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Genetics. May 2004; 167(1): 459–470.
PMCID: PMC1470844

Genetic variation at the tomato Cf-4/Cf-9 locus induced by EMS mutagenesis and intralocus recombination.


The interaction between tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and the leaf mold pathogen Cladosporium fulvum is an excellent model for investigating disease resistance gene evolution. The interaction is controlled in a gene-for-gene manner by Cf genes that encode type I transmembrane extracellular leucine-rich repeat glycoproteins that recognize their cognate fungal avirulence (Avr) proteins. Cf-4 from L. hirsutum and Cf-9 from L. pimpinellifolium are located at the same locus on the short arm of tomato chromosome 1 in an array of five paralogs. Molecular analysis has shown that one mechanism for generating sequence variation in Cf genes is intragenic sequence exchange through unequal crossing over or gene conversion. To investigate this we used a facile genetic selection to identify novel haplotypes in the progeny of Cf-4/Cf-9 trans-heterozygotes that lacked Cf-4 and Cf-9. This selection is based on the ability of Avr4 and Avr9 to induce Cf-4- or Cf-9-dependent seedling death. The crossovers were localized to the same intergenic region defining a recombination hotspot in this cross. As part of a structure-function analysis of Cf-9 and Cf-4, nine EMS-induced mutant alleles have been characterized. Most mutations result in single-amino-acid substitutions in their C terminus at residues that are conserved in other Cf proteins.

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Selected References

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