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Genetics. Apr 2002; 160(4): 1673–1686.
PMCID: PMC1462061

Improved confidence intervals in quantitative trait loci mapping by permutation bootstrapping.


The nonparametric bootstrap approach is known to be suitable for calculating central confidence intervals for the locations of quantitative trait loci (QTL). However, the distribution of the bootstrap QTL position estimates along the chromosome is peaked at the positions of the markers and is not tailed equally. This results in conservativeness and large width of the confidence intervals. In this study three modified methods are proposed to calculate nonparametric bootstrap confidence intervals for QTL locations, which compute noncentral confidence intervals (uncorrected method I), correct for the impact of the markers (weighted method I), or both (weighted method II). Noncentral confidence intervals were computed with an analog of the highest posterior density method. The correction for the markers is based on the distribution of QTL estimates along the chromosome when the QTL is not linked with any marker, and it can be obtained with a permutation approach. In a simulation study the three methods were compared with the original bootstrap method. The results showed that it is useful, first, to compute noncentral confidence intervals and, second, to correct the bootstrap distribution of the QTL estimates for the impact of the markers. The weighted method II, combining these two properties, produced the shortest and less biased confidence intervals in a large number of simulated configurations.

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Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
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