• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of geneticsGeneticsCurrent IssueInformation for AuthorsEditorial BoardSubscribeSubmit a Manuscript
Genetics. Aug 2001; 158(4): 1491–1503.
PMCID: PMC1461750

Changes in mate recognition through alterations of pheromones and receptors in the multisexual mushroom fungus Schizophyllum commune.

Abstract

Schizophyllum commune has thousands of mating types defined in part by numerous lipopeptide pheromones and their G-protein-coupled receptors. These molecules are encoded within multiple versions of two redundantly functioning B mating-type loci, B alpha and B beta. Compatible combinations of pheromones and receptors, produced by individuals of different B mating types, trigger a pathway of fertilization required for sexual development. Analysis of the B beta 2 mating-type locus revealed a large cluster of genes encoding a single pheromone receptor and eight different pheromones. Phenotypic effects of mutations within these genes indicated that small changes in both types of molecules could significantly alter their specificity of interaction. For example, a conservative amino acid substitution in a pheromone resulted in a gain of function toward one receptor and a loss of function with another. A two-amino-acid deletion from a receptor precluded the mutant pheromone from activating the mutant receptor, yet this receptor was activated by other pheromones. Sequence comparisons provided clues toward understanding how so many variants of these multigenic loci could have evolved through duplication and mutational divergence. A three-step model for the origin of new variants comparable to those found in nature is presented.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (243K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Kang YS, Kane J, Kurjan J, Stadel JM, Tipper DJ. Effects of expression of mammalian G alpha and hybrid mammalian-yeast G alpha proteins on the yeast pheromone response signal transduction pathway. Mol Cell Biol. 1990 Jun;10(6):2582–2590. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Koltin Y, Raper JR. Schizophyllum commune: new mutations in the B incompatibility factor. Science. 1966 Oct 28;154(3748):510–511. [PubMed]
  • Kosted PJ, Gerhardt SA, Anderson CM, Stierle A, Sherwood JE. Structural requirements for activity of the pheromones of Ustilago hordei. Fungal Genet Biol. 2000 Mar;29(2):107–117. [PubMed]
  • Kronstad JW, Staben C. Mating type in filamentous fungi. Annu Rev Genet. 1997;31:245–276. [PubMed]
  • Olesnicky NS, Brown AJ, Dowell SJ, Casselton LA. A constitutively active G-protein-coupled receptor causes mating self-compatibility in the mushroom Coprinus. EMBO J. 1999 May 17;18(10):2756–2763. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Olesnicky NS, Brown AJ, Honda Y, Dyos SL, Dowell SJ, Casselton LA. Self-compatible B mutants in coprinus with altered pheromone-receptor specificities. Genetics. 2000 Nov;156(3):1025–1033. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • O'Shea SF, Chaure PT, Halsall JR, Olesnicky NS, Leibbrandt A, Connerton IF, Casselton LA. A large pheromone and receptor gene complex determines multiple B mating type specificities in Coprinus cinereus. Genetics. 1998 Mar;148(3):1081–1090. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Altschul SF, Madden TL, Schäffer AA, Zhang J, Zhang Z, Miller W, Lipman DJ. Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs. Nucleic Acids Res. 1997 Sep 1;25(17):3389–3402. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pöggeler S. Two pheromone precursor genes are transcriptionally expressed in the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora. Curr Genet. 2000 Jun;37(6):403–411. [PubMed]
  • Anderegg RJ, Betz R, Carr SA, Crabb JW, Duntze W. Structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mating hormone a-factor. Identification of S-farnesyl cysteine as a structural component. J Biol Chem. 1988 Dec 5;263(34):18236–18240. [PubMed]
  • Bockaert J, Pin JP. Molecular tinkering of G protein-coupled receptors: an evolutionary success. EMBO J. 1999 Apr 1;18(7):1723–1729. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Raper CA, Raper JR. Mutations modifying sexual morphogenesis in schizophyllum. Genetics. 1966 Nov;54(5):1151–1168. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Feinberg AP, Vogelstein B. A technique for radiolabeling DNA restriction endonuclease fragments to high specific activity. Anal Biochem. 1983 Jul 1;132(1):6–13. [PubMed]
  • Sato K, Taura M, Morimoto I, Ishimaru T, Izumi M, Usa T. [A case of hypomagnesemia with tetany and convulsion (author's transl)]. Nihon Naika Gakkai Zasshi. 1981 Oct 10;70(10):1427–1431. [PubMed]
  • Fowler TJ, Mitton MF. Scooter, a new active transposon in Schizophyllum commune, has disrupted two genes regulating signal transduction. Genetics. 2000 Dec;156(4):1585–1594. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Raudaskoski M, Stamberg J, Bawnik N, Koltin Y. Mutational Analysis of Natural Alleles at the B Incompatibility Factor of SCHIZOPHYLLUM COMMUNE: alpha2 and beta6. Genetics. 1976 Jul;83(3):507–516. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sakagami Y, Yoshida M, Isogai A, Suzuki A. Peptidal Sex Hormones Inducing Conjugation Tube Formation in Compatible Mating-Type Cells of Tremella mesenterica. Science. 1981 Jun 26;212(4502):1525–1527. [PubMed]
  • Shen WC, Bobrowicz P, Ebbole DJ. Isolation of pheromone precursor genes of Magnaporthe grisea. Fungal Genet Biol. 1999 Jul-Aug;27(2-3):253–263. [PubMed]
  • Fowler TJ, DeSimone SM, Mitton MF, Kurjan J, Raper CA. Multiple sex pheromones and receptors of a mushroom-producing fungus elicit mating in yeast. Mol Biol Cell. 1999 Aug;10(8):2559–2572. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Specht CA. Isolation of the B alpha and B beta mating-type loci of Schizophyllum commune. Curr Genet. 1995 Sep;28(4):374–379. [PubMed]
  • Halsall JR, Milner MJ, Casselton LA. Three subfamilies of pheromone and receptor genes generate multiple B mating specificities in the mushroom Coprinus cinereus. Genetics. 2000 Mar;154(3):1115–1123. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hegner J, Siebert-Bartholmei C, Kothe E. Ligand recognition in multiallelic pheromone receptors from the basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune studied in yeast. Fungal Genet Biol. 1999 Apr;26(3):190–197. [PubMed]
  • Ho SN, Hunt HD, Horton RM, Pullen JK, Pease LR. Site-directed mutagenesis by overlap extension using the polymerase chain reaction. Gene. 1989 Apr 15;77(1):51–59. [PubMed]
  • Strader CD, Fong TM, Tota MR, Underwood D, Dixon RA. Structure and function of G protein-coupled receptors. Annu Rev Biochem. 1994;63:101–132. [PubMed]
  • Hoffman RM, Raper JR. Genetic restriction of energy conservation in Schizophyllum. Science. 1971 Jan 29;171(3969):418–419. [PubMed]
  • Horton JS, Raper CA. Pulsed-field gel electrophoretic analysis of Schizophyllum commune chromosomal DNA. Curr Genet. 1991 Feb;19(2):77–80. [PubMed]
  • Vaillancourt LJ, Raudaskoski M, Specht CA, Raper CA. Multiple genes encoding pheromones and a pheromone receptor define the B beta 1 mating-type specificity in Schizophyllum commune. Genetics. 1997 Jun;146(2):541–551. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wendland J, Vaillancourt LJ, Hegner J, Lengeler KB, Laddison KJ, Specht CA, Raper CA, Kothe E. The mating-type locus B alpha 1 of Schizophyllum commune contains a pheromone receptor gene and putative pheromone genes. EMBO J. 1995 Nov 1;14(21):5271–5278. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Vaillancourt LJ, Raudaskoski M, Specht CA, Raper CA. Multiple genes encoding pheromones and a pheromone receptor define the B beta 1 mating-type specificity in Schizophyllum commune. Genetics. 1997 Jun;146(2):541–551. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Zhang L, Baasiri RA, Van Alfen NK. Viral repression of fungal pheromone precursor gene expression. Mol Cell Biol. 1998 Feb;18(2):953–959. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wendland J, Kothe E. Allelic divergence at B alpha 1 pheromone receptor genes of Schizophyllum commune. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1996 Dec 15;145(3):451–455. [PubMed]

Articles from Genetics are provided here courtesy of Genetics Society of America

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...