• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of geneticsGeneticsCurrent IssueInformation for AuthorsEditorial BoardSubscribeSubmit a Manuscript
Genetics. May 2003; 164(1): 347–358.
PMCID: PMC1462564

Genetic analysis of early flowering mutants in Arabidopsis defines a class of pleiotropic developmental regulator required for expression of the flowering-time switch flowering locus C.

Abstract

The Arabidopsis flowering-repressor gene FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) is a developmental switch used to trigger floral induction after extended growth in the cold, a process termed vernalization. In vernalized plants, FLC becomes transcriptionally silenced through a process that involves an epigenetic mechanism. We identified recessive mutations designated vernalization independence (vip) that confer cold-independent flowering and suppression of FLC. These mutations also lead to developmental pleiotropy, including specific defects in floral morphology, indicating that the associated genes also have functions unrelated to flowering time. We identified the VIP3 gene by positional cloning and found that it encodes a protein consisting almost exclusively of repeated Trp-Asp (WD) motifs, suggesting that VIP3 could act as a platform to assemble a protein complex. Constitutive transgenic expression of VIP3 in vernalized plants is insufficient to activate FLC, and thus VIP3 probably participates in the regulation of FLC as one component of a more extensive mechanism. Consistent with this, genetic analyses revealed that the VIP loci define a functional gene class including at least six additional members. We suggest that VIP3 and other members of this gene class could represent a previously unrecognized flowering mechanism.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (348K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Chandler J, Wilson A, Dean C. Arabidopsis mutants showing an altered response to vernalization. Plant J. 1996 Oct;10(4):637–644. [PubMed]
  • Clough SJ, Bent AF. Floral dip: a simplified method for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J. 1998 Dec;16(6):735–743. [PubMed]
  • Gendall AR, Levy YY, Wilson A, Dean C. The VERNALIZATION 2 gene mediates the epigenetic regulation of vernalization in Arabidopsis. Cell. 2001 Nov 16;107(4):525–535. [PubMed]
  • Hepworth Shelley R, Valverde Federico, Ravenscroft Dean, Mouradov Aidyn, Coupland George. Antagonistic regulation of flowering-time gene SOC1 by CONSTANS and FLC via separate promoter motifs. EMBO J. 2002 Aug 15;21(16):4327–4337. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Johanson U, West J, Lister C, Michaels S, Amasino R, Dean C. Molecular analysis of FRIGIDA, a major determinant of natural variation in Arabidopsis flowering time. Science. 2000 Oct 13;290(5490):344–347. [PubMed]
  • Koornneef M, Alonso-Blanco C, Blankestijn-de Vries H, Hanhart CJ, Peeters AJ. Genetic interactions among late-flowering mutants of Arabidopsis. Genetics. 1998 Feb;148(2):885–892. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Koornneef Maarten, Alonso-Blanco Carlos, Peeters Anton J M, Soppe Wim. GENETIC CONTROL OF FLOWERING TIME IN ARABIDOPSIS. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol. 1998 Jun;49(NaN):345–370. [PubMed]
  • Laemmli UK. Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature. 1970 Aug 15;227(5259):680–685. [PubMed]
  • Lee H, Suh SS, Park E, Cho E, Ahn JH, Kim SG, Lee JS, Kwon YM, Lee I. The AGAMOUS-LIKE 20 MADS domain protein integrates floral inductive pathways in Arabidopsis. Genes Dev. 2000 Sep 15;14(18):2366–2376. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lee I, Amasino RM. Effect of Vernalization, Photoperiod, and Light Quality on the Flowering Phenotype of Arabidopsis Plants Containing the FRIGIDA Gene. Plant Physiol. 1995 May;108(1):157–162. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Levy Yaron Y, Mesnage Stéphane, Mylne Joshua S, Gendall Anthony R, Dean Caroline. Multiple roles of Arabidopsis VRN1 in vernalization and flowering time control. Science. 2002 Jul 12;297(5579):243–246. [PubMed]
  • Lukowitz W, Gillmor CS, Scheible WR. Positional cloning in Arabidopsis. Why it feels good to have a genome initiative working for you. Plant Physiol. 2000 Jul;123(3):795–805. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Macknight R, Bancroft I, Page T, Lister C, Schmidt R, Love K, Westphal L, Murphy G, Sherson S, Cobbett C, et al. FCA, a gene controlling flowering time in Arabidopsis, encodes a protein containing RNA-binding domains. Cell. 1997 May 30;89(5):737–745. [PubMed]
  • Michaels SD, Amasino RM. FLOWERING LOCUS C encodes a novel MADS domain protein that acts as a repressor of flowering. Plant Cell. 1999 May;11(5):949–956. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Michaels SD, Amasino RM. Loss of FLOWERING LOCUS C activity eliminates the late-flowering phenotype of FRIGIDA and autonomous pathway mutations but not responsiveness to vernalization. Plant Cell. 2001 Apr;13(4):935–941. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Simpson Gordon G, Dean Caroline. Arabidopsis, the Rosetta stone of flowering time? Science. 2002 Apr 12;296(5566):285–289. [PubMed]
  • Mueller Cherie L, Jaehning Judith A. Ctr9, Rtf1, and Leo1 are components of the Paf1/RNA polymerase II complex. Mol Cell Biol. 2002 Apr;22(7):1971–1980. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Smith TF, Gaitatzes C, Saxena K, Neer EJ. The WD repeat: a common architecture for diverse functions. Trends Biochem Sci. 1999 May;24(5):181–185. [PubMed]
  • Neer EJ, Schmidt CJ, Nambudripad R, Smith TF. The ancient regulatory-protein family of WD-repeat proteins. Nature. 1994 Sep 22;371(6495):297–300. [PubMed]
  • Soppe WJ, Bentsink L, Koornneef M. The early-flowering mutant efs is involved in the autonomous promotion pathway of Arabidopsis thaliana. Development. 1999 Nov;126(21):4763–4770. [PubMed]
  • Rouse Dean T, Sheldon Candice C, Bagnall David J, Peacock W James, Dennis Elizabeth S. FLC, a repressor of flowering, is regulated by genes in different inductive pathways. Plant J. 2002 Jan;29(2):183–191. [PubMed]
  • van Nocke S, Muszynski M, Briggs K, Amasino RM. Characterization of a gene from Zea mays related to the Arabidopsis flowering-time gene LUMINIDEPENDENS. Plant Mol Biol. 2000 Sep;44(1):107–122. [PubMed]
  • Samach A, Onouchi H, Gold SE, Ditta GS, Schwarz-Sommer Z, Yanofsky MF, Coupland G. Distinct roles of CONSTANS target genes in reproductive development of Arabidopsis. Science. 2000 Jun 2;288(5471):1613–1616. [PubMed]
  • Wellensiek SJ. Dividing Cells as the Prerequisite for Vernalization. Plant Physiol. 1964 Sep;39(5):832–835. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Schomburg FM, Patton DA, Meinke DW, Amasino RM. FPA, a gene involved in floral induction in Arabidopsis, encodes a protein containing RNA-recognition motifs. Plant Cell. 2001 Jun;13(6):1427–1436. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Zhang Hua, van Nocker Steven. The VERNALIZATION INDEPENDENCE 4 gene encodes a novel regulator of FLOWERING LOCUS C. Plant J. 2002 Sep;31(5):663–673. [PubMed]

Articles from Genetics are provided here courtesy of Genetics Society of America

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • Gene
    Gene
    Gene links
  • GEO Profiles
    GEO Profiles
    Related GEO records
  • HomoloGene
    HomoloGene
    HomoloGene links
  • MedGen
    MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • Pathways + GO
    Pathways + GO
    Pathways, annotations and biological systems (BioSystems) that cite the current article.
  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Taxonomy
    Taxonomy
    Related taxonomy entry
  • Taxonomy Tree
    Taxonomy Tree

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...