• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of vetsciArchive of Comparative Medicine and Veterinary ScienceContinued as Canadian Journal of Comparative MedicineNow Published as Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research
Can J Comp Med Vet Sci. Jun 1964; 28(6): 131–142.
PMCID: PMC1494275

Western Equine Encephalitis in Saskatchewan Reptiles and Amphibians, 1961-1963


Western equine encephalitis (WEE) antibodies were found in blood samples from garter snakes and leopard frogs collected in Saskatchewan but WEE virus was not recovered from any of the specimens. Evidence of natural WEE infection in snakes was found in 8 different localities while in frogs in two only. Experimentally, garter snakes were readily infected and developed a high, relatively sustained viremia without signs of disease. After experimental exposure, viremia persisted regularly for 10 to 12 days, while the longest observed duration of viremia was 30 days. Anamnestic responses were elicited in snakes as a result of second inoculations of virus after the antibody levels from first exposures had fallen. Newborn snakes were observed to be more sensitive to infection than adults. The possibility of virus and antibody transmission from infected pregnant garter snakes to their offspring was investigated. Snakes and frogs were both susceptible to infection by the oral route. Two bull snakes collected at Steveville, Alberta, were found to have antibody for St. Louis Encephalitis virus.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.6M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • BURTON AN, CONNELL R, REMPEL JG, GOLLOP JB. Studies on Western equine encephalitis associated with wild ducks in Saskatchewan. Can J Microbiol. 1961 Jun;7:295–302. [PubMed]
  • Spalatin J, Burton AN, McLintock J, Connell R. Isolation of Western Equine Encephalomyelitis (Wee) Virus From Mosquitoes In Saskatchewan, 1962. Can J Comp Med Vet Sci. 1963 Dec;27(12):283–289. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • THOMAS LA, EKLUND CM, RUSH WA. Susceptibility of garter snakes (Thamnophis spp.) to western equine encephalomyelitis virus. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1958 Dec;99(3):698–700. [PubMed]
  • THOMAS LA, EKLUND CM. Overwintering of western equine encephalomyelitis virus in experimentally infected garter snakes and transmission to mosquitoes. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1960 Oct;105:52–55. [PubMed]
  • THOMAS LA, EKLUND CM. Overwintering of western equine encephalomyelitis virus in garter snakes experimentally infected by Culex tarsalis. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1962 Feb;109:421–424. [PubMed]
  • GEBHARDT LP, HILL DW. Overwintering of Western equine encephalitis virus. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1960 Aug-Sep;104:695–698. [PubMed]
  • REHACEK J, NOSEK J, GRESIKOVA M. Study of the relation of the green lizard (Lacerta viridis Laur.) to natural foci of tick-borne encephalitis. J Hyg Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol. 1961;5:366–372. [PubMed]
  • CRAIGHEAD JE, SHELOKOV A, PERALTA PH. The lizard: a possible host for eastern equine encephalitis virus in Panama. Am J Hyg. 1962 Jul;76:82–87. [PubMed]
  • KARSTAD L, SPALATIN J, HANSON RP. Application of the paper disc technique to the collection of whole blood and serum samples in studies on eastern equine encephalomyelitis. J Infect Dis. 1957 Nov-Dec;101(3):295–299. [PubMed]

Articles from Canadian Journal of Comparative Medicine and Veterinary Science are provided here courtesy of Canadian Veterinary Medical Association


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...