs for mid-level managers, transition between academic and hospital libraries, facilitation of mentoring, library visits, and clerkships. More research and analysis are needed to evaluate the immediate and long-term outcomes of training programs, the salary issues, and the quantity versus quality of persons in the pipeline to be future leaders.

Synthesis of reports and next steps.

Summary comments were provided by brown at the close of the symposium. The plans for disseminating information on the symposium outcomes, including a white paper describing the strategic agenda to be published as a report in the Journal of the Medical Library Association, were reviewed.

The symposium achieved its objectives. Attendees listened to presentations on aspects of leadership and reflected on them in spirited discussion to define leadership issues and to strategize about ways to meet challenges. The symposium addressed leadership attributes, leadership in the health sciences environment, challenges and obstacles to leadership, and leadership roles and career paths. Common themes included the importance of self-knowledge, a range of attributes including personal qualities, understanding of the environment, leadership at all levels, evaluation of leadership programs and practices, partnerships among organizations, and recruitment. Potential leaders need to be identified and their professional development and career advancement nurtured.

STRATEGIC AGENDA

The findings of the symposium suggest the following action agenda:

  • MLA, AAHSL, NLM, AAMC, schools of library and information science, and others must continue partnerships and initiate new dialogues to identify and implement strategies to recruit, develop, and retain health sciences library leaders.
  • The profession must encourage leadership at all levels, clearly identify leadership roles that health sciences librarians can play, find ways to support those roles, and provide opportunities for acquiring necessary knowledge, skills, and understanding of the environment in which leaders work.
  • The profession should identify and codify best leadership practices.
  • The profession should support health sciences librarians who wish to become directors and other types of library leaders through a variety of opportunities including, but not limited to, internships, fellowships, leadership institutes, courses, continuing-education classes, shadowing, mentorships, journal clubs, and scholarships.
  • The associations should use electronic communication vehicles to promote interest in health sciences library leadership and provide opportunities for collegial discussions, especially among emerging leaders.
  • The associations should evaluate existing leadership training programs as well as review professional salaries and organizational structures within which leaders work.
  • The MLA Leadership and Management Section should promote benefits of available leadership opportunities, publicize success stories, and provide financial support. Other MLA sections and chapters should encourage and provide leadership practice opportunities.
  • AAHSL should develop future leadership through a leadership fellows program, scholarships, courses, and communication with institutional administrators and potential leaders.
  • The profession should assist with library recruitment efforts underway as well as develop additional means of attracting individuals into the profession.

Footnotes

Editor's Note: The following article reports on the symposium titled “Leadership Reconsidered: Developing a Strategic Agenda for Leadership in Health Sciences Libraries,” held on May 22, 2002, 12:30 p.m. to 9:00 p.m., at MLA '02, the annual meeting of the Medical Library Association, in Dallas, Texas. The symposium was attended by 100 librarians interested in discussing leadership and management concepts. Additional information about the symposium may be found at http://library.umassmed.edu/~rvanderh/mlanet/. This Website includes a symposium overview, objectives, agenda, and speaker and attendee lists. Many of the speakers' presentations are also available on the Website.

* Information about the Frye Leadership Institute may be viewed at http://www.fryeinstitute.org.

 Information about the Leadership Institute for Academic Librarians may be viewed at http://www.gse.harvard.edu/~ppe/programs/acrl/program/.

 The recruitment kit developed by the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries Future Leadership Task Force may be viewed at http://www.aahsl.org/recruitguide/.

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