• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of amjphAmerican Journal of Public Health Web SiteAmerican Public Health Association Web SiteSubmissionsSubscriptionsAbout Us
Am J Public Health. 1999 March; 89(3): 302–307.
PMCID: PMC1508584

Prevalence and social correlates of cardiovascular disease risk factors in Harlem.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the prevalence, social correlates, and clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors in a predominantly Black, poor, urban community. METHODS: Associations of risk factor prevalences with sociodemographic variables were examined in a population-based sample of 695 men and women aged 18 to 65 years living in Central Harlem. RESULTS: One third of the men and women were hypertensive, 48% of the men and 41% of the women were smokers, 25% of the men and 49% of the women were overweight, and 23% of the men and 35% of the women reported no leisure-time physical activity over the past month. More than 80% of the men and women had at least 1 of these risk factors, and 9% of the men and 19% of the women had 3 or more risk factors. Income and education were inversely related to hypertension, smoking, and physical inactivity. Having 3 or more risk factors was associated with low income and low education (extreme odds ratio [OR] = 10.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.0, 34.5 for education; OR = 3.7, CI = 1.6, 8.9 for income) and with a history of unstable work or of homelessness. CONCLUSIONS: Disadvantaged, urban communities are at high risk for cardiovascular disease. These results highlight the importance of socioenvironmental factors in shaping cardiovascular risk.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.6M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • McCord C, Freeman HP. Excess mortality in Harlem. N Engl J Med. 1990 Jan 18;322(3):173–177. [PubMed]
  • Geronimus AT, Bound J, Waidmann TA, Hillemeier MM, Burns PB. Excess mortality among blacks and whites in the United States. N Engl J Med. 1996 Nov 21;335(21):1552–1558. [PubMed]
  • Gillum RF. The epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in black Americans. N Engl J Med. 1996 Nov 21;335(21):1597–1599. [PubMed]
  • Remington PL, Smith MY, Williamson DF, Anda RF, Gentry EM, Hogelin GC. Design, characteristics, and usefulness of state-based behavioral risk factor surveillance: 1981-87. Public Health Rep. 1988 Jul-Aug;103(4):366–375. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Siegel PZ, Frazier EL, Mariolis P, Brackbill RM, Smith C. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance, 1991: monitoring progress toward the nation's year 2000 health objectives. MMWR CDC Surveill Summ. 1993 Aug 27;42(4):1–21. [PubMed]
  • Burt VL, Whelton P, Roccella EJ, Brown C, Cutler JA, Higgins M, Horan MJ, Labarthe D. Prevalence of hypertension in the US adult population. Results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1991. Hypertension. 1995 Mar;25(3):305–313. [PubMed]
  • Northridge ME, Morabia A, Ganz ML, Bassett MT, Gemson D, Andrews H, McCord C. Contribution of smoking to excess mortality in Harlem. Am J Epidemiol. 1998 Feb 1;147(3):250–258. [PubMed]
  • Kaplan GA, Keil JE. Socioeconomic factors and cardiovascular disease: a review of the literature. Circulation. 1993 Oct;88(4 Pt 1):1973–1998. [PubMed]
  • Kumanyika SK. Special issues regarding obesity in minority populations. Ann Intern Med. 1993 Oct 1;119(7 Pt 2):650–654. [PubMed]
  • Kumanyika SK. Obesity in African Americans: biobehavioral consequences of culture. Ethn Dis. 1998 Winter;8(1):93–96. [PubMed]
  • Stewart AW, Jackson RT, Ford MA, Beaglehole R. Underestimation of relative weight by use of self-reported height and weight. Am J Epidemiol. 1987 Jan;125(1):122–126. [PubMed]
  • Roberts RJ. Can self-reported data accurately describe the prevalence of overweight? Public Health. 1995 Jul;109(4):275–284. [PubMed]
  • Kumanyika S. Obesity in black women. Epidemiol Rev. 1987;9:31–50. [PubMed]
  • Young DR, Miller KW, Wilder LB, Yanek LR, Becker DM. Physical activity patterns of urban African Americans. J Community Health. 1998 Apr;23(2):99–112. [PubMed]
  • Powell-Griner E, Anderson JE, Murphy W. State-and sex-specific prevalence of selected characteristics--behavioral risk factor surveillance system, 1994 and 1995. MMWR CDC Surveill Summ. 1997 Aug 1;46(3):1–31. [PubMed]
  • Caspersen CJ, Merritt RK. Physical activity trends among 26 states, 1986-1990. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1995 May;27(5):713–720. [PubMed]
  • Shea S, Stein AD, Lantigua R, Basch CE. Reliability of the behavioral risk factor survey in a triethnic population. Am J Epidemiol. 1991 Mar 1;133(5):489–500. [PubMed]
  • Stein AD, Lederman RI, Shea S. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System questionnaire: its reliability in a statewide sample. Am J Public Health. 1993 Dec;83(12):1768–1772. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Warnecke RB, Johnson TP, Chávez N, Sudman S, O'Rourke DP, Lacey L, Horm J. Improving question wording in surveys of culturally diverse populations. Ann Epidemiol. 1997 Jul;7(5):334–342. [PubMed]

Articles from American Journal of Public Health are provided here courtesy of American Public Health Association

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • MedGen
    MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...