Logo of cmajCMAJ Information for AuthorsCMAJ Home Page
CMAJ. Feb 15, 1994; 150(4): 489–495.
PMCID: PMC1486322

Frailty in elderly people: an evolving concept.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.4M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Williams FM, Wynne H, Woodhouse KW, Rawlins MD. Plasma aspirin esterase: the influence of old age and frailty. Age Ageing. 1989 Jan;18(1):39–42. [PubMed]
  • Winograd CH, Gerety MB, Chung M, Goldstein MK, Dominguez F, Jr, Vallone R. Screening for frailty: criteria and predictors of outcomes. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1991 Aug;39(8):778–784. [PubMed]
  • Buchner DM, Wagner EH. Preventing frail health. Clin Geriatr Med. 1992 Feb;8(1):1–17. [PubMed]
  • Woodhouse KW, Wynne H, Baillie S, James OF, Rawlins MD. Who are the frail elderly? Q J Med. 1988 Jul;68(255):505–506. [PubMed]
  • Gillick MR. Long-term care options for the frail elderly. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1989 Dec;37(12):1198–1203. [PubMed]
  • Mellinger JC. Emergency housing for frail older adults. Gerontologist. 1989 Jun;29(3):401–404. [PubMed]
  • Heumann LF. Assisting the frail elderly living in subsidized housing for the independent elderly: a profile of the management and its support priorities. Gerontologist. 1988 Oct;28(5):625–631. [PubMed]
  • Wynne HA, Cope LH, James OF, Rawlins MD, Woodhouse KW. The effect of age and frailty upon acetanilide clearance in man. Age Ageing. 1989 Nov;18(6):415–418. [PubMed]
  • Pawlson LG. Hospital length of stay of frail elderly patients. Primary care by general internists versus geriatricians. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1988 Mar;36(3):202–208. [PubMed]
  • MacAdam M, Capitman J, Yee D, Prottas J, Leutz W, Westwater D. Case management for frail elders: the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Program for Hospital Initiatives in Long-Term Care. Gerontologist. 1989 Dec;29(6):737–744. [PubMed]
  • Kay DW. Ageing of the population: measuring the need for care. Age Ageing. 1989 Mar;18(2):73–76. [PubMed]
  • Morris JN, Sherwood S, Mor V. An assessment tool for use in identifying functionally vulnerable persons in the community. Gerontologist. 1984 Aug;24(4):373–379. [PubMed]
  • Tennstedt SL, Sullivan LM, McKinlay JB, D'Agostino RB. How important is functional status as a predictor of service use by older people? J Aging Health. 1990 Nov;2(4):439–461. [PubMed]
  • Witten M. Reliability theoretic methods and aging: critical elements, hierarchies and longevity--interpreting survival curves. Basic Life Sci. 1985;35:345–360. [PubMed]
  • Winograd CH, Gerety MB, Brown E, Kolodny V. Targeting the hospitalized elderly for geriatric consultation. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1988 Dec;36(12):1113–1119. [PubMed]
  • Wingard DL, Jones DW, Kaplan RM. Institutional care utilization by the elderly: a critical review. Gerontologist. 1987 Apr;27(2):156–163. [PubMed]
  • Shapiro E, Tate R. Who is really at risk of institutionalization? Gerontologist. 1988 Apr;28(2):237–245. [PubMed]
  • Foley DJ, Ostfeld AM, Branch LG, Wallace RB, McGloin J, Cornoni-Huntley JC. The risk of nursing home admission in three communities. J Aging Health. 1992 May;4(2):155–173. [PubMed]
  • Branch LG, Wetle TT, Scherr PA, Cook NR, Evans DA, Hebert LE, Masland EN, Keough ME, Taylor JO. A prospective study of incident comprehensive medical home care use among the elderly. Am J Public Health. 1988 Mar;78(3):255–259. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Katz S, Branch LG, Branson MH, Papsidero JA, Beck JC, Greer DS. Active life expectancy. N Engl J Med. 1983 Nov 17;309(20):1218–1224. [PubMed]
  • Jagger C, Clarke M. Mortality risks in the elderly: five-year follow-up of a total population. Int J Epidemiol. 1988 Mar;17(1):111–114. [PubMed]
  • Kaplan G, Barell V, Lusky A. Subjective state of health and survival in elderly adults. J Gerontol. 1988 Jul;43(4):S114–S120. [PubMed]
  • Incalzi AR, Capparella O, Gemma A, Porcedda P, Raccis G, Sommella L, Carbonin PU. A simple method of recognizing geriatric patients at risk for death and disability. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1992 Jan;40(1):34–38. [PubMed]
  • Jagger C, Clarke M, Cook AJ. Mental and physical health of elderly people: five-year follow-up of a total population. Age Ageing. 1989 Mar;18(2):77–82. [PubMed]
  • Branch LG, Jette AM. A prospective study of long-term care institutionalization among the aged. Am J Public Health. 1982 Dec;72(12):1373–1379. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Harris T, Kovar MG, Suzman R, Kleinman JC, Feldman JJ. Longitudinal study of physical ability in the oldest-old. Am J Public Health. 1989 Jun;79(6):698–702. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mor V, Murphy J, Masterson-Allen S, Willey C, Razmpour A, Jackson ME, Greer D, Katz S. Risk of functional decline among well elders. J Clin Epidemiol. 1989;42(9):895–904. [PubMed]
  • Mossey JM, Shapiro E. Self-rated health: a predictor of mortality among the elderly. Am J Public Health. 1982 Aug;72(8):800–808. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sørensen KH. State of health and its association with death among old people at three-years follow-up. I. Lung function, circulation, sensory and motor apparatus. Dan Med Bull. 1988 Dec;35(6):592–596. [PubMed]
  • Idler EL, Kasl SV, Lemke JH. Self-evaluated health and mortality among the elderly in New Haven, Connecticut, and Iowa and Washington counties, Iowa, 1982-1986. Am J Epidemiol. 1990 Jan;131(1):91–103. [PubMed]
  • Wolinsky FD, Johnson RJ. Perceived health status and mortality among older men and women. J Gerontol. 1992 Nov;47(6):S304–S312. [PubMed]
  • Roos NP, Havens B. Predictors of successful aging: a twelve-year study of Manitoba elderly. Am J Public Health. 1991 Jan;81(1):63–68. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Noelker LS, Bass DM. Home care for elderly persons: linkages between formal and informal caregivers. J Gerontol. 1989 Mar;44(2):S63–S70. [PubMed]
  • Blazer DG. Social support and mortality in an elderly community population. Am J Epidemiol. 1982 May;115(5):684–694. [PubMed]
  • Stone R, Cafferata GL, Sangl J. Caregivers of the frail elderly: a national profile. Gerontologist. 1987 Oct;27(5):616–626. [PubMed]
  • Zarit SH. Do we need another "stress and caregiving" study? Gerontologist. 1989 Apr;29(2):147–148. [PubMed]
  • Barer BM, Johnson CL. A critique of the caregiving literature. Gerontologist. 1990 Feb;30(1):26–29. [PubMed]
  • Baumgarten M. The health of persons giving care to the demented elderly: a critical review of the literature. J Clin Epidemiol. 1989;42(12):1137–1148. [PubMed]
  • McFall S, Miller BH. Caregiver burden and nursing home admission of frail elderly persons. J Gerontol. 1992 Mar;47(2):S73–S79. [PubMed]
  • Guralnik JM, Kaplan GA. Predictors of healthy aging: prospective evidence from the Alameda County study. Am J Public Health. 1989 Jun;79(6):703–708. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Shahtahmasebi S, Davies R, Wenger GC. A longitudinal analysis of factors related to survival in old age. Gerontologist. 1992 Jun;32(3):404–413. [PubMed]
  • Narain P, Rubenstein LZ, Wieland GD, Rosbrook B, Strome LS, Pietruszka F, Morley JE. Predictors of immediate and 6-month outcomes in hospitalized elderly patients. The importance of functional status. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1988 Sep;36(9):775–783. [PubMed]
  • Patterson C. Iatrogenic disease in late life. Clin Geriatr Med. 1986 Feb;2(1):121–136. [PubMed]
  • Hirsch CH, Sommers L, Olsen A, Mullen L, Winograd CH. The natural history of functional morbidity in hospitalized older patients. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1990 Dec;38(12):1296–1303. [PubMed]
  • Applegate WB, Miller ST, Graney MJ, Elam JT, Burns R, Akins DE. A randomized, controlled trial of a geriatric assessment unit in a community rehabilitation hospital. N Engl J Med. 1990 May 31;322(22):1572–1578. [PubMed]
  • Heyman A, Wilkinson WE, Hurwitz BJ, Helms MJ, Haynes CS, Utley CM, Gwyther LP. Early-onset Alzheimer's disease: clinical predictors of institutionalization and death. Neurology. 1987 Jun;37(6):980–984. [PubMed]
  • Knopman DS, Kitto J, Deinard S, Heiring J. Longitudinal study of death and institutionalization in patients with primary degenerative dementia. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1988 Feb;36(2):108–112. [PubMed]
  • Coughlin TA, Liu K. Health care costs of older persons with cognitive impairments. Gerontologist. 1989 Apr;29(2):173–182. [PubMed]
  • Pruchno RA, Michaels JE, Potashnik SL. Predictors of institutionalization among Alzheimer disease victims with caregiving spouses. J Gerontol. 1990 Nov;45(6):S259–S266. [PubMed]
  • Lieberman MA, Kramer JH. Factors affecting decisions to institutionalize demented elderly. Gerontologist. 1991 Jun;31(3):371–374. [PubMed]
  • O'Donnell BF, Drachman DA, Barnes HJ, Peterson KE, Swearer JM, Lew RA. Incontinence and troublesome behaviors predict institutionalization in dementia. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 1992 Jan-Mar;5(1):45–52. [PubMed]
  • Abernathy TJ, Lentjes DM. A three-year census of dependent elderly. Can J Public Health. 1990 Jan-Feb;81(1):22–26. [PubMed]
  • Rockwood K, Dobbs AR, Rule BG, Howlett SE, Black WR. The impact of pacemaker implantation on cognitive functioning in elderly patients. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1992 Feb;40(2):142–146. [PubMed]
  • Lawton MP, Moss M, Glicksman A. The quality of the last year of life of older persons. Milbank Q. 1990;68(1):1–28. [PubMed]
  • Guralnik JM, LaCroix AZ, Branch LG, Kasl SV, Wallace RB. Morbidity and disability in older persons in the years prior to death. Am J Public Health. 1991 Apr;81(4):443–447. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bortz WM., 2nd The trajectory of dying. Functional status in the last year of life. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1990 Feb;38(2):146–150. [PubMed]
  • Hedrick SC, Koepsell TD, Inui T. Meta-analysis of home-care effects on mortality and nursing-home placement. Med Care. 1989 Nov;27(11):1015–1026. [PubMed]
  • Reinsch S, MacRae P, Lachenbruch PA, Tobis JS. Attempts to prevent falls and injury: a prospective community study. Gerontologist. 1992 Aug;32(4):450–456. [PubMed]
  • Paffenbarger RS, Jr, Hyde RT, Wing AL, Lee IM, Jung DL, Kampert JB. The association of changes in physical-activity level and other lifestyle characteristics with mortality among men. N Engl J Med. 1993 Feb 25;328(8):538–545. [PubMed]
  • Stewart AL, Greenfield S, Hays RD, Wells K, Rogers WH, Berry SD, McGlynn EA, Ware JE., Jr Functional status and well-being of patients with chronic conditions. Results from the Medical Outcomes Study. JAMA. 1989 Aug 18;262(7):907–913. [PubMed]
  • Chambers LW, Haight M, Caygill J. Evaluation of placement and coordination of geriatric services using a health program evaluation grid. Clin Geriatr Med. 1986 Feb;2(1):137–150. [PubMed]
  • Lemeshow S, Teres D, Avrunin JS, Gage RW. Refining intensive care unit outcome prediction by using changing probabilities of mortality. Crit Care Med. 1988 May;16(5):470–477. [PubMed]
  • Wu AW, Rubin HR, Rosen MJ. Are elderly people less responsive to intensive care? J Am Geriatr Soc. 1990 Jun;38(6):621–627. [PubMed]
  • Rockwood K, Noseworthy TW, Gibney RT, Konopad E, Shustack A, Stollery D, Johnston R, Grace M. One-year outcome of elderly and young patients admitted to intensive care units. Crit Care Med. 1993 May;21(5):687–691. [PubMed]
  • Ugnat AM, Naylor CD. Trends in coronary artery bypass grafting in Ontario from 1981 to 1989. CMAJ. 1993 Feb 15;148(4):569–575. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Minkler M, Langhauser C. Assessing health differences in an elderly population: a five-year follow-up. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1988 Feb;36(2):113–118. [PubMed]

Articles from CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association Journal are provided here courtesy of Canadian Medical Association

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • Cited in Books
    Cited in Books
    PubMed Central articles cited in books
  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...